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Burlington Magazine 

for Connoisseurs 

Illustrated & Published Monthly 

Volume XX— October 191 1 to March 19 12 
































H. M. CUNDALL, I.S.O., F.S.A. 






















D. S. MacColl 










G. McNeill rushforth 









Max Rosenheim. By Charles H. Read, P.S.A. ..... 

English Primitives. By W. R. Lethaby 

A Newly-discovered Miniature of Thomas Cromwell. By Lionel Cust 

S. Jo/ifi 'the Baptist by Francesco Francia. By Edith E. Coulson James 

Chinese Stone Sculpture at Boston. By Frederick W. Coburn . 

The Italian Medals in the Salting Collection. By G. F. Hill 

Nicholas Dixon, the Limner. By Richard W. Goulding .... 

Old Chinese Porcelain Made from English Silver Models. By E, Alfred Jones 

Two Unpublished Portraits by Hans Holbein. By Paul Ganz . 

A Memorial of the Entry of Leo X into Florence. By Allan Marquand 

Gilbert Jackson, Portrait Painter. By Mrs. R. L. Poole .... 

Lely's Financial Relations with Charles IL By C. H. CoUins Baker . 

Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries By Roger Fry . . 66 

The Limoges Enamels in the Salting Collection. By H. P. Mitchell . 

Raphael's Young Cardinal at Madrid. By Henry Hymans .... 

Some Notes on Diirer. By Campbell Dodgson ..... 

Notes on the Collections formed by Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and 

Surrey, K.G. By Lionel Cust, M.V.O., F.S.A. . . -97' 233, 341 

Two Pictures by Giambono. By G. McN. Rushforth .... 
Porphyry Statue of Athena in the Collection of H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught 

By Sir Cecil H. Smith 

The Stevens Memorial and Exhibition at the Tate Gallery. By D. S. MacColl 

Leonardo da Vinci and Some Copies. By Herbert Cook, F.S.A, 

Andres de Najera. By Paul Lafond ....... 

II Rosso (Fiorentino) by Himself (?). By Sir Claude Phillips 

The Origin of Christian Art. By Josef Strzygowski ..... 

Enghsh Domestic Spoons By Henry Newton Veitch .... 

Thomas Sheraton, Cabinet Maker. By Herbert Cescinsky 

A Marble Bust of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. By Lionel Cust 

Chinese and European Religious Art. By A. Clutton-Brock 

Notes on Italian Medals— XII. By G. F. Hill 

A Portrait by Alfred Stevens. By D. S. MacColl ..... 

Tz.^^%t.{\t%oiT:he Seven Deadly Sins. By D. T. B. Wood . . - .210 

Ancient Korean Tomb Wares. By John Piatt . ..... 

A Note on the Benois Madonna of Leonardo da Vinci. By Sir Sidney Colvin 

Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections — XXIII. By Lionel Cust . 

A Claim for Gerrit Willemsz Horst. By Sir Walter Armstrong 

Three Little-noticed Paintings in Rome. By Gustavo Frizzoni 

Constable as a Portrait-painter. By D. S. MacColl ..... 

Alphonse Legros : Some Personal Reminiscences. I — By Sir Charles Holroyd 

11— By Thomas Okey 273 

Rajput Paintings. By Ananda K. Coomaraswamy . . . • • • 3M 

Bristol Porcelain in the Trapnell Collection. By R. L. Hobson . . -324 

Did Rembrandt Paint the Portrait of EHzabeth Bas ? By A. Bredius . . • 330 







1 1 1 
I 29 















CONTENTS OF VOL. XX—co?iimucd 


A Museum of Oriental Art. By Lionel Cust ....... 343 

The Portrait of Ginevra dei Benci by Leonardo da Vinci. By Herbert Cook, F.S.A. 345 
Exhibition of Pictures of the Early Venetian School at the Burlington Fine Arts 

Club. By Roger Fry .......... 346 

Editorial Articles : — 

Our Patrimonio Artistico ......... 65 

The National Gallery Administration . . . . . . -251 

" The Nation and its Art Treasures " 191 

Notes on Various Works of Art : — 

On The Worship of the Golden Calf (G. F. Hill) ; Imaginary Flemish 
Painters (W. H. J. W.) ; The Incantations of Medea (G. McNeill 
Rushforth) . . . . . . . . . • 171 

Portrait of Pastor Middelhoven, by Frans Hals (R. E. D.) ; A Mysterious 

Bronze Group (H. M. Cundall, I.S.O., F.S.A.) . . .289 

The Virgin oj the Rocks by Leonardo da Vinci (R. E. F.) : Notes on 

English Portraits at Burlington House (C. PI. Collins Baker) 359 
Letters to the Editors : — 

" Some Fifteenth-century Spanish Carpets " (Dr. F. Sarre) ; The Paris 

Exhibition of English Pastellists (Robert Dell) . . . .46 

"The Sword of Joan of Arc" at Dijon (Charles ffoulkes) . . • ^'^7 

" A Newly-discovered Miniature of Thomas Cromwell " (Arthur B. 

Chamberlain) . . . . . . . . . -175 

"Our Patrimonio Artistico" (Herbert Cescinsky) ; Dr. Dreger's Book 
on Lace (Dr. M. Dreger) ; " Two Unpublished Portraits by Hans 

Holbein" (Sidney J. A. Churchill) 236 

" Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones " (Edgar Gorer and J. F. Blacker) ; 
" The Incantations of Medea " (H. P. Mitchell) ; Le Sueur's Marble 
Bust of Charles I (C. F. Bell) ; Some Lost Drawings by or near to 
Raphael (Dr. Oskar Fischel) ....... 290 

Old Chelsea China (Earl of Ilchester) ; Cesare da Sesto (Sir Claude 

Phillips) ; On The Worship oJ the Golden Calf (F. J. Mather) . .361 

Reviews and Notices ...... 47, 118, 176, 239, 301, 363 

Recent Art Publications ....... 57, 124, 244, 308 

Foreign Periodicals ...... 58, 125, 184, 245, 309, 371 

Art in France (R. E. D.) ...... 60, 186, 247, 311, 373 




Frontispiece : Roundel of the Madonna and Child 
on stone disk from a painting by E. W. 
Tristram (Bishop's Chapel, Chichester) . 2 

A Newly-discovered Miniature of Thomas 
Cromwell : — 
[a] The Miniature-portrait by Hans Holbein 
(Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan's Collection) ; 
[b] Medal in the British Museum, reproduced 
from the Burlington Fine Arts Club catalogue 
of the Exhibition of Early English Portrai- 
ture, 1908 ; [c] The Tittenhanger Portrait 
(Earl of Caledon's Collection) ; [d] The 
National Portrait Gallery Portrait . . 7 

S. yo/ni the Baptist by Francesco Francia : — 
Pictures by Francesco Francia — S. ^olin the 
Baptist (S. Giovanni, Persiceto) ; Madonna 
Enthroned with Saints (Bologna) . . .10 

Chinese Stone Sculpture at Boston : — 

I — [a] Early Taoist mortuary tablet (Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts) ; [b] Niwo, God of 
Energy-, from a cave temple near Si An Fu, 
China ; [c] Stone scripture urn, Japanese of 
Nara period, copy of Chinese Six Dynasties' 

work 13 

11— [d] Marble Buddha ; [e] Stone Head of 
Bodhisattva ; both sixth to seventh century 
A.D. from Shansi (Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts); [f] Kwannon of the Eleven Heads, from 
Katogi Temple, near Si An Fu, dated a.d. 
692 (Owned in Japan ; companion piece 
to similar sculptures in the Boston Museum 
and in the Collection of Mr. C. L. Freer of 
Detroit) ; [gJ Marble torso, Kwannon, 
seventh century (Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts) 16 

Italian Medals in the Salting Collection : — 

I — Medals of [a] Camilla Buondelmonti, 
Florentine, fifteenth-sixteenth century ; [b] 
Alfonso d'Este and Lucrezia Borgia, 
attributed to Giancrist ioro Romano ; [c] 
Eleonora of Aragon, by Sperandio ; [d] Carlo 
Federighi, Florentine, lifteenth to si.xteenth 
century ; [e] Agosta da Udine, attributed to 
Adriano Fiorentino . . . . -19 
n — Medals of [f] Giulia Astallia, Mantuan, 
artist unknown ; [g] Ludovico Galio, 
plaquette, attributed to Fra Antonio da 
Breschia; [h] Anonymous female half- figure 
and Mercury, Mantuan, 1503, artist unknown; 
[j] Niccolo Tempe (or Tenipesta), 1513, 
attributed to Fra Antonio da Breschia ; [k] 
Pier Paolo Maftei, c. 1550, artist unknown 22 
Old Chinese Porcelain made from English 
Silver Models :— 
I — [x] Blue and white punch bowl (diam. 12 J 
in., height 6 in.) assigned to the K'ang-hsi 
period, 1662-1722 (Victoria and Albert 
Museum) ; [b] Porcelain Coffee-pot with 
arms of a Clifford (British Museum) ; [c] Mug 
with portrait of the Duke of Cumberland, 
1746 ; [d] Mug with Masonic emblems, 
1755 ; [e] Mug with portrait of Prince 
Charles Edward Stuart . . , -27 


II — [f] Porcelain tea-caddy, about 1725 
(British Museum) ; [g] Porcelain trencher 
salt, with gadrooned border, from model in 
use in England about 1695-1715 ; [h] Mug 
of blanc dc Chine from silver model about 
1683-84 (British Museum) ; [j and k] Pair 
of Porcelain salts in black and white with 
Neptune and Aurora, one with an 
unidentified shield, the other with the arms 
of Mackenzie, about 1725-50 ; [l] Trencher 
salt painted with arms ; [m] Trencher salt 
with the arms of France ; [x] Punch bowl 
with portraits of John Wilkes and Lord 
Mansfield; [p] Chinese porcelain shaving- 
dish with the arms of Louvain, possibly 
eighteenth century (British Museum) . 30 

Two unpublished Portraits by Holbein : — 

Portrait of a musician (Sir John Ramsden's 
Collection) ; Derich Berck of Cologne (Lord 
Leconfield's Collection) . . . -33 

A Memorial of the Entry of Leo X into 
Florence : — 
Altar-piece of The Temptation of Adam and 
Eve in Delia Robbia ware (Mr. Henry 
Walters's Collection) 36 

Gilbert Jackson, Portrait-Painter : — 

I— Portraits of [a] Dr. Samuel Radcliffe 
(Brasenose College) ; [b] Sir John Bankes 
(National Portrait Gallery) ; [c] Robert 
Burton (Brasenose College) ; [d] Dr. John 
Tolson (Oriel College) . . . .39 
II — Lord Keeper Williams as Bishop of 
Lincoln (S. John's College, Cambridge) . 42 

Exhibition of Old IMasters at the Grafton 

Galleries — I : — 
l—Salvator Mundi attributed to Giotto (Lady 

Jekyll's Collection) 67 

II — Madonna and Child enthroned, luith Angels, 

by Masaccio (Rev. A. F. Sutton's Collection) 70 
III — Two Fragments of a Baptism of Christ, 

by Luca Signorelli (Collection of Sir Frederick 

Cook, B.irt.) 73 

IV — Madonna and Child, by Bramantino, 

(Count Victor Goloubew's Collection) . 76 

The Limoges Enamels in the S.ilting Collection : — 
I — The Road to Calvary, The Crucifixion, and 
The Mourning over the Dead Christ ; Triptych 

by Nardon Penicaud 79 

II — Scenes from the Story of Samson. Tazza 
(interior of bowl), by Jean II Penicaud ; 
Mars and Venus discovered by the Gods, 
unsigned ; The Martyrdom of S- Laurence, 

signed MP 82 

III — Medea and Pelias. Oval Plaque attributed 
to Jean Court dit Vigier (All in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum) 85 

Raphael's Young Cardinal at Madrid : — 

Portrait Medallion of Cardinal Scaramuccia, by 
Carodosso ; Portrait of Young Cardinal, by 
Raphael (The Prado) 83 

LIST OF FLATES—conlimted 


Some Notes on Diirer : — 

I — [a] Pen drawing of S. CrtZ/im/ifi (National 
Gallery of Ireland) ; [b] Pen-dr.iwiiig of 
The Madonna " au/ tier Raseitbank " (British 
Museum), both by Diirer; [c] S. Catherine, 
detail of the Tucher Triptych, carried out 
by Kulmbach (S. Sebald's, Nuremberg) . 91 

II — [d] Head, unknown, in oils on vellum, 
ascribed to Diirer (Sloane Collection, Britisii 
Museum) ; [e] S. Philip the Apostle, in oil, 
by Durer (Uffizi) 94 

Two pictures by Giambono : — 

I — S. y antes the Great ivith various Saints (Ac- 

cademia, Venice) ...... loi 

II — The Archangel Michael (Mr. Berenson's 

Collection) 104 

Porphyry Statue of Athena in the Collection of 
H.R.H. the Duchess of Connaught . 64, 109 

The Stevens Memorial and Exhibition at the 
Tate Gallery :— 
I — Mother and Child and A Baby's Portrait, by 
Alfred Stevens (reproduced by permission 
of Miss Jessie Mitchell) .... 113 
II — Figure for a fountain ; a Group of Strug- 
gling Figures ; ^ael, David and Jndith, 
figures designed for S. Paul's Cathedral (re- 
produced by permission of Sir Charles 
Holroyd) 116 

Leonardo da Vinci and some Copies : — 
I — [a] The Madonna and Child, ascribed 
to Leonardo da Vinci (Madame L^on Benois's 
Collection, S. Petersburg) . . . .128 

II— [b] S.John the Baptist {"i) ; School of Leon- 
ardo (English private ownership) ; [c] 
Another (Earl of Crawford's Collection) ; 
[d] Copy of Leonardo's S. Anne, by an 
unknown artist (Earl of Yarborough's Collec- 
tion) ; [e] Another copy, by Salaino (Leuch- 
tenberg Gallery, S. Petersburg) . . .131 

Andres de Xdjera: — 

I — [a] Choir-stalls on the Gospel side (Santo 
Domingo de la Calzada) ; [b] Dossal of a 
choir-stall, from San Benito el Real (Museum, 

Valladolid) 135 

II — [c] Detail (supposed to come from the 
choir-stalls of San Benito el Real) which 
cannot be assigned with any certainty to 
Andres de Najera (Museum, Valladolid) ; 
[d] a Prophet and S. Lncia, from the choir- 
stalls of San Benito el Real (Museum, 
Valladolid) ; [e] S. Jerome, S. Martin and S. 
Christopher, detail above the seats on the 
Epistle side of the choir (Santo Domingo 
de la Calzada) 138 

II Rosso (Fiorentino), by Himself (?) :— ■ 

I— 11 Rosso, by Himself (?) (Kaiser-Friedrich 

Museum, Berlin) 141 

II — Madonna and Child Enthroned, with Saints 

(Pitti Gallery, Florence) .... 144 
III — The Three Fates (Pitti Gallery, Florence) . 147 


English Domestic Spoons — I : — 

[a] French " Lion " spoon with baluster knop ; 

b\ French sixteenth-century " Lion " spoon ; 

c] Apostle spoon with figure supposed to 
be of S. Philip (all in Mr. H. N. Veitch's 
possession) ; [d] .Apostle spoon with figure 
of S. Andrew (Messrs. Elkington's posses- 
sion) ; [e] Seal-top spoon of the sixteenth 
century (Mr. H. N. Veitch's possession) ; 
[f] Seventeenth-century spoon with baluster 
knop (Messrs. Elkington's possession) . . 157 

Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton 
Galleries — II : — 

1 — Judith iviih the Head of Holo/crnes, ascribed 
to Titian (Lord Walsiiigham's collection) . 160 

II — Diana and Actcvon, by Titian (Earl Brown- 
low's collection) 163 

\\l— Bacchanal, by Nicholas Poussin (Mr, F. 
Cavendish-Bentinck's collection) . . .166 

On The Worship oftlie Golden Calf:^ 

The Venus from a series of the Planets ; early 
Florentine engraving from an impression 
in the British Museum ; The Worship of 
the Golden Calf, by Filippino Lippi (Sir 
Henry B. Samuelson's collection) . -173 

Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones : — 

Colour-plate of a pair of square-shaped vases 
(Mr. G. L. Bevan's collection) . . . '79 

A Marble Bust of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur: — 
I — [a] Marble Bust of Charles I by Le 

Sueur (Victoria and Albert Museum) . . 190 
II— [b] Bronze cast of bust of Charles I 
(National Portrait Gallery); [c] Medallion- 
portrait of Le Sueur by Jean Warin (from a 
cast in the National Portrait Gallery) ; [d] 
Cartouche on the reverse of the bust by Le 
Sueur in the Victoria and Albert Museum . 193 

Chinese and European Religious Art : — 

S. John the Baptist by Titian (Accademia, 
Venice) ; Monjti ascribed to Ma Lin 
(Myoshinji Monastery, Japan) . . .196 

Notes on Italian Medals — XII: — 

I— Medals of (A) Federigo, Duke of Urbino 
(Vatican Library); [b] Maximilian 1 (Messrs. 
Rosenheim's Collection); [c] JuHus Caesar 
(from abinders' stamp in the British Museum) ; 
[d] Frederick III (British Museum) ; [e] 
Antonio della Torre (British Museum). . 203 

II— Medals of [f] Lelio Torelli (British 
Museum) ; [g] Guidobaldo II della Rovere, 
Duke of Urbino (Vienna) ; [h] Medal by 
Giov. Battista Capocaccia to commemorate 
restoration of a tower at Ancona, 1581 
(British Museum) 2c6 

A Portrait by Alfred Stevens: — 

Portrait of Mr. Tobin (Mrs. Eaton's Collec- 
tion, Norwich) 2H 

Tapestries of The Seven Deadly Sins — 1 ; — 

I — Tapestries: — No. i in the Collection of the 
Baron de Zuylen de Nyevelt de Haar 
(Cli:"iteau de Haar, Belgium); Nos. 2 and 3 
in the Treasury of Burgos Cathedral . .214 


LIST OF FLATES— continued 


n_No. 4 from the Berwick et d'Albe Sale 
Catalogue (present ownership unknown) ; 
No. 5 in the Collection of the Baron de 
Zuylen de Nyevelt de Haar ; No. 6 (in- 
complete design) from the Berwick et 
d'Albe Sale Catalogue (present ownership 
unknown) .217 

in_No. 6 (complete design) from the Treasury 
of Toledo Cathedral (present ownership 
unknown); No. 7 in the Collection of the 
Baron de Zuylen de Nyevelt de Haar ; No. 8 
in the Louwe 220 

Ancient Korean Tomb Wares : — 

I_[a] Stoneware vase, probably early loth 
century ; [b] Decorated dish, probably loth 
century ; [c] Stoneware wine-bottle ; [d] 
Semi-porcelain wine-pot, about iioo a.d. ; 
[e] Semi-porcelain bowl ; [f] Stoneware 
cup, loth to 12th centuries .... 223 
II— [g] Stoneware water-bottle, 13th to 14th 
centuries ; [h] Large bowl, Kao-li-yao, pro- 
bably 14th century; [j] Stoneware bowl, 
I2th to 13th centuries ; [k] Ovoid vase, 13th 
to 14th centuries ; [l] Mei P'ing stoneware 
vase, probably loth century ; [m] Semi- 
porcelain panel, 13th or 14th centuries ; [n] 
Baluster-shaped vase, 12th to 13th centuries 226 

A Note on the Benois Madonna of Leonardo da 
Vinci : — 
[a] Sketch for a composition of the Virgin and 
Child with Flowers ; [b] Sketches for a 
composition of the Virgin and Child. From 
drawings by Leonardo da Vinci (British 
Museum) 231 

Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections — 
I— The Banker and his Wife [a] By Quentin 
Matsj-s (The Louvre. From a photograph 
by Messrs Braun & Co.) ; [b] By Marinus 
(The Prado) ; [c] By Corneille de Lyon 
(Collection of H.R.H. the Prince of Hohen- 

zollern-Sigmaringen) 253 

l\—jhe Misers or Money-changers [d] (Windsor 
Castle); [e] (Viscount Cobham, Hagley 
Hall) ; [f] (Baron Oppenheim, Cologne) ; 
[g] (National Gallery) . . . .256 

A Claim for Gerrit Willemsz Horst : — 

I_[a] Double Portrait attributed to Gerrit 

Willemsz Horst (Collection of Mrs. 

Wauchope, Niddrie House) .... 250 
II— [b] The Chastity of Scipio ; [c] Still Life 

(both in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum) . 259 
III — [d] David's Charge to Solomon (National 

Gallery of Ireland) 262 

Three Little-Noticed Paintings at Rome : — 
I_[a] The Adoration of the Shepherds, by Bald- 

assare Peruzzi (Church of San Kocco, Rome) 262 
n — [bj Portrait of a Lady as a Saint, by Cesare 

da Sesto ; [c] Portrait of a Lady as S. 

Catherine, by Andrea Piccinelli (11 Brescian- 

ino) (both in the Galleria Borghese, Rome. 

All from photographs by Anderson, of Rome) 265 


Constable as a Portrait- Painter: — 

The Bridges Family, Lawford Place, Essex ; 
by Constable (Lent by Rear- Admiral Walter 
Bridges to the Tate Gallery) .... 269 

Alphonse Legros: Some Personal Reminiscences : — 
[.\] A lost oil-painting by Alphonse Legros 
(from a photograph in the possession of 
Sir Charles Holroyd) ; [b] A Pilgrimage. 
Sepia-drawing by Alphonse Legros; No. 75, 
Fine Art Society E-xhibition, 1912 (in the 
Collection of the Artist's family) . . . 272 

Tapestries of The Seven Deadly Sins — II : — 
I — Tapestries : — [a] The Trinity in Creation ; 
[b] Le Proces de Paradis ; [c] The Charter 
of Redemption ; [d] The Annunciation and 
Incarnation ; [e] Justice and Mercy in the 
Last Judgment ...... 279 

II — [f] Man attacked by Justice, defended 
by Mercy ; [g] Man armed by Mercy, 
Grace-of-God and Peace ; [h] Man dis- 
armed, attacked by Luxury and Gluttony, 
defended by Hope; [j] Man in Fetters, 
visited by the Patriarchs; [k] Man presented 
before the Trinity by Grace-of-God . . 282 
III — [l] Charity challenging the Vices; [m] 
Christian Knight armed by the Virtues ; [\] 
Christian Knight charging at the head of 
the Virtues against the Vices ; [p] Angel 
driving the Tempter and the Vices to Hell; 
[q] The Vices in despair ; [r] The Vices on 
the left of the Throne 285 

Portrait of Pastor Middelhoven, by Frans Hals : — 
Pastor Middelhoven (Madame Schloss Collec- 
tion) 288 

Some Lost Drawings by or near to Raphael : — 
I — [i] A Woman's Head; [2, 3] 5. Mary 
Magdalene as Penitent (D.Anderson, Rome) ; 
[4] 6'. Catherine ; [5] The Entombment ; [6] 
Madonnas of the Roman Period ; [j] S. John 
the Baptist as a Child .... 295 

II — [8] Head, Shoulder and Arm of the Woman 
in the Transfiguration ; [9] Tivo Prophets tvith 
Several Angels ; \_io']A Bird u'ilh a Fish ; [11] 
Invention of the Cross; [12] The Prophets 
Hoseah and Jonas n'ith an Angel ; [13] Leda . 298 
III — [14] Portrait of Gi ova n Francesco Penni ; 
[15] Head of a Muse in the ^'■Parnassus" ; 
[16] The Madonna Enthroned is.<ith Saints; 
[17J Three Piitti on a Cornice ; [18] Madonna 
Compositions ; [19] Ecce Homo ; [20] O'ver- 
throw of Pharaoh in the Red Sea ; [21] A 
Girl's Head ; [22] The Holy Family; [23] Men's 
Arms and Horses' Heads; [2^'] Women Bathing 301 

An Illustrated History of English Plate : — 
Silver-gilt Cup in the form of a Pelican. Hall- 
marked London, 1579. (Property of the 

Glynne Family) 304 

Rjjput Paintings :— 
I — Kaliya Damana : Quelling of the 
Serpent Kaliya (Dr. A. K. Coomaraswamy's 
Collection) 314 


LIST OF ELATES— continued 


tracing) ; 



II— Siva and Pfirvati. Pahari. Ascribed to 
Mola Ram of G.ihrwal (d. 1833) ; The Death 
of Bhlshma. Early Rfijput. (Both in the 
Author's Collection) ; The Gambling Scene 
from the " MahabhSrata ". Pahari. (Lahore 
Museum) 3 '9 

ni— The Divine Cowherd. Pahari. 
Collection) ; Malar Ragini. Jaipur 
School of Art) 

IV— Musicians (original pounced 
Jaipur (Author's Collection) . . • 325 

Bristol China in the Trapnell Collection :— 
[a] Set of Child Seasons by Tebo; [b] Figure 
supposed to represent Burke ; [c] Mask-jug 

[d] Vase painted with swags of flowers; 

[e] Jug of printed ware; [f] Bowl and 
plate by Champion; [g] Vase, showing 
silhouette and initials of Richard Champion, 
with Bristol flowers and pink scale border 
(All in the possession of Mr. Albert Amor) . 

Did Rembrandt paint the Portrait of Elizabeth 

I— Heads by Bol [a] Detail of An Old Lady 

(1642), signed (Kiiser-Friedrich-Museum) ; 

[b] Detail of Elizabeih Bas (Rijks Museum) . 332 
n— [c] Detail of An Old Lady of 83 (1634) 

National Gallery ; [d] Detail of the Sander- 



son Old Lady in an Arm-Chair (1635) (Mr. 
Altman's Collection, New York) . . 333 

III— Hands by Bol [e] Detail of An Old Lady 
(1642), signed (Kaiser-Friediich-Museum) ; 
[f] Detail of Elizabeth Bas . . . .336 
IV — Hands by Rembrandt [o] Detail of a 
Porlniit of an Old Lady (from a photograph 
by Messrs. Braun) (Sir George Holford's 
Collection) ; [h] Details of the Sanderson 
Old Lady in an Anncliair ; [j] Detail of 
Madame' Ansloo (1641) (Koniglich Preus- 

zischen Museum) 337 

The Portrait of Ginevra dei Benci by Leonardo 
da Vinci : — 

The portrait, here ascribed to Leonardo da 
Vinci (The Liechtenstein Collection, Vienna) 
the Portrait by Lorenzo di Credi (Galleria 

di Forli) 347 

E.xhibition of Early Venetian Pictures at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club — I : — 
I_[a] S. Manias EnUnoned. Central panel; 

with the five panels in their supposed order 350 
II_[b] and [c] The Legend of S. Mamas, by 
Michele Giambono (both in Mr. J. Annan 

Bryce's Collection) 35^ 

HI — [d] and [e] The Legend of S. Mamas, by 
Michele Giambono (both in the Museo 
Municipale e Correr, Venice) . . • 357 





sonality has passed from 
among us by the death of 
Mr. Max Rosenheim. To 
those who knew him, this 
,will not sound exaggerated, 
but rather a statement of the obvious. Of 
a surety it would be hardly possible to find 
in the ranks of the cognoscenti of our day 
a single man who combined in himself 
so many of the qualities that make him 
of value to his contemporaries. Precise 
knowledge, energy, untiring industry, 
eminent good-fellowship, wide generosity, 
all these were Rosenheim's, and they made 
him the best and most genial of com- 
panions in a sympathetic gathering. In 
addition, he was the soul of hospitality 
and an ideal host, and never showed to 
greater advantage than at his own table 
and in the inevitable dicussion over the 
many treasures he had amassed in his 
modest Hampstead dwelling. That he 
should have enjoyed these qualities in 
so distinguished a degree is the more 
notable, inasmuch as the taste for collect- 
ing works of art took active shape with 
him only in his mature years, when the 
receptivity and enthusiasm of youth were 
well passed. But in all his pursuits he 
combined both of these youthful character- 
istics with the caution and breadth of 
view that evidenced his maturity. The 
results w^ere no less remarkable than the 
character that led to them ; his collections 
in the limited field which he had selected 
were perhaps better known than the 
collector himself, and no exhibition 
of cinquecento medals, of German art, of 
ornamental engravings, or of ex-hbris, 
could be complete without a substantial 
contribution from Max Rosenheim. His 
knowledge of these arts was constantly 
drawn upon by the organizers of such 
exhibitions, especially at the Burlington 

Fine Arts Club, where he was a valued 
member of the general committee. At 
the Society of Antiquaries also his presence 
was constantly felt, and as a member of 
the executive committee he was often 
able to deliver a prompt and authoritative 
opinion on the relics shown. These 
pursuits gave him the keenest pleasure, 
debarred as he was from active exercise 
owing to the loss of a leg in a lift accident 
about twelve years ago, and his outdoor 
life of late years has practically been spent 
in his carriage. This carriage, attended 
by his sturdy and devoted manservant and 
his favourite dog, was familiar to all 
habitues of the British Museum, where he 
spent the main portion of some years in 
the arrangement of the collection of Con- 
tinental ex-libris formed by his old friend. 
Sir Wollaston Franks. But the chief debt 
that England owes to Rosenheim lies in 
the share that he had in the formation of 
the society now so well known as the 
National Art-Collections Fund. The 
first tentative effort, under the title of 
"The Friends of the British Museum", 
was designed to provide the additional 
funds for purchases which had ceased at 
the death of Sir A. Wollaston Franks in 
1897. Rosenheim and Sir Thomas 
Gibson-Carmichael, G.C.I.E., the present 
Governor of Madras, were the principal 
contributors, but even in its modest 
beginnings the scheme was intended 
ultimately to take a wider scope. After 
some years of useful work it widened, 
and the " Friends of the British Museum " 
sank both themselves and their contribu- 
tions in the larger fund, with the most 
fruitful results. Another plan devised by 
Rosenheim for providing funds for the 
purchase of works of art was of considerable 
ingenuity, though condemned as imprac- 
ticable by the powers at the Treasury. 
This was to raise money by the creation 

The Burlington Magazine, No. 103. Vol. XX.— October, 1911. 


Alax Rosenheim 

of a special receipt stamp to be used in 
the sale of works of art, one colour for the 
productions of living artists, another for 
ancient productions, while the value of 
the stamps should be a percentage of the 
sum paid for the object sold, say one per 
cent, for modern works and twice as much 
for ancient, Rosenheim was not alone in 
thinking that the sale of these stamps, 
without which, of course, no receipt 
would be valid, would raise a considerable 
sum to be applied to the purchase 
of objects for our museums and galleries. 
A further requirement was that the sum 
thus produced by the sale of modern 

paintings should be applied to the purchase 
of the works of living artists, while the 
produce of the " Old Masters" should be 
used for ancientworksof art. The merits 
of such a scheme are obvious — great 
benefit to the nation, while those who paid 
the tax would scarcely be conscious of its 
existence. It may well be that we shall 
yet see it in operation. 

Meanwhile the world is poorer by the 
loss of such a man as Max Rosenheim, 
while the smaller world of his intimate 
friends will long feel the gap his death has 
made in their circle. 

Charles H. Read. 


iN English churches from Durliam to 
/Canterbury a great number of paint- 
ings executed between the twelfth and 
"^Vl K<^''^^ sixteenth centuries are yet in exist- 
fi):r:2_S:::3aence, a small remnant of the works 
wrought by our national artists for the ritual 
rather than for the mere adornment of churches. 

These paintings have been neglected by regular 
students of painting, although several archaeologists 
like the late Mr. Waller have devoted much time 
to making copies of them. The exhibition of the 
French Primitives brought the paintings of this 
type more within the field of sanctioned art, and 
the time seems to be come when an appeal might 
be made for the serious consideration of early 
English painting. 

My friend Mr. Tristram has for several years been 
making a large series of careful copies of these 
paintings, and one of these is here reproduced 
[Fkontispiece]. This is a painted roundel in the 
Bishop's Chapel at Chichester. It is wrought on 
a stone disk which is let into the wall. Possibly 
it is one of a series and it may not occupy its 

original position. It is about two feet six inches in 
diameter and is painted in fine tempera heightened 
with gilding. Certainly the work of an able master, 
it would have been considered of the best quality, 
for only superior works had fine blue and gold 
used upon them. From the style we may date it 
about 1230 ; some trace of Byzantinism shows 
that it can hardly be later. At a slightly later date 
the Virgin would have been depicted with a 
proudly joyous face, smiling in full front. The 
Virgins of some of the early Italians follow the same 
tradition ; but the nearest parallel I have found to 
this remarkable picture is from a German wall- 
painting, figured in the English edit ion of Woltmann 
andWoermann's " History of Painting" (page 310). 
The decorative foliage in the cusps of our 
picture is typically English work, and there 
cannot be a doubt that the whole is English. 
The swift, strong drawing is most masterly and 
curiously like the drawing of the Greek vases. 
The intensely piercing expression is worthy of the 
handling. The picture is, of its kind, a great 
work of art. 


'HERE has lately been added to the 
already rich collection of Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan a miniature-portrait, which is 
certainly a portrait of Thomas Crom- 
well, Earl of Essex, K.G. [Plate, a], 
and bears every sign, in spite of its damaged con- 
dition, of being the work of Hans Holbein. This 
miniature-painting is circular, painted on vellum or 
chicken-skin, pasted on card, and is encased in an 
ivory box, carved on the back with a rose and 
other ornaments, similar to, though in no way 
so fine or so rich as, the ivory box which contains 
the miniature-portrait of Anne of Cleves, lately 
bequeathed to the nation by Mr. George Salting, 
and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In 
the case, however, of Mr. Morgan's portrait of 
Cromwell, the lower half of the box has been 
separated from the lid, cut down, and set in a gold 
frame, which is ornamented by a series of small 
deformed pearls. This gold framework is the 
work of a highly-efficient goldsmith, but hardly 
seems to date from the days of Henry VIII. 

The miniature-painting has suffered terribly 
during the vicissitudes of its past career. It has 
been rubbed down until, in the case of the robes, 
the Garter collar, and other details, but little 
remains except the mere outlines of the original 
painting. The face is faded and also rubbed, but 
here the skilful drawing of the features reveals 
a master-hand which could be no other but 
Holbein's. Very subtle, however, and recogniz- 
able are the distinctive features of Thomas 
Cromwell, the vulgar nose, with its sunken bridge, 
the cunning eyes with the puckered skin at their 

It was part of the policy of the Tudor kings to 
encourage men who rose from the people, and to 
exalt them as a counterpoise to the great territorial 
nobles who claimed equality with, if not actual 
superiority to, a race of Welshmen whose blue 
blood was not above suspicion. Of such were 
Cardinal Wolsey, Lord Rich, Lord Audley, and 
Thomas Cromwell. The fortunes of the black- 
smith's son from Putney, who rose from being a 
disreputable soldier in the French service to be 
the king's secretary and vice-gerent, lord privy 
seal, and lord high chamberlain, is one of the 
romances of history. In this article notice can 
be taken only of the various steps by which he 
attained to his highest dignities and powers. In 
153 1, shortly after Wolsey's death, Cromwell was 
made a privy councillor, and in 1532 master of 
the jewel house and clerk of the hanaper. In 
1533 he had established his supremacy in the 
council, and was made chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. In 1534 he was made the king's 
secretary and master of the rolls, and in November 
of that year was appointed the king's vicar-general 
to carry into effect the Act of Supremacy. In 

1535 he received a commission to hold a general 
visitation of churches, monasteries, and clergy. 
In 1536 he witnessed Anne Boleyn's execution, 
and secured after her father's disgrace the im- 
portant office of lord privy seal, being created 
Baron Cromwell of Oakham. From this date he 
was the chief governing power in England. In 
August, 1537, he was created a Knight of the 
Garter, and the next two years he spent in 
destroying the monasteries and enriching his 
friends. In 1539 he was made lord great chamber- 
lain, and negotiated the marriage between the 
king and Princess Anne of Cleves, as the corner- 
stone of a great political alliance with the 
Protestant cause in Germany. For this service 
he was made Earl of Essex. The failure of this 
marriage brought Cromwell within reach of his 
enemies, who were not slow to strike the blow, 
which brought him with startling suddenness to 
the scaffold m July, 1540. 

The period of Cromwell's ascendency thus 
synchronized with the second residence of Hans 
Holbein in London from 1532 onwards. The 
fact that Holbein was specially selected by 
Cromwell to go to Germany and take the portrait 
of Anne of Cleves, receiving, no doubt, instructions 
to make the princess as attractive as possible, points 
to a connexion between the painter and the all- 
powerful minister, which need not be questioned. 
The few portraits of Cromwell which have any 
claim to authenticity are all traceable to Holbein. 
They fall, in fact, into two groups, or at most 
three, each group deriving from an original 
portrait by Holbein. The first group is that 
which represents Cromwell, seated somewhat in 
profile to the right, his arm resting on a table, on 
which are some books. He wears the fur-lined 
robes of the English statesman, with a black cap, 
under which is seen his grey hair, prematurely 
grey, cut round in his neck in the fashion of the 
day, as in the portraits of Sir Thomas More. 
One could be tempted to suppose that Cromwell 
had deliberately ordered Holbein to make him as 
much like Sir Thomas More as possible, in spite 
of the difference between the high-bred features 
and dignified mien of the lord chancellor and the 
vulgar, snub-nosed, roguish aspect of the lord 
privy seal. The original of this type is probably 
that in the possession of the Earl of Caledon at 
Tittenhanger, which descends direct from Sir 
Thomas Pope, one of Cromwell's instruments in 
the suppression of the monasteries, who obtained 
considerable wealth and landed property thereby. 
Here Cromwell is described merely as " Master of 
the Jewel House ". This portrait [Plate, c] is in 
bad condition, but has strong claims to be the 
original. A porti'ait of Cromwell was m the 
collection of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel,* 
' Bmliu^ton Magazine, Vol. XIX, \o. loi, p. 2S3. 

A Newly-discovered Miniature of Thomas Qromwell 

and it was probably this, and not the Tittenhanger 
portrait, which was finely engraved by W. Hollar. 
Another version of the same portrait was engraved 
by Houbraken for Birch's " Heads ", as being in 
the possession of Mr. Edward Southwell, ancestor 
of the present Lord De Clifford, and still another 
version was engraved for Lodge's " Portraits 
of Illustrious Personages" as being in the collec- 
tion of Sir Thomas Clififord, Bart. Possibly one 
or more of these last three portraits may be 
identical with one another. It was probably the 
Arundel portrait which was engraved for Holland's 
" Herwologia". There would be nothing im- 
probable in supposing that Cromwell, when 
anxious to conciliate his influential friends, had 
more than one portrait of himself painted by 
Holbein for this purpose. 

The second group is that which shows Cromwell 
in profile to the left, still in fur robes, but with 
scarcely any hair showing under the cap, and with 
a small grey whisker. The irregular features and 
the puckered eyebrows are more evident in this 
type, which occurs with slight variations fairly 
frequently, as in the portrait of Cromwell in the 
National Portrait Gallery [Plate, p]. Nothing is 
said as to the existence of any original portrait of 
this type which can actually be attributed to 

Closely allied to this second group, though 
probably distinct from it, are the miniature-portrait 
now belonging to Mr. Pierpont Morgan and the 
medal in the British Museum, a cast of which 
was exhibited by the late Mr. Max Rosenheim at 
the Exhibition of Early English Portraiture at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1908, and is here 
reproduced from the catalogue of that exhibition 

[Plate, b]. In the miniature-portrait Cromwell 
wears the collar of the Garter, which shows that it 
must have been painted after August, 1537, in which 
year Cromwell received the Garter. "This fact would 
enable one to place the miniature in its ivory box 
as contemporary with the miniature-portrait of 
Anne of Cleves and its ivory box in the Salting 
collection, which may have been made for Crom- 
well himself. The medal bears on the obverse the 
portrait of Cromwell in profile to the left, and the 
REG • SECRET • AN • 38, and on the reverse 
Cromwell's arms within the Garter. The mention 
of the year 38 serves to date the medal to 1538, and 
this date is corroborated by the fact that Cromwell 
was given the Garter in 1537, and was succeeded 
as Secretary to the King by Sir Thomas 
Wriothesley in 1539, in April of which year he was 
created Earl of Essex. The medal is evidently 
based upon a drawing by Holbein, and probably 
the same from which Holbein executed the sadly 
damaged miniature-portrait belonging to Mr. 
Pierpont Morgan. There is no drawing, unfor- 
tunately, of Cromwell in the famous series of 
drawings by Holbein at Windsor Castle. The fine 
drawing at Wilton House, which used to bear the 
name of Thomas Cromwell, is now recognized to 
be a portrait of Lord Bergavenny. 

While congratulating Mr. Morgan on his new 
acquisition, we cannot refrain from remarking 
that its condition makes it hardly worthy of a 
place beside the Mrs. Peinbcrton, the Sir Thomas 
More, and other notable miniatures in Mr. Morgan's 
collection, and expressing a regret that as a 
historical portrait it should not have found its way 
to the National Portrait Gallery. 


. IDDEN away in the Municipio of the 
^charming little town of S. Giovanni, 
I/in Persiceto, about thirteen miles from 
il Hg!^2l I '^ologn<i| i^ one of the most beautiful 
9 c^^ V ol the smaller pictures painted by 
Francesco Francia. The clue that led me to the 
discovery of this exquisite example of the work of 
the great Bolognese master is to be found in the 
"Cenni storici " of Gaetano Giordani, in the 
volume of the " Almanacco Statistico " for 1832, 

page 154- 

Inspired by the hope of finding a new treasure, 
I made an expedition to the little township, and 
there, in the "Gabinetto del Sindaco", I found the 
picture described by Giordani. The courtesy of 
an official of the Commune enabled mc to see the 
picture, and, having obtained the kind permission 
of the Sindaco, I was able to photograph it 

It would be interesting if we could trace the 
document giving the commission for this picture, 
but unfortunately the archives of the Commune 
were destroyed by fire in the disturbances in 1869. 
The highest authority on the archaeology of the 
town asserts that no such document now exists. 
The earliest mention of the picture that I have 
been able to trace is in " Bologna perlustrata ", by 
Antonio di Paolo Masini, the third edition of 
which was published in Bologna in 1666. At 
page 216, under the heading " S. Armentario", the 
picture is mentioned. But when Masini saw it, 
the picture was in the "Chiesa Arcipresbiterale" — 
the great church of S. Giovanni in Persiceto. 
That church is dedicated to S. John the Baptist, 
who is the patron saint of the town which bears 
his name. The identity of the picture is clear, for 
Masini distinctly states that the picture of 
"S. Giovanni Battista " in the church was painted 

(.A) MlNlAlLKl-.-lHiKlKAtT. MK. J. PU-.KIMNT MuKGAn': 








6*. John the Baptist " by Francesco Francia 

by " Francesco Franza ". The only other picture 
in the church which he mentions is the fine 
one of the Madonna and Child ivith S. Sebastian 
and S. Roc/t, by Albani. The artist was com- 
missioned by the Commune to paint this picture 
in 1630 for the altar of the Madonna as a 
votive picture for deliverance from the plague. 
A chapel was to be built to receive it and the 
Communal authorities decreed that Francia's pic- 
ture should be placed in the same chapel. But 
when Albani's picture was completed, it was found 
to be too large for the chapel, and yet another 
chapel was built for it alone. Francia's picture 
of S. 'John the Baptist was still in the church when 
Marcello Oretti visited it in 1767 — more than a 
hundred years later than Masini. Oretti distinctly 
records it in his, " Le Pitture nelli Palazzi e Case 
di Villa nel Territorio Bolognese" (M. Oretti. MS. 
Bibl. Com. no). 

When and why this beautiful picture was 
transferred from the church to the Palazzo 
del Comune the destruction of the Archives 
makes it impossible to determine. But it is 
satisfactory to know that the treasure is in careful 

We may note that the church itself was pulled 
down and rebuilt in 1671, that is between the 
time when Masini saw the picture and the time 
when Oretti saw it. We, therefore, have clear 
evidence that it was in the old church, and also in 
the new one that is still standing. It is probable 
that Francia painted the picture by commission 
from the Commune, and that at some time subse- 
quent to 1767 it was removed to its present habitat. 
Perhaps this was done as a precaution for its 
safety at the time of the revolutionary disturbances 
towards the close of the eighteenth century. Cer- 
tainly, when Giordani wrote in 1832, it was already 
in the Palazzo del Comune. He clearly states that 
Francia's picture is in the "camere comunali ", 
and he specifies other pictures in the church which 
may still be seen within its walls, including the 
one painted by Albani. This is as much of the 
history of the picture as it has been possible at 
present to recover. Signor Lodi, the Sindaco of 
S. Giovanni in Persiceto, has kindly made inquiries 
and assures me that the best authorities on the 
antiquities of the town cannot point to any further 

Even apart from its history the picture has a very 
great interest and high intrinsic value. One has 
only to look at it to realize that it is the work of 
Francia's best period. The exquisite delicacy of 
the touch and the soft mellow tones of the colour- 
ing give this little picture a place among the very 
finest works of the master. 

The figure is somewhat less than life size and is 
painted on wood. It is in perfect preservation, 
and the signature, FRANCIA AU . . . EX.P is in 
the lower left-hand corner.' The measurements of 
the panel are 23i by 17 inches. 

Comparing this picture with the S. John in the 
" Manzuoli " altar-piece, now in the Pinacoteca at 
Bologna, we see that in both Francia has taken 
precisely the same type for the Saint. The face, 
figure and dress are identical. The cross is the 
same in form, only round that in the group there 
is no twining scroll. The two figures differ 
slightly in attitude and in the disposition of the 
drapery. A beautiful little landscape with Francia's 
characteristic feathery trees forms the background 
of our half-length picture. The Manzuoli altar- 
piece was painted for the church of S'? Maria della 
Misericordia at Bologna on commission for a lady 
of the Manzuoli family. In the F'elicini altar-piece 
the S. John the Baptist is of very similar type, but 
the likeness is not so exact as in the one I have 
chosen to illustrate for comparison [Plate], 
which also was painted for the Misericordia church. 
In the Annnnciationwhich P'rancia painted for the 
Oratorio di S. Girolamo di Miramonte we again 
find S. John the Baptist. Again it is a similar 
type, the likeness to the face in the Felicini 
picture being very close. In both the face 
is younger and less ascetic in form than in 
the Persiceto picture. There is in this S. John 
a matured depth of thought and a strength in 
the lines of the mouth that we do not see 
in what I venture to think are the earlier pic- 
tures. The scroll with the Ecce agnns Dei, etc., 
appears in both the Felicini and the Miramonte 
pictures." The simple garb of the Baptist gives 
no scope for that survival of the goldsmith's art 
and skill which is so striking in the vestments of 
S. Stephen and S. Augustine in the other pictures. 
But we may note how finely and delicately the 
hairs of the undergarment are painted. 

Francia has chosen quite a different type for 
his S. John in the Baptism of Christ now in the 
Dresden Gallery, and for the same subject in the 
picture now at Hampton Court. 

In bringing this long- forgotten picture at 
S. Giovanni in Persiceto to the notice of art- 
lovers and admirers of the greatest of the artists 
of Bologna, I hope that I have been able to 
establish a complete chain of evidence for its 
authenticity. Its history and its signature are 
supported and confirmed by internal evidence. 

' That is, Francia Aiitifex finxit. Francia usually signed liis 
pictures as "goldsmith", using sometimes the form "piuxit", 
sometimes "/iicicbat". 

' Both these pictures are in tlic Pinacoteca at Bologna. 



iHINESE stone sculpture a decade ago 
'was all but unknown. To-day the 
attention of archaeologists of several 
' nations has been directed to the cave 
^temples on Chinese rivers, museums 
and private collectors are beginning to vie with 
each other for acquisition of such sculptural objects 
from the interior provinces as come upon the 
market, usually through the offices of Japanese 
dealers, and the imperial government at Pekin 
appears to have entered upon a definite policy of 
forbidding further exportation of artistic treasures 
from Si An Fu and other ancient centres of Chinese 

Of the museums of art, outside Japan, which 
have imdertaken to collect these stone carvings of 
the Han, Si.\ Dynasties and Tan Dynastj', the 
Museum of Fine Arts at Boston, U.S.A., appears 
to have made most progress. In the Chinese room 
at this museum there are on permanent exhibition 
forty or more stone carvings, mostly of the sixth 
and seventh centuries, though a few are possibly 
earlier. Examples of the interesting pre-Buddhistic 
sculpture are wanting, but the exhibit which has 
been secured is comprehensive enough to merit 
more than passing comment. Three, at least, of 
the sculptures are of a charm and technical 
excellence to take rank among the world's master- 
pieces. Collectively, statuary and mortuary tablets 
at Boston would tend — even if the outcome of M. 
Edouard Chavannes's arch^ological expedition of 
1907-9 into Central China did not have the same 
tendencv — to qualify the assertion of so eminent an 
orientalist as Dr. S. W. Bushell, made in all good 
faith in 1904, that China has no stone sculpture to 
compare, in antiquity or interest, with that of 
Egypt, Assyria or Susa. In antiquity it apparently 
has not, for the beginnings of the art may not 
antedate the second century B.C. The refined 
?estheticism of the sculptures now known and the 
many evidences in them of high professional 
competence among the ancient Chinese sculptors 
make it unsafe to say that the critical opinion of 
the future will assign to this branch of Chinese 
art a place lower than that of any other great 
nation — always excepting Greece. 

A comparatively small collection of Han 
Dynasty bas reliefs of Shantong province, gatluered 
in 1787 under a single roof by Hoang I, a Chinese 
antiquary and epigraphist, was believed, up to 
very recently, to constitute the remains of an early 
stone sculpture, known from literary references 
to have been widespread but supposd to have dis- 
appeared in the several racial cataclysms which 
have desolated the Chinese plains. Tracings of 
these sculptures at the little native museum in 
Hsiao Shan were first shown to Europe by Dr. 
Bushell at the Oriental Congress, Berlin, 1881. 
Five years later they were studied on the ground 

by D. Mills. In 1891 they were seen and de- 
scribed by the distinguished French archaeologist, 
M. Chavannes, who published concerning them 
a book which also summarized much of the 
literary evidence regarding the art as formerly 
practised. Only one monument outside Shan- 
tong was reported by M. Chavannes in this volume, 
a memorial tablet in Kau-su commemorating the 
services of Li Si, a provincial governor "known 
to us by his own very laudatory inscription and 
by a very unflattering paragraph in the standard 
history of the later Han." 

It was reserved for the succeeding French 
investigation, under the same directorate, to reveal 
to the civilized world hundreds of illustrations of 
cave temples rich with the Buddhistic carving 
and, from the precincts of ancient cemeteries, so 
many examples of exposed or partly exposed 
mortuary statuary as to arouse a natural expecta- 
tion of still greater "finds" which may await exca- 
vation in the loess and sand of the Chinese 
hinterland. The extraordinary sculptural treasures 
of India, Ceylon and Java, it is now fully realized, 
have their counterpart across the Himalayas. 
Buddhism and Taoism gave employment during 
several centuries to guilds of sculptors, the traditions 
and technical processes of whose craft had been 
established shortly before the Christian Era. A 
commingling of native and foreign influences 
explains both the external similarity of the Chinese 
Buddhistic sculpture to that of Northern India 
and its less robust, less adventurous, technique. 

The Chinese stone sculptures at the Boston 
Museum have been acquired mostly through the 
Japanese, who have ways of getting these things. 
While a few of them were secured several years 
ago, the majority were first disclosed to the public 
in the spring of 191 1, when a special exhibition 
was arrayed of recent accessions of Chinese and 
Japanese art. The sculptural works in this exhi- 
bition were brought to Boston partly through the 
efforts of M. Okakura-Kakuzo, who, in the interest 
of the Museum, has invested certain special funds 
for the upbuilding of the department of which he 
is curator, and partly through the munificence of 
two devoted friends of the Museum, Dr. Denraan 
W. Ross and Mr. Joseph Lindon Smith, who in 
1910 made a little quest of their own in Java, 
Cambodia, China and Japan. As a result of the 
recent acquisitions, the material for study of 
Chinese and Japanese sculpture is more copious 
at Boston than anywhere else outside Japan. 

A torso of a marble Buddha, seated, is one of 
the most attractive of the works newly acquired 
by the Boston Museum. It undoubtedly, at first 
sight, prompts in most observers a thought of 
Greek influences proceeding over Alexander the 
Great's line of march to the Punjab and thence, in 
the course of centuries, to the distant valley of the 



5 o 


7. H 

X -J 

■ 5 



A.D. (ii)2 

((,) KWANNiiN. \l\Kl',l 1- ToK^o ; sl-.VIMII CENTl'RY. 


Qhinese Stone Sculpture at Boston 

Yellow River. In subtle modelling of surfaces it is 
perhaps not unworthy of the age of Phidias. The 
tracing of derivations, however, is notoriously 
overdone by superficial scholars. The fact of 
the existence in China of a native, pre-Buddhist 
sculpture, pursued by stone-carvers of very evident 
technical power, justifies a little scepticism when it 
is tried to foist upon the Greeks the credit for the 
beauty of such a work. It is conceivable, of course, 
that suggestions from the art of Praxiteles were 
carried across Asia in ways unrecorded by history. 
One has to remember, however, that about the time 
Hellenic art was becoming Hellenistic there already 
were good sculptors in the interior of China. Mr. 
Francis G. Curtis, writing about this sculpture in 
the bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts ex- 
presses the expert's doubt concerning the popular 
derivation when he says : " It is, however, a far 
cry from the Bactrian colonies of the fourth 
century B.C. to the interior of seventh-century 
China, especially when we find in such examples 
as the present a far higher refinement of idealism 
than is anywhere discoverable among the Gandara 
sculptures ". M. Chavannes quotes an inscription 
showing that in 147 A.D. the sculptor Li Ti Mao, 
surnamed Meng-fu, received 150,000 pieces of 
money for making two memorial tablets and that 
for carving a pair of decorative lions Song-tsong 
was paid 40,000 pieces. Such citations indicate 
a well-established craft. 

The work in question, about two and one-half 
feet high, is of yellowish marble of a fair quality. 
It is reported to have been discovered in Shansi 
province. The modelling, as in most Chinese 
stone carving, is delicate, suave and rather timid. 

A marble torso of a Kwannon, acquired by the 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is another very 
notable possession. Like its companion piece, it 
came from Shansi. The surface has been subjected 
to a peculiar chipping, which, however, has not 
hurt the very graceful modelling of the draperies 
and accessories. The action is more pronounced 
than in most Chinese sculptures. 

Another treasure first shown at Boston in 191 1 
is a panel cut from a slate slab and representing 
Kwannon. This is a work celebrated in recent 
Japanese archaeological annals — one of a series of 
panels dated 692 a.d. and discovered not long 
since at the Katoji temple. Si An Fu, by a savant 
who had noted in an old Buddhist book a reference 
to the existence of sculptures at this temple. 
Visiting the ancient imperial capital the Japanese 
scholar sought out Katoji, but found no traces of 
the reputed stone carvings. The local priests knew 
nothing of their existence. On close examination, 
however, evidences were discovered of the filling 
in of a niche in the wall, possibly at the time of 
one of the Mohammedan invasions. Uncovering 
this place the archaeologist discovered several of 
these bas-reliefs, each about three and one-half feet 

high and ten inches wide. How he was able to 
get the things away from China is not recorded, 
but it is a matter of record that the Boston Museum 
has one, a very well-known American collector 
another, and that the others are still held in Japan, 
These panels are all essentially alike, each depict- 
ing Juichimen (eleven-faced) Kwannon. The 
Boston example has one of the smaller heads 
missing and has been mutilated elsewhere, as 
particularly in the low relief angelic figures of the 
upper corners. It is, nevertheless, a particularly 
notable work, of a restrained, dignified charm. 

A large seated Buddha, with pointed halo, 
having a flame border, stands among the Boston 
accessions. It presumably belongs to the same 
period as the slate Kwannon. The material is a 
grey, spongy stone, apparently difficult to work ; 
the chiselling was done in short chip-strokes. It 
is admirably preserved, though as a work of art 
rather less extraordinary than some of the other 
things on exhibition. The provenance is not 
stated. The collection contains two other marble 
figures of large size. One a badly mutilated torso, 
the other having the head intact, are of the same 
general character. A fine mortuary tablet shows 
the Buddhistic Trinity in high relief, the base 
bearing a few nearly obliterated marks, among 
which may be distinguished the words : " For 
Father and Mother and my daughter." Particu- 
larly valuable is a Bodhisattva, of a very dark 
stone, fourteen inches high, of good proportions, 
and of considerable cleverness in the treatment of 
the head-dress. Superficially it looks like Egyptian 
workmanship. Actually it may be true, of course, 
that two sculptors of different nations, having to 
express certain conventions in a hard, unyielding 
material, could hardly avoid a generally similar 

Two cases at the Boston Museum are filled with 
smaller stone carvings, nearly all mortuary tablets, 
which, according to the Chinese custom, were 
designed to show filial devotion and to bring 
blessings upon posterity. Many of them are 
Taoist rather than Buddhistic. Some of them 
bear dedicatory inscriptions, of which the follow- 
ing is characteristic : " In the second year of 
Rin-To-Ken, on Jan. 3, I, Do Min Den out of 
regard for my deceased and beloved mother had 
this statuette respectfully carved. I pray further- 
more that the whole family, large and small, may 
enjoy the blessings of peace and prosperity ". 
This sentiment of respect for the dead and desire 
for the welfare of posterity is repeated, with 
variations, in all the other sculptures which are 

Apart from their artistic interest, these Chinese 
stone sculptures at the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts are certain to be valuable in reconstructing 
the little understood story of Far Eastern sculp- 
ture. Chinese porcelains and potteries, Japanese 


Qhinese Stone Sculpture at Boston 

paintings and prints have become so well known 
in the past half-century that no history of the fine 
arts can ignore them. As recently as 1895, how- 
ever, an ordinarily well-informed American writer, 
Mr. William Ordway Partridge, expressed a pre- 
vailing opinion when he wrote : " The sculpture 
of China and Japan need hardly be considered. 
It is mostly of a mythological character, with 
monstrous combinations of human and brute 
forms, repulsive in their ugliness". In a decade 
and a half, however, knowledge of these sculptures 
has been advanced. The existence in Japanese 

temples of very wonderful wooden statuary has 
become familiar, and many examples have been 
acquired by occidental museums. The museum 
at Boston has several score of them. The history 
of the art, nevertheless, is yet to be authoritatively 
written ; and it will presumably be written with 
historical competence only by a writer who takes 
into account the very competent art of stone 
sculpture which grew up in China in the second 
and first centuries B.C., which flourished for nearly 
a m.illennium, and then dropped out so completely 
that it is to-day being re-discovered with surprise. 



HE first and the last impression 
created by the view of the Salting 
Collection of Italian Medals, which is 
possible now that they are exhibited, 

although eventually a rearrangement 

in new cases will be necessary, is that their quality 
is extraordinarily high. There are indeed astonish- 
ingly few pieces in which an improvement of 
condition could be required by any but the most 
fastidious. For a better example of one of these 
such an exacting critic would have to wait a long 
time, seeing that it is the only specimen known. 
This is the portrait by Pietro da Milano of a 
lady who was first identified by Alois Heiss as 
Marguerite d'Anjou, the daughter of King Ren6, 
who married our Henry VI in 1445. The medal 
must have been made about 1461-1463, when the 
unfortunate queen had returned to her father's 
court. It is naturally of great historical interest to 
Englishmen, and it is a matter for congratulation 
that the unique specimen is safely lodged in one 
of our national museums. Nevertheless, artistically 
— like most of the same medallist's work — it is of 
small value, flat and wooden and badly cast. But 
almost all, if not all, the remaining pieces may rank 
in the first class in respect of condition ; and the 
whole range of Italian medals of the Renaissance 
is well represented. 

A Jove incipicnduvt. Of Pisanello (as one still 
prefers to call him, since the familiar Vittore has 
been ousted by the more commonplace Antonio) 
Mr. Salting possessed six line medals, a notable 
addition to the Museum collection, which already 
included what is perhaps the finest known example 
of the beautiful portrait of Malatesta Novello. This 
is now duplicated in another nearly as good. It 
is to be hoped that when the collection is finally 
arranged it will be possible to show the reverses in 
plaster beside the obverses. With a medal like this 
it must be heartrending to have to decide which 
side to turn down : the simply but marvellously 
composed reverse, where the young warrior makes 
his vow to the Crucifix, or the exquisite portrait 


which d'Annunzio has so finely described — "dalla 
bella chioma ondosa, dal profilo imperiale, dal 
coUo apollineo, sovrano tipo di eleganza e di vigore, 
cosi perfetto che I'imaginazione non poteva 
rappresentarselo nellavita se non immune da ogni 
decadenza e immutabile come I'artefice lo aveva 
chiuso nel cerchio di quel metallo per I'eternita". 

As an acquisition, even more important is the 
magnificent Sigismondo Malatesta, as Captain- 
General of the Roman Church, with his equestrian 
figure on the reverse, and Rocca Contrada rising 
among the hills in the background. 

Four medals represent Matteo de' Fasti's work 
in the portraits of Sigismondo Malatesta, his lady 
Isotta, and the universal genius Leone Battista 
Alberti — the last a poorly conceived portrait, and 
not for a moment to be compared with the superb 
plaque, probably from Alberti's own hand, in the 
Dreyfus collection, or even with the inferior version 
in the Louvre. 

Of the art of the Venetian, Giovanni Boldia, 
there are two excellent specimens, portraits of the 
poet Filippo Maserano and the physician Filippo 
Vadi. Boldii was a careful, not to say pedantic, 
artist, and his work has remarkable finish, some- 
times resulting in a certain hardness which is 
curious in view of the fact that, like Pisanello, he 
was wont to proclaim in his signature that he was 
a painter. 

Bertoldo (with a fine specimen of his medal of 
Mohammad II), Guazzalotti, Enzola and Lysippus 
are other early medallists of whose work good 
examples will be found here. The rare Malitia 
Gesualdo and the beautiful Raffael Maffei are 
noteworthy specimens of the art of the last-named 
obscure but engaging artist. We may pass, how- 
ever, to Sperandio of Mantua, who is very favour- 
ably represented. Besides the fine example of 
Francesco Sforza (the most aggressive of his 
portraits), the Federigo of Montefeltro (in which 
he fails entirely to catch the humane but rugged 
spirit of his subject), the all but unique Barbazza, 
the Giovanni II, Bentivoglio and Lodovico 




f A 

THK ITAIUV Ml-I.MS IX rill- SArilNc; n U.I.Fc TIHN 
I'l.ATI' II 

The Italian Medals in the Salting (Collection 

Carbone, we hiive the rare but dull Lodovico 
Brognolo, and two oval plaquettes made from 
medals— one of irigismondo d'Este, the other 
(wholly charming and in some ways the gem of 
the collection) of Eleonora of Aragon [Plate I, c]. 
This plaquette, which comes from the left-hand 
half of the joint medal of the lady and her husband, 
was already in the Museum series. 

The collection is strong in the Florentine 
medals of the end of the fifteenth and beginning 
of the sixteenth centuries. Omitting comparatively 
well-known pieces like the Giovanna Albizzi or 
Alessandro di Gino V'ecchietti, I may call attention 
to the portraits of Camilla Buondelmonti [Plate 
I, a] ; Lorenzo Ciglamocchi (by himself ?) ; the 
rare Carlo P'ederighi [PLATE I, d] ; and the 
Girolamo Santucci. 

.Another medallist who marks the transition 
from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century is 
Giovanni Candida. It is extremely difficult to 
obtain good specimens of his work, which is 
usually represented by after-casts more or less 
ruined by tooling. Mr. Salting's serie," which 
includes the Maximilian and Mary of 1477, ^^^ 
Guillaume des Perriers, Pierre Brifonnet, Giuliano 
and Clemente della Rovere, Louise de Savoie and 
Francois I as Duke of Valois, will probably bear 
comparison with any other collector's. 

One of the most beautiful, and the most puzzling, 
though by no means the rarest, of all medals — the 
Giulia Astallia— is here also [Plate II, f]. The 
old attribution to Talpa has long been discarded 
as baseless ; but no one has yet been able to place 
beside the medal any other which bears any 
resemblance to it in conception or execution. 
M. de Foville has, indeed, ventured to place it in 
the Florentine group, though he admits that the 
artist " du style Florentin n'a garde que la purete 
et la poesie ". To put it more prosaically, the 
pose and expression of the charming figure are 
reminiscent of many a Florentine painting ; but 
from any Florentine medal it is widely re- 
moved. Friedlander has wrongly been made 
responsible for the attribution to Talpa. It is true 
that he describes the piece in connexion with 
Talpa's work, but he does so only because he 
assumes the possible identity of the girl with that 
Giulia who, according to Bandello's novel, having 
been outraged by a servant of the Bishop of 
Mantua, drowned herself and was commemorated 
by a public monument. But he admits the 
doubtfulness of the identification and the lack of 
resemblance in the medal to Talpa's style. 
Nevertheless, considering the appropriateness of 
the reverse — a phcenix, " unicum fortitudinis et 
pudicitiae exemplum " — to Bandello's heroine, we 
may reasonably retain the medal in the Mantuan 
series, until some better attribution is forthcoming. 

Another Mantuan medal [PLATE II, h], more 
rare than beautiful, of which there is also a speci- 

men in the Turin Museum, has on the obverse 
the half-figure of a woman, with the curious 
FIDES. On the reverse is Mercury, with the 
words VENVS EXTRA EGO INTVS, implying, 
it is to be feared, that the lady's charms were venal ; 
while the motto on the obverse seems to indicate 
that beauty without troth is but half of the whole. 
The relief is high and the composition somewhat 
clumsy. On the obverse is the mark X with a 
short stroke across it, which seems to connect the 
medal with two others representing an otherwise 
unknown person, Maddalena of Mantua ; for one 
of these has X on the reverse, after the inscription, 
while the other has MMX and a heart placed 
column-wise in the field. These two medals, 
which are of 1504 and 1503 respectively, have been 
attributed to I'Antico, and indeed they come 
extremely close to his signed or otherwise 
accredited pieces. Are they his, and the X some 
cipher employed by him for this particular group ; 
or is it the mark of another artist following closely 
in his steps ; or has it no artistic significance at 
all ? The question requires further consideration 
than we can give it here. 

Among the medals attributed to Giancristoforo 
Romano is the double portrait of Alfonso d'Este 
and his wife Lucrezia Borgia [Plate I, b]. Most 
writers seem to have accepted this attribution in 
toto, calmly oblivious of the utter disparity of style 
between obverse and reverse. Heiss saw this 
difficulty, although his argument that the portrait 
of Alfonso must be earlier than 1492, whereas the 
marriage was in 1502, is untenable. He is, however, 
doubtless right in his conclusion that the two 
portraits are by different hands, though not in his 
chronological premisses. Clearly, as he suggests, 
what has happened is that some one, probably not 
Giancristoforo himself, has used an old model for 
the portrait of Alfonso, and joined it to the portrait 
of his wife, to commemorate the marriage. It is 
to be noted that the disparity of style does not 
extend to the lettering ; new lettering was doubt- 
less added to the obverse when the " mule" was 

Among the medals of the early sixteenth century 
is to be noted a beautiful specimen of the portrait 
of the poet Agosto da Udine [Plate I, e]. In a 
note to the English translation of Fabriczy's book 
on Italian medals I ventured to suggest, on 
grounds of general resemblance in style, particu- 
larly in the composition of the reverse, that this 
is by the artist Adriano Fiorentino. It was only 
some time afterwards that I was struck by the 
resemblance between the little figure of Urania on 
the reverse of the medal (here reproduced) and 
the statuette of Venus in the Foulc collection, 
signed by Adriano himself (Bode, " Italian 
Bronzes", Plate XVI 1 1). This is a slight con- 
firmation not merely of the attribution of this 


The Italian Medals in the Salting (Collection 

little piece, but indeed of the connexion of the 
whole group of medals which Fabriczy has 
brought together with Adriano Fiorentino. Such 
confirmation is not to be despised, since there 
is still an unexplained chronological difficulty 
in the association with this artist of the medals of 
Elisabetta Gonzaga* and Emilia Pio. And this 
association is the very foundation of Fabriczy's 
reconstruction of Adriano's work as a medallist. 

The very individual style of the Venetian 
" Medallist of 1523 " is well seen in no less than 
three pieces — Jacopo Loredano, Francesco Mali- 
pieri and Sebastiano Renier. Another Renier, 
Daniele, is seen on the signed medal by Giulio 
della Torre which Mr. Salting was fortunate 
enough to secure at the Lobbecke sale ; and of 
pieces with certainty attributed to this artist he 
also had the rare and remarkable portrait of 
Francesco Niconizio of Curzola. 

Two of the medals unattributed to artists may 
perhaps be placed under the name of, or at least in 
association with, Fra Antonio da Brescia. These are 
the medal of Niccolo "Tempe" (perhaps rather 
Tempesta) [PL.4TE II, j] and the plaquette-portrait 
of Lodovico Galio, both Trevisans [Plate II, G]. 
Armand has already noticed the affinity of the 

» Mr. Salting's specimen of this piece is one of the few after- 
casts which he possessed. 


former portrait to the style of Fra Antonio. The 
latter is dated 1513, and therefore about contem- 
porary with the medal of Giroiamo Saorniano, 
also attributed to the same medallist. That Fra 
Antonio had a Trevisan connexion is shown by 
his signed portrait of Niccolo Vonica of that 

We have not touched on any of the medals of 
the later sixteenth century ; but space would allow 
no more than a tedious enumeration. Mention, 
however, must be made of a medal of a juriscon- 
sult, Pier Paolo Maffei, which appears to have 
escaped the net of Armand, although it is respect- 
able work of about 1550 or rather later, and is 
included in the Museum Mazzuchellianum. It is 
reproduced in Pl.^te II, K. 

To the few persons who take an intelligent 
interest in Italian medals the series exhibited in the 
Salting gallery will seem one of the most precious 
portions of the great bequest, though it makes but 
little show. One thing is perhaps matter for 
regret, though characteristic of the man who made 
the collection : his fear of the decay to which lead, 
when impure, is liable caused him to shun, with 
one or two exceptions, the purchase of specimens 
in that metal. And yet there is nothing more 
pleasing than an old lead casting, when naturally 

INIATURES signed with N and D 
conjoined, the last stroke of the 
N forming the first stroke of the 
D, are well known, and have 
often erroneously been ascribed to 
Nathaniel Di.xon, but the evidence here adduced 
will show that this painter's Christian name was in 
fact Nicholas. He painted portraits ad vivum, and 
also made copies in water-colours on vellum after 
other masters. 

Some years ago, among the archives at Welbeck 
Abbey, I found a deed bearing the signature of 
Nicholas Dixon, and recently Mr. Collins Baker 
informed me that the name was mentioned in the 
Exchequer Accounts in the Public Record Office, 
temp. Charles II, bundle 441. The accounts 
numbered 4 to 9 in that bundle contain no 
reference to him, but No. 10 and its duplicate. No. 
II, 26 and 27 Charles II [1674-5] record the 
interesting facts (l) that Samuel Cooper (who died 
in 1672) had been the King's limner {miniatlator 
regis), (2) that his widow received a pension, and 
(3) that Nicholas Dixon was Cooper's successor : — 

Paid to Christiana Cooper, relict of Samuel Cooper, late 
miniculalor of the lord the king, deceabed, upon her annual 
pension at /200 per annum, for half a year ended at the 
feast ofithe Sativity of S. John the Baptist, 1673, by writ of 
Pri\'y Seal of the lord the King, dated 30 June in the 25th 
year of his reign [1673], /loo. 

Paid to Dixon, miniculalor regis, for his annuity 
at /200 per annum, for three quarters of a year ended at 
the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Mary the 
Virgin, 1675, by writ of Privy Sea! of the Lord the King, 
dated 16 December, in the 25th year of his reign [1673] i."i50. 

Further payments of salary to Dixon are recorded 
in the Accounts from the 27th and 28th Charles 
11 to the 30th and 31st Charles II (Nos. 12 to 
15), the last specifying the amount as ;^2oo, and 
the period as for one year ended at the feast of 
the Lord's Nativity, 1678. He is not mentioned 
in the Accounts for the remaining years of the 
reign, and I did not find any other references to 
Mrs. Cooper. 

The Welbeck deed is an indenture of bargain and 
sale. It recites the fact that on 23 November 
1700, "Nicholas Dixon, of the parish of Saint 
Martin-in-the-ffeilds, in the County of Middlesex, 
Gentleman ", mortgaged his limnings, seventy in 
number, as specified in an annexed schedule, for 
the sum of ^527 13s. 6d., to James Beschefir, in 
trust for James Pigou and Stephen Pigou. The two 
Pigous died before the limnings were redeemed, 
and their executors, to wit, Stephen Boucxin 
(administrator of the effects of his uncle, James 
Pigou), and Frances Pigou (relict and executrix 
of Stephen Pigou), by deed, dated 14 February 
170J, transferred the collection to John Holies, 
Duke of Newcastle, for ;^'430 ; and, to prevent 


after-claps, Nicholas Dixon signed the deed as 
being a party to the sale. The schedules accom- 
panying the limnings is in Dixon's handwriting. 
From the Duke of Newcastle the limnings passed 
to his daughter, Henrietta, Countess of Oxford, 
at whose death they were inherited by her daughter 
Margaret, wife of William Bentinck, second Duke 
of Portland. Thirty of these seventy limnings 
remain at Welbeck Abbey. 

George Vertue (Brit. Mus. Add. 23072, fol. 134) 
has the following note : — 

'•Mr. Dixon, limner. his first workes tollerable, 

many Copies of History, portraits by him done in many 

years his whole collection disposed of and bought 

and in pos[s]ess[ion] of the Duke of (Holies) Newcastle 

he was in his greatest capacity of reputation in K. Chas. 
2d time. King James & beginning of K. William. After- 
wards he by his workes seem'd to decline much before 

he died ". 

In another place (Brit. Mus. Add. 23071, fol. 71) 

Vertue writes: — 

" Dixon the limner was keeper of the pictures in the King's 
Closet: he met with misfortunes that reduc'd him much 
before he died; he once Hv'd in St. Martins lane, but at last 
in the Kings bench walks, the Temple, at that time to 
prevent prosecutions; he was engag'd in some lottery bubble ; 
he was no excellent artist as Cross was in his Time. Dixoii 
bought once a picture at a broker's at a very small price & 
sold it to the Duke of Devonshire for ;f 500 ". 

This statement as to Dixon's poverty would account 
for the fact that he sold his limnings, but the Lord 
Chamberlain's Certificate books do not appear to 
afford any corroboration of the assertion that he 
was Keeper of the King's Picture-Closet, 

The statement, in the 1903 edition of Bryan's 
Dictionary, that " two contemporary letters in the 
Welbeck collection mention casually Nathaniel 
Dixon the limner ", is erroneous. 

Horace Walpole calls him John Dixon, confus- 
ing him with a crayon-painter of that name men- 
tioned by George Vertue (Brit. Mus. Add. 23070, 
f. 62b) in the following passage, which was 
written circa 1728-9: — 

" Mr. John Dixon, a Scholar of Sf P. Leiy, drew in 
Crayons from the life, had a particular talent in that way, 
with great excellence ; he left London & the practice of 
painting, & retir'd to a small estate in the Country, at 
Thwait near Bungay in Suffolk, where his widow & 
children are still living. There are several peices of art 
of his performance in Crayons, the Dutches [ses of] Cleve- 
land, Portsmouth, after Lely, & his own picture excellently 
done in a fine manner. He died about ten years agoe. 
This gent[leman's] father & grandfather painted in oyl 
from the life ". 

The Parish Registers of Thwaite (as I am infonned 
by the Rev. J. H. Acheson) show that a family 

Nicholas Dixon^ the Limner 

called Dixon did reside in that parish. They 
record the birth of Mary Gostling, 22 March 167I ; 
her baptism 27 March 1674; and her marriage, 
22 March 169^ to Matthew Dixon ; the burial of 
Matthew Dixon, 2 November 1710 ; that of Mary 
Dixon, 9 August 1 7 1 8 ; and that of John (Gostling) 
Dixon, 14 March 17'^?-. The second Christian 
name in the last entry is an interlineation, and 
Mr. Acheson is of opinion that it is a recent 

In the collection of the late Major-General 
F. E. Sotheby, at Ecton, there is a portrait in 
oils of James Sotheby, aged four years, with a 
dog, bv Matthew Dixon, 1671 ; and in the collec- 
tion of Mr. F. A. Newdegate, M.P., at Arbury, 
there is a portrait of Sir Richard Newdegate, when 
a boy, standing, with a lamb on the dexter side, 
also in oils, signed " Mathew Dixon Pin. 1675 ". 

In the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch at 
Montagu House there is a large miniature repre- 
senting the Duke of Grafton, when young, with 
a dog. It is dated 1676, and is signed with a 
monogram which I think represents D M, the first 
and second strokes of the M being identical with 
those of the D . It is assigned by Mr. Andrew 
McKay (the compiler of the Montagu House 
catalogue) and by Dr. G. C. Williainson to 
N. Dixon. The same signature is found on a 
three-quarter length miniature of Mr, Trotman, of 
Shelswell, belonging to Mr. H, J, Pfungst, F.S.A. 
George Vertue had seen "a man's head" 
similarlv signed. He notes the monogram (Brit. 
Mus. Add. 23071, fol. 70), adding :—" this mark 
of the limner I take it to be Dickson, the first and 
last letter ". If the monogram does represent D N, 
the second letter is mis-shapen, which I do not 
think likely. 

In one of the extracts from Vertue already 
quoted it will have been noticed that he refers to 
the miniaturist Cross, meaning the painter whose 
name is spelt Crosse by Horace Walpole and by 
subsequent writers. Many other instances might 
be quoted in which Vertue uses the spelling Cross, 
as also does Bernard Lens in the year 1729 (MS. at 
Welbeck), and the correctness of this spelling is 
proved bv the fact that at Welbeck Abbey there 
is a miniature of John Holies, Duke of Newcastle, 
on the reverse of which the artist has written :— 
" L, Cross F," Another example of this signature 
and spelling occurs on a miniature at Dunham 
Massey Hall, 





HE tracing of the original sources of 
the patterns and shapes of old English 
metal work is an interesting pursuit. 
An appropriate instance is in the great 

silver jars and vases of the closing 

years of the luxurious reign of Charles II, and of 
the William and Mary period, which were copied 
from Chinese porcelain. Almost equally interesting 
is the study of the potter's sources of inspiration 
for the shapes of his vessels of old pottery and 

Just as the forms of many objects of old Lambeth 
and other English ware in the seventeenth century, 
and of English porcelain of the next century, were 
frequently copied from old English silver, so too 
the shapes of several domestic vessels made in 
China in the eighteenth century were derived from 
the same source. That this should be is not 
surprising, when the fact is remembered that in the 
K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722)— during which 
"Chinese porcelain attained its greatest brilliancy" 
— an extensive trade between China and Europe 
was first established. Chinese porcelain in great 
quantities was then imported by the Dutch and the 
English East India Companies. Orders for English 
and other European families were sent through 
the agency of the merchants of Canton, by whom 
they were transmitted to Ching-te-chen. References 
to the orders sent from China to Europe are to be 
found in the highly interesting letters of Pere 
d'Entrecolles, the Jesuit missionary, written in 1712 
and 1722, these letters also containing descriptions 
of the making of porcelain. 

It was during the reigns of Yung-cheng (1723- 
1735) and Ch'ien-Iung (1736-1795) that most of the 
Chinese porcelain was copied from English silver 

One example was, however, made at an earlier 
date, namely, the large blue-and-white punch bowl, 
12J inches in diameter and 6 inches high, assigned 
to the K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722), which is in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum, and is illustrated 
here [PLATE I, a]. The exact year when this 
bowl was made in China cannot be determined. 
But perhaps an approximate date may be given 
with the help of the dates of the extant specimens 
of the type of old English silver punch bowl, from 
which the shape and particularly the scalloped rim 
were copied. The specimens of this silver bowl 
are extremely scarce, not more than, if as many as, 
six being in existence. The dates of these 
specimens would seem to show that this bowl was 
in vogue for the short period of five years, from 
1680-81 until 1685-86. It may not, therefore, be 
a rash guess to assign the date of this punch bowl 
to the few years between 1686 and 1690, when the 
highly popular " Monteith " punch bowl was first 


introduced in England. Allusion has just been 
made to the rarity of the prototype of this bowl ; 
it will not be out of place to mention four ex- 
amples. The earliest is of the year 1680-81, and is 
in possession of the Drapers' Company. Two 
others, forming a pair, of the same shape, dating 
from the first year of the short reign of James II, 
1685-86, are in the fine collection of plate of the 
Skinners' Company, and were given by Richard 
Chiverton. Another example, of the same date, 
decorated with Chinese subjects, has passed from 
the ownership of the Earl of Wilton to that of 
Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. 

One of the earliest pieces of Chinese porcelain 
copied from an English silver design is a coffee- 
pot in the British Museum [Plate I, b]. As 
will be seen from the illustration, it is painted in 
front with the arms of the second son of a Clifford : 
Cheeky gold and azure a fesse gules with the 
difference of a crescent silver. Crest : A wyvern 
gules with the same crescent for difference. If 
some of the shapes of other Chinese porcelain 
vessels may be of old Dutch silver (the patterns 
of Dutch delft were much copied), there can be 
no question as to the essentially English form of 
this coffee-pot. Its outline suggests that the 
Chinese potter had before him a model or a draw- 
ing of those early English silver coffee-pots, with 
spouts at right angles with the handle, such as the 
curious teapot of 1670-71' (in shape like a coffee- 
pot), which was presented in the same year to the 
East India Company by "a member of that 
honourable and worthy society and a true hearty 
lover of them ", George, fourteenth Baron Berke- 
ley, afterwards Viscount Dursley and first Earl of 
Berkeley. This is now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. A silver coffee-pot of the same shape, 
formerly in the English royal collection, and 
engraved with the arms and cipher of William and 
Mary, made in the year of their coronation, 
1689-90, has happily been restored to its proper 
home, the private collection of His Majesty King 
George V. 

No English silver tea-caddies of the seventeenth 
century are known ; they came into use in the 
early part of the reign of Queen Anne. Most of 
the earlier examples are octagonal in shape and 
quite plain. The Chinese porcelain tea-caddy in 
the British Museum, which is illustrated here 
[Plate II, k] is of this shape, and its date may be 
assigned to about 1725. 

The shapes of five trencher salts may be next 
considered. First of these [Plate II, g] is one of 
a pair, the shape of which has been derived from 
the silver salts of trumpet or truncated form, with 

' Illustrated on p.igc 568 of C. J. Jackson's History of English 
Plate, 191 1. 


I " 
■J a 


3 :« 





(l) TRF\ HIK ^M.T rAlNTEn with ARM«. (M) trencher salt with arms of FRANCE 



Old Qhiriese Porcelain made from English Silver Models 

gadrooned borders, fashionable in England from 
about 1695 until 1715. An early silver example, 
dated 1696-97, was in the Bluruenthal collection. 
Another, of larger size and of the following year, 
is the property of Mr. R. Meldrum.- The same 
shape of silver salt, but much larger and heavily 
embossed with flowers, was made in Germany and 
Holland at the same period. Next to this pair are 
three varieties of the octagonal shape of trencher 
salt, which was so popular in the reigns of Queen 
Anne, George I and George II. Two of these 
porcel.iin salts [Plate II, J, k] are a pair, and 
their depressions are decorated in black and white 
with Neptune and Aurora. The first is painted 
with a shield of arms, not identified, and the second 
with the arms of Mackenzie. The style of the two 
shields helps to determine the date of these two 
salts, which mav be assigned to the second quarter 
of the eighteenth century. One of the other salts 
[Plate II, l] is painted in the depression with 
some arms, and the fourth, a smaller and shallower 
specimen [Pl.\TE II, m], bears the arms of France. 

Shaving dishes were occasionally made of silver 
in England in the reign of Charles II and William 
III, though possibly not more than one of this 
time is now in existence. This is in the Earl of 
Rosebery's collection, and is a plain basin resem- 
bling a Vosewater dish, with a curved section of 
sufficient size cut out to fit the neck of its former 
royal owner. King William HI. This interesting 
piece of old English plate bears the King's arms 
and cipher. The Chinese porcelain shaving dish, 
painted with the arms of Louvain, in the British 
Museum [Plate II, p] was perhaps copied in the 
eighteenth century from some such silver dish, as 
was the shaving dish of Lambeth delft-ware, in- 
scribed SIR YOUR QUARTER IS UP, which 
is also in the same Museum. These are quite 
different in style from the scarce French silver 
shaving dishes of the first half of the eighteenth 
century, one of which is in the present writer's 

Another illustration [Plate II, h] is one of 
several mugs of hlanc dc Chine in the British 
Museum. Here again it would be safe to predict 

2 Illustrated on page 568 of C. J. Jackson's Hisloiy of English 
Plate, 1911. 

that the shape and the reeded neck were derived 
from some such silver mug as the two late 
Charles II specimens of the year 1683-84,' given 
to Brasenose College, Oxford, by Orlando Gibbons 
— a shape which was also copied in old Fulham 
ware, an example by Timothy Dwight being in 
the British Museum. The English silversmith 
had in his turn derived his idea for the shape and 
the reeded neck of this type of silver mug from 
the large German stoneware jars of the sixteenth 
century, which were mounted in silver in large 
numbers by the Elizabethan goldsmiths. 

The small historic punch bowl [Plate II, n] 
is different from the earlier bowl described first in 
this article. Its shape conforms to that of many 
English punch bowls, both of silver and porcelain, 
of the eighteenth century. Printed on it are the 
portraits of John Wilkes, the celebrated politician, 
and of Lord Mansfield, his adviser. By an inter- 
esting coincidence, it closely resembles in shape 
the historic silver punch bowl,* now the property 
of Mrs. Marsden J. Perry. This was made by the 
celebrated New England silversmith and patriot, 
Paul Revere, of Boston, to the memory of the 
ninety-two members of the House of Representa- 
tives of Massachusetts who voted not to rescind 
their letter opposing the new scheme for taxing 
the American colonies. John Wilkes, as is well 
known, was a warm supporter of the colonists. 
Three mugs in the British Museum are the last of 
the objects of Chinese porcelain, derived from 
English sources, to be described and illustrated in 
this article. Mugs and tankards of the same shape 
as these were made by London silversmiths in 
great numbers in the second half of the eighteenth 
century. One of these porcelain mugs [Plate I, 
cj is painted with a portrait of the Duke of 
Cumberland, and was made in commemoration of 
his victory at the battle of Culloden, April 16, 1746. 
The second mug is connected, incidentally, with 
the same event, bearing as it does a portrait of 
Prince Charles Edward [Plate I, e], while the 
third mug is painted with Masonic emblems. 
The date is 1755 [Plate 1, d]. 

2 Illustrated on Plate LIX in H. C. Moffatt's Old Oxford Plate, 
* Illustrated on Plate X in American Silver, igo6. 


N Bulstrode Park, Buckinghamshire, is 
preserved an unknown portrait by Hans 
Holbein, the younger, representing a 
musician (size 17^ by 17I in.). It may 
be the picture named in the inventory 
of the collections of Alethea, Countess of Arundel, 
in 1654, called rif ratio d'un Mitsico.^ The man is 

1 Burlington Magazine, Vol. XIX, Xo. loi, p. 2S6. 

sitting behind a table, and holds in his right 
hand a roll of paper, in the left a guitar. 
Two books in red bindings with green ribbons are 
placed, one open, one closed, on the red table-cloth, 
and this group of colours forms the contrast to 
the green curtain of the background. The cap 
and the black coat with large facings and white 
shirt-ruffles hanging down are decorated with 


Tivo Unpublished Portraits by Hans Holbein 

golden buttags of a longish form, after the French 
fashion of the time. The blue eyes, looking with 
a sharp and cold glance, give the impression of a 
man of great reflection and prudence ; and the 
beautiful, carefully tended hands belong to a 
gentleman of the Court. Lord Vaux of Harrowden 
is the name attached to-day to the portrait, but its 
resemblance to the two drawings by Holbein in 
Windsor Castle representing Lord Vaux is not 
convincing. The chief difference between the two 
faces lies in the physiognomy and in the shape of 
the nose and the mouth. The lines are harder 
and less marked than in Lord Vaux's face ; the 
nose is more prominent with a longer bridge 
and the mouth is considerably bigger. But 
another personage, also painted by Holbein, 
seems to have a greater resemblance, both in 
general effect and in detail. It is Jean de Dinte- 
ville, seigneur of Polisy and governor of the 
youngest son of Francis I, one of the ambassadors 
in the picture of 1533. His guitar lies there under 
the table to show that he was a musician. The 
comparison with the drawing published by Miss 
Mary F. S. Hervey - shows a great resemblance, 
and shows, on scrutinizing the details, the uneven- 
ness of the nose, due to a more decided turning 
of the head to the right ; and the longer beard 
indicates that our portrait was made a couple of 
years after the Aiiibossaclors. To the ceremonial 
portrait, where Dinteville is represented as a 
knight of Saint Michel, Holbein added a second 
one, which shows the man in his hours of relaxa- 
tion as an artist. Round the neck he wears a small 
golden chain and a black silk ribbon, to which is 
attached an object of very singular form, executed 
in gold and embellished with precious stones. 
This cannot be a simple jewel, intended merely to 
hang on the gold chain, but it seems to be a kind 

of whistle used in place of a tuning-fork. The 
pommel at the end is the handle, and the other 
end, hidden by the paper-roll, forms the pipe, 
similar to the drawing above which is copied from 
a probably genuine sketch by Holbein in 1532. 

^liiirliiigton }Iagaiitie,\o\. V, No. i5, p. 412. 

The technical execution of the picture at 
Bulstrode Park confirms a later date of origin ; 
the blending of the colours and the brilliancy are 
in the well-preserved parts like the finest enamel. 
The right hand, which has a smooth appearance, 
is retouched ; but the extraordinary quality of 
Holbein's art in modelling the flesh without any 
contrast is to be found in the face and in the 
execution of the left hand. His attention 
was not limited to creating a portrait with the 
exactness of a looking-glass ; he tried to give 
the man in his intimacy by obtaining a 
spacious effect. He placed the figure between 
two objects and painted the shadows in their real 

The second portrait, which is in Lord Lecon- 
field's possession at Petworth, is well known in 
the books on Holbein, but has never as yet been 
published. It represents Derick Berck of Cologne, 
a merchant of the Steelyard, in the same posture 
of parade in which Holbein painted his country- 
men Cyriacus Fallen and Dirck Tybis of Duis- 
burg. The letter in his left hand bears his 
address : Deiii Ersaiite ii{n)il froineii Dcrich berk i. 
London tipt. Sialhoff, the trade mark of his house, 
and the motto : bcsad dz cud (" Consider the end "). 
The merchant's cloth and cap are black, but not 
dark ; the heavy silk reflects the light in a greenish 
colour finely observed. The background is blue, 
of the same blue as in the portrait of Richard 
Southwell at Florence executed in the same year. 
It is enriched by a green curtain with red strings, 
giving an opportunity to the artist — like the red 
cloth on the table — for introducing other tones into 
his composition, such as black, besides the main 
notes of blue and flesh colour. The brightest 
point in this profound harmony of colours, a part 
of the white shirt with black embroidery, is placed 
just under the face and makes the fresh and lively 
expression of it stronger. The light shines with a 
rare splendour over this man's healthy face and is 
reflected in the grey-blue eyes, which look so frank 
and kindly. The merchant knows that Holbein's 
brush will procure him immortality and his idea is 
written on the small piece of paper lying on the 
table, in the Latin sentence : OUin inciiiiiiisse 

The picture at Petworth (size: 21^ by 16J in.) 
is not in a good condition, but still it is one of the 
most impressive portraits of Holbein's master- 
hand. The same picture in the Alte Pinakothek 
at Munich is an unfinished copy which cannot be 
compared to the indubitably genuine work at 


















'■•^w,fr^; i. -'"- -hi I '''7' ~'^T "''*1 





M the collection of Mr. Henry Walters 

of Baltimore there is an altar-piece 

representing the Temptation of Adam 

^,^ [Plate] formerly in the Lelong Collec- 

►=^tion, Paris, which was sold in Decem- 

1902. It consists of many parts, which are 

now put together more intelligently than when they 
were in the possession of the former owner. One 
cannot help feeling, however, that the altar-piece 
as it stands is not as it was originally designed, 
and that it is the product of more than a single 
mind. The lateral frames have neither bases nor 
capitals, and the frame is not continued in the same 
style across the top ; there is a decorated siiiia, 
which implies a cornice and other members of a 
framework of architectural character. 

The frame and the predella may be closely 
related to known works of Giovanni della Robbia. 
The moulding at the base of the predella occurs, 
with the same rope-ornament above the leaf and 
dart, in Giovanni's altar-piece of 1520, now in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa. The pilasters, with thick 
bunches of fruit rising from dolphin-handled vases, 
are repeated in Giovanni's altar-piece of 1520 in the 
Seminario at Fiesole, and more attractively, in an 
eariier work, the Last Judgment altar-piece at S. 
Girolamo, Volterra. The network of cubes, against 
which the three medallions of the predella are set, 
occurs again in a predella by Giovanni in the 
Pulci Chapel in Santa Croce. The lateral frames 
of the central relief present an unusual scheme of 
decoration, but, in his altar-piece at Pisa, Giovanni 
della Robbia divides his pilasters into long rect- 
angles alternating with squares, and in his Taberna- 
colo delle Fonticini (1522), until recently in theVia 
Nazionale, Florence, he arranges bunches of fruit 
in rising and pendant bunches set dos-a-dos in the 
same panel. 

The central relief is certainly by another hand. 
Giovanni would have treated the theme more pic- 
torially, with a landscape background and with 
trees entirely lacking the crisp and plastic quality 
which we find here. The figures of Adam and 
Eve are here modelled by someone who was alive 
to the beauty of classic sculpture. Adam is like 
an Antinous, Eve like a Venus, and both are 
modelled and posed with more skill than Giovanni 
possessed. The difference between the Adam of 
this altar-piece and Giovanni's head of Adam in 
one of the medallions at the Certosa near Florence 
is very striking. The general composition seems 
to be Florentine and recalls Domenico di Miche- 
lino's representation of the Temptation in his 
Dante picture (1465) in the Cathedral of Florence, 
or Ghiberti's on the Gates of Paradise (1425-1452), 
but the forms are those of the fully expanded 
Renaissance. We are at a loss to name the sculptor 
with any sense of security. We might think of 
Benedetto Buglioni, who was associated with 

Giovanni and acquired considerable fame, or of 
Bandinelli, Baccio di Montelupo, Ammanati or 
Tribolo, but where in the works of any of these 
men is the parallel which could render such an 
attribution certain ? 

But though the authorship may be doubtful, 
the monument has a special interest in being a 
memorial of the famous entry of Leo X into 
Florence on November 30, 1515. This was the 
first time that a Medici entered the city as Pope, 
and great was the rejoicing of the people. 
Landucci, who was an eye-witness, states that the 
grandeur of Leo's reception was beyond description 
and that " no other city in the world would, or 
could, have done the like." 

In a recent volume on " The Medici," Col. G. F. 
Young gives a brief summary (Vol. I, pp. 406-407). 
He says : — 

The city was decorated in all directions witti triumptial 
arclies, imit.ations of buildings of the classic age, statues and 
allegorical devices. In the Piazia della Signoria an octagonal 
temple was erected by Sangallo ; over the unfinished facade of 
the Duomo the design for it made by Lorenzo the Magnificent 
himself was executed in wood by Sansovino and painted b> 
Andrea del Sarto ; a colossal Hercules for the Loggia de' Lanzi 
was sculptured by Baccio Bandinelli ; various triumphal arches 
were erected by Montelupo, Rosso, and Granacci — one between 
the Badia and the Bargello, and another near the monastery of 
San Marco, being specially line — and the city gave itself up to 
welcoming with numerous festivities the first Florentine who 
had ever sat on the Papal throne. 

Excellent accounts of this festival are also given 
by Vaughan, "The Medici Popes," pp. 143-147, 
and by Roscoe, " Life of Leo the Tenth," II, pp. 
32-37. Many of the works of art made for this 
occasion were ephemeral. More permanent me- 
morials are found in Vasari's series of frescoes in 
the Palazzo Vecchio, and in this altar-piece, as we 
learn from the inscription on the predella. The 
inscription is very carelessly written. The writer 
seemed to feel the importance of his rhyme : — 
which he inscribes in large letters. It is probable 
that after he had composed this couplet he was 
ordered to add a record of Leo's entry into Flo- 
rence, which he compresses as much as possible : — 
FLOTIA • XXX' • D p 
(i.e. Leo decimus Pontifex Maximus ingressus est 
Florentiam trigesima die. D.p.) 

In the transcription of the couplet the writer has 
omitted the m in daninavit ; then indicated the 
omission wrongly by a ligature connecting the 
letters n and a, and finally has inserted a letter m 
transforming secnla into sccmitla. There is some 
uncertainty as to the exact meaning of the record 
concerning Leo. It is well known that he entered 
Florence on S. Andrew's Day, 30th November, 15 15 
(Vaughan, "Medici Popes", p. 144). The little 
letter a above the XXX makes of that symbol 


A Memorial of the Entry of Leo X into Florence 

trigcsima, the word die being understood. Our 
chief difficulty is in the interpretation of the large 
letter D with the small /> inside it. Can this lie 
intended to stand for D(ccimo) P(rimo Mcnse) ? 
— an unusual form of expressing the eleventh 
month ; or for D(onum) P(osuit) ; or D(edicavit et) 
P(osuit) ? — in which case the construction of the 
sentence is rendered difficult. May it be intended 
to record the name of the Prior, as D(omenico) 
P(riore), or D(onato) P(riore) ?— sincea Domenico 
Alamanni and a Donato Cocchi each held the 
office of Prior in the year 1515. This mode of 
indicating a date is found in a Robbia monument 
in the Museum of the CoUegiata at Empoli, the 
name of the Prior being, however, written in full. 
The coats of arms also bear testimony as to the 
donors of the monument, if we can interpret them 
correctly. The central arms, with the Papal tiara, 
the keys of S. Peter, and the one blue and five 
red Medici balls, are those of Leo himself. The 
arms to the right show a combination of Leo's 
initials with a blue Medici ball set above the Sal- 
viati arms. It may be recalled that Lucrezia de' 

Medici, sister to the Pope, had married Jacopo 
Salviati, and that her son, Giovanni Salviati, had 
been made a cardinal early in Leo's reign (Young, 
"The Medici", I, p. 406). The arms to the left, 
a red cross on six mounts against a blue ground, 
are those of the Buondelmonti family, to which 
family belonged Filippo di Rosso di Messer 
Andrea Buondelmonti, who occupied the office of 
Prior in Florence in 1500, 1323 and 1527. All 
three families, the Medici, the Salviati and the 
Buondelmonti, were in other instances patrons of 
the della Robbias. It is interesting in this con- 
nection to notice that once again the Buondelmonti 
and Salviati arms are found together on a Robbia 
monument — an altar-piece liy Giovanni della 
Robbia in the Oratorio della Madonna at San 
Giovanni in Valdarno ; also that the Pieve of this 
town was one of the personal benefits of Leo X. 

Where Mr. Walters's altar-piece was originally 
located is no longer known, but it remains as an 
interesting record of Leo's triumphal entry into 
Florence and appears to have been dedicated by 
his relatives and friends. 



large number 


HAVE searched a 
lists of seventeenth-century names, 
church registers, calendars of state- 
papers, heralds' visitations, wills, and 
inde.xes of various kinds, in the hope 
of coming upon some trace of the man Gilbert 
Jackson, apart from the portraits which can be 
certainly attributed to him. But though the 
conjunction of the two names has sometimes 
caught my eye and raised my expectations — 
notably in the case of Gilbert Jackson of 
Cuerden in Lancashire and his kindred, among 
whom the name was common — further investiga- 
tion has always failed to bring to light any clue 
by which it would be possible to identify the 
painter. Nevertheless a list of his portraits so far 
as they have been recognized may be useful, and 
may, by attracting attention, lead to further in- 

Gilbert Jackson's name, usually in the abbrev- 
iated form of Gil. Jack., has occasionally been 
noticed on seventeenth-century canvases. But no 
importance was attached to it till 1905, when 
Mr. C. V. Bell, the honorary secretary of the 
Oxford Exhibition of Historical Portraits in 
that year, drew attention to a group of portraits 
belonging to different colleges in the University, 
which he recognized as the work of the same 
hand. All but one were dated, and Mr. Bell 
suggested their common authorship by repro- 
ducing in juxtaposition the very characteristic 
inscriptions of dates and ages [blGfKEs]. 


Subsequently, in the course of 1907, the most 
interesting of these portraits, the half-length of 
Robert Burton [Plate I, c], the writer of the 
"Anatomy of Melancholy", was copied at the 
National Portrait Gallery by Mr. Fullwood, who 
found upon it in the heavy dark varnish the name 
Gil. Jack. This, so to speak, signed the whole set. 
They are all thoroughly academic figures, clothed in 
their habits and hoods, three of them with their 
hands resting on a fringed cushion, supposed to be 
the pulpit cushion in S. Mary's Church, where each 
would have to preach in his appointed turn. The 
portrait of Burton is certainly the best, for the face 
is full of humorous expression, the eyes are more 
alive, and the head and hands less rigid than 
in Jackson's other works. The identity has 
been questioned on the ground that Burton's age 
in 1635 should be 58, not 62 ; but the resemblance 
to the head of the author on the title-page of the 
third edition of the "Anatomy," engraved by Le 
Blon and printed in Oxford in 1628, is too strong 
to admit of real doubt. Jackson was at work in 
Oxford in 1623 when he painted Dr. RadclifTe, 
Principal of Brasenose, and again, apparently for 
some years, from 1635;. His portrait of Sir John 
Bankes, now in the National Portrait Gallery, may 
very well also have been produced there, since the 
Judge was in attendance upon King Charles in 164I 
and he died in the City in 1644 [Plate I, b]. 

If, on the pictures so far identified, we may say that 
Jackson's head of Burton is his best achievement 
m the realization of personality and the rendering 




(O) ]J|(. JOHN TOLbO.N. OKItL CoLLLbl-, OXtdKU 




'illN \MI.I.1\M>, 11I--HC11' (II- l,lNl.lll,\. S. Jl,l|lN'^ CULl.tUI'., CAMBMDGE 


Gilbert jFacksof?^ Portrait-painter 

of expression, his most ambitious and certainly 
most successful effort is the whole-length portrait 
of Lord Keeper Williams as Bishop of Lincoln, at 
S. John's College, Cambridge, now published for 
the first time' [Plate II]. Here, though the 
composition as a whole is reminiscent of similar 
works, such as the portrait of Sir Francis Bacon 
by Van Somer in the National Portrait Gallery, 
and the figure is somewhat stiff and formal, it 
has dignity and presence ; the picture fulfils its 
aim as a state presentment of the second founder 
of a great institution, and the accessories are 
worked out with elaborate care and enjoyment. 
It is dated 1625 and signed, and as it is the only 
portrait of the Bishop in the College, the following 
note, copied from the College account books under 
the year 1627, by Sir George Scharf, must refer 
to it :— 

Paid to Mr. Gilbert Jackson for the Bishop of Lincoln's 
picture for the Library, lo/, and to Hobscn and the 
porter js./4d.' 

The payment to Hobson, probably the famous 
carrier who plied between Cambridge and London, 
indicates that the portrait was painted in London, 
as indeed is likely on other grounds. 



Figure 3 

^JiL^ta tUjiice . ^ t ♦ 

^/{nc^iJoz t6\ 



Figure i 

Figure 2 

> By the kind permission of the Council of the College. 

2 Sir G. Scharf, Xotc-books iii., p. 6i, preserved in the Library 
of the National Portrait Gallery. Communicated to me by the 
kindness of Mr. Lionel Cust. 


I SERIES of entries in the Calendar 
of Treasury Books 1667- 1674 gives us 


The following is a list of Gilbert Jackson's 
portraits so far noted and certified. Many more 
must be waiting recognition, and should be 
sought, it would seem, especially on the walls of 
college and corporation halls and libraries : — 

1. Unknown man in a black dress and lace collar, on panel, 

dated 1622, and signed in full: Gilbert Jackson fecit* 
[Figure :]. Sold at Christie's i June, 1900, No. 71 ; 
passed to a dealer and lost sight of. 

2. Dr. Samuel Radcliffe, on panel, dated 1623,* at Brasenose 

College [Figure 3]. 

3. The same, undated, canva?, at Brasenose College 

[Plate I, a], 

4. Archbishop John Williams, canvas, signed Gilbet: 

Jacksv fc, dated 1625, at S. John's College, Cambridge 
[Plate II]. 

5. Dr. William Smith, canvas, dated 1635 [Figure 4], at 

Wadham College, Oxford. 

6. Robert Burton, canvas, signed Gil. Jack., dated 1635, at 

Brasenose College, Oxford [Plate I, c]. 

7. Dr. John Tolson, canvas, dated 1637 [FIGURE 2], at Oriel 

College, Oxford [Plate I, d]. 

8. Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset and Pembroke, 

canvas, signed Gil. Jack., dated 1637, at Woburn 

9. John, Baron Mordaunt, a copy on canvas (for which 
/3 5s. was paid in 1638), from a panel picture, both at 
Brasenose College, Oxford.' 

10. Joyce Frankland, c. 1638, a copy on canvas from a 
panel ; both at Brasenose College. 

11. Sir John Bankes, canvas, c. 1642, in the National Por- 
trait Gallery, to which institution it was presented by 
a descendant of the subject, the tradition of the 
painter's name being attached to it [Plate I, bJ. 

' Copied for me by Mr. J. D. Milner from a drawing made by 
him at Christie's in 1900. 

* The inscriptions of dates and ages on this, as on Nos. 5, 6, 7, 
were copied by Mr. C. F. Bell, reproduced by him for private 
circulation in 1905, and are now published by his permission. 
The portraits were included in the illustrated catalogue of the 
Oxford Exhibition of Historical Portraits, 1905. 

'Catalogue of the Woburn Abbey Collection, by Sir G. Scharf. 

'Brasenose College Monographs, vii, p. 13. 

[ some interesting information on Lely's 
' worldly position, and on the long- 

^drawn-out difficulty he was involved 

in over the payment of moneys owing to him. It 
further supplies evidence as to the indiscriminate 

readiness in borrowing money Charles II indulged. 
As prologue to the transactions and complications 
this series reveals we ought, perhaps, to recall that 
even before Van Dyck's death Lely was well patron- 
ized by the Royalist Court. Then we must note that 
on the triumph of the Parliament he adroitly, and 
after all quite legitimately, trimmed his sails. 


Lely*s Financial Relations with Qharles II 

Among the Stowe MS. {211, fol. 3) is an ambitious 
scheme concocted by Sir Balthazar Gerbier, 
Peter Lilly and George Geldorp, humbly pro- 
posing to Parliament that a series of oil paintings 
should be made to celebrate all the memorable 
achievements since the Parliament's first sitting. 
"It would bee very fit," the proposal says, "to 
have all the most remark-ablest Battails and most 
considerablest sieges of towns in England, Ireland 
and Scotland to bee painted, and to be set the 
same with the portraitures " of prominent generals 
and commanders. The Great Room, and the 
galleries at Whitehall were thus to be decorated, 
and in the Great Room they suggested a repre- 
sentation of the whole assembly of Parliament in 
one large piece should be placed, "at the upper 
end of the Great Room, formerly the banquetting 
house." Yet another great piece, "portraitures of 
the several members of Council of State", was 
included in this proposal. All was to be done by 
choice artists e.xpert in representing Personages, 
Battles and Landscapes ; the sitters were to bear 
the charges. 

This paper is endorsed in a later hand to the 
effect that Lely's connection with such a scheme 
was scandalous. It is possible that he, reflecting 
on it when Charles II came back, concluded that 
some special evidence of his loyalty might be 
tactful. The form this manifestation took was 
perhaps the origin of the lengthy complications with 
which I am now dealing. In the Domestic State 
Papers Car. II, 30 Oct., 1661, we find 

The grant to Lely of a pension of ;f2oo per an. "as formerly 
to Van Dyck ". 

On 22 Feb., 1662, in the same Papers is 

A Warrant to pay Lely his annuity of ^200. 

16 May, 1662, in the Calendar of Treasury 

Books, this recurs, in a different form. 

Money Warrant, dormant for £200 per an. to Peter Lely as 
pension during pleasure (Early Entry Book III, p. 299). 

This grant of a pension with the innocent refer- 
ence to Van Dyck looks quite simple, until six 
years later among the Calendar of Treasury Books 
1 667- 1 674 (four volumes) we gain an insight into 
its origin, and the tortuous development of Lely's 
financial relations with the Government. 

The following entries are in the Calendar of 
Treasury Books, Vols. II to IV, at the Record 
Office. I have endeavoured to arrange them 

10 Feb., I'' 67-8. Mr. Bridgeman to attend to-morrow to put 
in the £i,<xta which Mr. Lilly is minded to lend into the 
Exchequer on S' Ste. Fox's /6S,ooo. (Treas. Minute 
Book, II, pp. 5456.) 

17 Feb., 1667-8. Warrant to the Receipt to use £2,000 lent 
by Mr. Backwell & £yiO lent by Peter Lely in paying the 
gratuity of 4 per cent, [to procurers of loan]. (Treas. 
Outletters Miscellan., I, p. 51.) 

Note. — We learn later that Lely had lent this 
;^500, apparently instead of ;fi,ooo, on 14th 

19 Feb., 1667-8. Treasury Warrant to S' Sle. Fcx to assign 
;f2,ooo to Alderman Backwell & ;f5oo to Mr. Lely (the 
latter cancelled by Warrant of 1668, July 6). (Treas. 
Miscell. Warrtf., E.irly XVII, p. 227.) 

16 March, 1667-8. Mr. Bridgeman called in : Resolved that 
Mr. Lely lending /500 into the E.xchequer shall be repaid 
on Sr Ste. Fox's /68,ooo. (Treas. Minutes Book, 11, 

rp- 103-5) 

27 April, 1668. Warrant to S' Ste. Fox, to assign orders for 

^500 to Peter Lely in rtpayment of loan. (Treas. 
Miscellan. W arrts.. Early XVIII, p. 14.) 

1 July, 1668. Warrant for Mr. Lely's {.yio loan money to 
be on the imported liquors with interest, & the former 
warrant on Sr Ste. Fox to be cancelled. (Treas. Minutes 
Pk. II, rr- 233-5-) 

6 July, 1668. Monty Warrant for /500 to Peter I-ely to 
replace an assignation cf March 27th (? April) last for that 
sum. (Treas. Miscell. Warrts., Early XXXIV, p. 4.) 

6 July, 1668. Write S' R. Long to know if Mr. Lely the 
painter have not a pension in the Exchequer. (Treas. 
Min., Bk. II, pp. 239-41.) 

8 July, 1668. Older charged upon the Farmers of imported 
liquors for /500 to Peter Lely in repayment of loan with 
interest. (Treas. Order Book, XXXVI.p. 153,) 

14 July, 1668. Sir R. Long is to return a certificate of 
Mr. Lely's pension & to report why it is not inserted 
among the other pensions. Mr. Lely to have ;<ri.20o on 
the Chimneys being due to him for Pictures. See his 
privy seal & the papers to warrant it. (Treas. Min. 
Book II, pp. 251-4.) 

At this point interest seems to have been 
aroused, and the large sum of ;^i,200, obviously 
claimed by Lely as due to him for pictures, clearly 
demanded scrutiny. So we next find this entry 
and its revelation of the origin of the pension 
granted in 1661 "as formerly to Van Dyck". 

29 July, 1668. Mr. Lilly's papers as to his debt to be looked 
over by S' G. Downing, to see how it ariseth to ;f 1,200, 
Mr. Lilly called in : sayi he quitted his debt for his pension 
of £200 fer an. Sir G. Downing to search for the 
foundation of the debt. Warrant for ;£2oo of his pension 
on the Chimney money. (Treas. Min. Book II, pp. 272-4.) 

Fuller elucidation of this large debt came in 
two days' time. 
31 July, 1668. Money Warrant for /400 to Peter Lely on his 
pension of ^fioo per an. from 1661, June 24th [Note. — 
The actual grant was on 30 Oct., 1661], on which nothing 
has yet been f aid ; the said pension having been founded 
upon the said Lely's quitting a considerable debt due to 
him from the King, (Treas. Miscell. Warrts., Early XX, 
P- 143) 

This considerable debt can hardly have arisen 
from the King's backwardness in paying for 
pictures, as is suggested in the entry for 14th July. 
It is difficult to believe that by 1661 Lely 
could have painted enough portraits for Charles II 
to represent the value of a compensating pension 
of ;^2oo per annum. More probably Lely had 
lent money to Charles, with a view to covering 
his former zeal for the Parliament. That he 
was able to advance considerable sums is clear 
from his intention of lending ;^i,ooo to the 
Exchequer in 1668, at which date we learn he had 
received nothing from his pension. That year 
is closed with : 

28 Dec, 1668. Signature of Treasury Orders for ^400 to 

Peter Ltly, E-iq. (Treas. Order Book, XXXVI, 

pp. 25-30.) 
Early in the next we find references to his loan of 
;^5oo to the Exchequer, which of course was a 


Lelfs Financial Relations with Qharles II 

distinct business from the question of his unpaid 

IS Feb., 1668-9. Treasury Order for ^'30 to Peter Lely, Esq., 
lor interest on his /500 loan. (Order Book XXXVl, 
p. 66.) 
9 June, 1669. Warrant for Peter Lely's interest money on 
his ;^500 loan. (Treas. Min. Book III, pP- 1 12-3) 
But he was not lucky in this respect either, for 
we have 
30 June, 1669. Warrant for the interest to Peter Lely 
on the sum of ^'500 lent into the Receipt by Tally dated 
1667-9, '■'eb. 14 ; he not having yet received interest 
thereon by reason that the general privy seal of 1668 
April 30th for payment of interest to such lenders bears 
a later date than the said tally. (Warris. Early XV, 
p. 313.) 
9 July, 1669. Money Warrant, Dormant, for the interest to 
Peter Lely on his £~,°'^ loan with the Receipt. (Warrts. 
Early XVIII, pp. 201-2.) 
19 July, 1669. Treasury Order for £yj . i . 4 to Peter Lely 
as interest for ;^50o lent. (Order Book XXXVI, p. 31.) 
(Note— The Earl of Sandwich has a similar 
order in this entry.) 

II Aug., 1669. Sign Manual for £1 • 13 • 4 to Peter Lely 
for interest to 1668, Ap. 30th. on his loan of ^500 paid 
into E.KChequer 1667-8, Feb. 14th (" which said interest 
money he could not yet receive by reason that the 
g.-neral letters of privy seal for payment of such interest 
bears a later date, viz., April 30th, than that of the tally 
of Joan, viz. Feb. 14th'!. [Money Warrt. dated 13th 
August.] (Warrts. Early XV, p. 344, XVIII, 241.) 

(Note — There is an entry of Warrant for the 
King's hand to place Mr. Lilly on the dormant 
pri\'y seal for his ;^500 loan interest in connection 
with this post dated priw seal, under 28th June, 

Omitting certain unimportant entries such as 
4th May, 1670, Downing's Memoranda—" Mr. 
Lilly to be remembered when Sir Edward Griffin 
is ne.xt voted Money", all touching this ;^500 
loan, we reach 
5 Jan., 1670-1. Query Mr. Lilly. Warrant for arrears of his 
pension of /'200 per an. on the fee farms. Query the 
certificate tirst [later]. Due from Midsummer, 1663. 
(Treas. Min. Books, DCXXIV, p. 109.) 
31 Jan., 1670-1. Money Warrant for ;£i,500 to Peter Lilly for 
7J years' arrears to Christmas last on his pension of ;f2oo 
per an. (Treasury Order hereon dated February 28th). 
(Warrants, Early XXVII, p. 69. Order Book, XXXVII, 
pp. 202-3,) 
28 Sept., 167 1. Money Warrant dormant for pension of 
£200 per an. to Peter Lely gent, on which there is 
grown due ;f 150 for 3 quarters to September 29 last. 
(Warrants, Early XXII, p. 18.) 
7 June, 1672. Monev Warrant for fioio to Peter Lely for 
half a year's payment of his pension ; granted by Privy 
Seal, ib6i-2. 
14 (or 9) Dec. Sir Robert Howard to the Trustees for the 
Sale of Fee F.arm3. To admit Mr. Peter Lely to contract 
for so many fee farms as may amount to about ;£ri,ooo in 
principal money " e.xcepting such rents as Mr. Lyndsay 
hath already pitched upon " : taken in payment for same 
half the money & half the orders which [latter] he Lely 
has [in his hands]. (Warrts. not relating to Money, 
King's Warrants Book III, p. 189.) 

This seems to be a distinct transaction uncon- 
nected with his loan or pension, and rather 
indicating his speculative enterprise. 

On 17th June, 1673, we find Treasurer Clifford's 
Warrant for ;^3oo to Peter Lely for one and a half 
years on his pension to Christmas last to be paid 
out of the Customs (Warrts. Early XIX, p. 398). 
It was under 

18 June, 1673. Letter of direction on the £y^<i assigned to 
Peter Lely in part of an order of 1670, July loth for 
;£io,ooo to Baptist May Keeper of the Privy Purse : said 
;^5oo having been assigned to said Peter Lely [by said 
May] 1671-2 March 7th, same having been registered 
on the fee farms is hereby to be paid out of such monies 
as shall be paid into the Exchequer by the Cashier of the 
Customs. (Warrts. Early XIX, p. 406.) 

On 15th December, 1673, some sort of settle- 
ment of these curiously involved accounts seems 
to have come to Lely, though, as far as one can 
judge a warrant for payment did not necessarily 
amount to actual payment. On this date we 
have — 
Treasurer Latimer to the Customs Cashier, forwarding a list 
of the tallies drawn on the Customs, to be paid in the 
order set down " to the end the persons concerned may 
see and be satisfied in what course their moneys ars to 
be paid ''. 

After such names as. 

The Ordnance for Plymouth ;^S,ooo, Impost to Foreign 
Ministers ;£8oo. The Qiieen £10,753, The Navy £1000, 
The Duke of Buckingham £3003, Sir Robert Vyner 

we find, twenty-first on the list, 

Lely ;^8oo. 

The last entry at present published in the 
Record Office shews : 

23 Sept., 1674. Money Warrant for £iao to Peter Lely for 
one year on his pension. (B.M. Add. MSS. 28,076, p. 331.) 

With an extract from the Lord Chamberlain's 
Accounts I must close this series of references to 
Lely's remarkable entanglement in financial shifts 
and expedients. This concluding item is a 
direction from the King to the Jewel-house com- 
manding "you forthwith prepare and deliver to 
Mr. Peter Lilly, picture drawer to his Mat" for the 
years 1660, 1661, 1662 and 1663, for such years the 
quantity of 20 ounces of guilt plate for his New 
Yeare's guifts, the same allowance being to 
Lawrence Milliard formerly in that place. Mr. 
Lilly having presented his Mat« with considerable 
New Year's gifts". Dated 25th of February, 1663. 

One William Tiery, Beaver maker, came in for a 
similar presentation, for similar considerations, and 
John Lilly the King's musician seems to have been 
involved with Peter Lely in advances to the 




To the Editors of The BURLINGTON MAGAZINE. 
Gentlemen, — Allow me to make a few remarks 
on the excellent article " Some Fifteenth-century 
Spanish Carpets ", published in the September 
number of your Magazine (Vol. XIX, pp. 244-250). 
Mr. A. Van de Put has there collected valuable 
documentary material concerning that interesting 
group of Spanish armorial carpets, and by inter- 
preting the heraldry of certain pieces has dated 
them more precisely. Since Mr. Van de Put, at 
the beginning of his essay, expresses his surprise 
that in describing the carpets of the Munich 
Exhibition of iqio I assigned the armorial carpet 
illustrated in The BurUnglon Magazine (XVIII, 
p. 103, November, 1910), and now in Mr. Harris's 
possession, to the end of the sixteenth century, and 
saw in it Ind-American influence, I must make the 
following reply. 

1. Several years ago, in an essay "Mittelalterliche 
Kniipfteppiche kleinasiatischer und spanischer 
Herkunft " (" Kunst und Kunsthandwerk " 1907, 
hft 10), I pointed out, so far as I know, for the first 
time, the importance of the Spanish armorial 
carpets, referred their development to the basis 
of an earlier type of which we have a fourteenth- 
century example in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, 
illustrated m The Burlington Magazine (XVI 1 1, p. 
106), and assigned them to the fifteenth century. 
In the same essay I stated that certain carpets of 
this sort must have originated as late as the six- 
teenth century, when a new species of Spanish 
carpets appeared, which are characterized by 
their Renaissance motives. In accordance with 
this view, in the official catalogue of the Munich 
Exhibition, I dated both of Mr. Harris's Spanish 
carpets (Nos. 187 and 188), "fifteenth-sixteenth 
century " ; that is to say, between 1450 and 1550. 
From this dating, which is retained in the new edition 
of the catalogue also, it follows that the date in the 
Vienna publication isamistake. I speakexplicitlyin 
the text (page 485) of the origin of these carpets in 
the fifteenth-sixteenth century, and say on page 486 
that one of them, the later, was made, at the earliest, 
at the end of the sixteenth century. Naturally, this 
should read "the end of the fifteenth century". 
This mistake has also crept into the title of the illus- 
tration. I wonder that it did not occur to Mr. Van de 
Put that the oversight of the misdating in the text 
already mentioned directly contradicted the state- 
ment of the official catalogue, and also ray longer 
essay on Spanish carpets. 

2. I wrote "In den Tierbildern und Figuren . . . 
mochte man fast an indianische aus Amerika nach 
Spanien importierte Einflusse denken " ("In the 
animal and human forms there is a suggestion of 
influences imported into Spain from America"). 
According to German usage, this is equivalent to 
saying " It looks almost as if influence of that kind 
were visible, but this is merely an hypothesis". 


Conversely, I insisted in this publication, as I did 
before, that these figure-representations find their 
counterparts in other contemporary Spanish art. 
To this I added, in my essay of 1907, several 
examples, and immediately continued " Character- 
istisch fiir diese Teppiche sind Kriinze, Sterne und 
die figiirlichen, mil der gleichzeitigen keramischcn 
Dekoration sicli hcriihrenden Darstelliingen, die 
wir im Innenfelde und in der Borte finden " 
(" The garlands, stars and figure-representations 
akin to contemporary ceramic art, which we find 
both in the fields and the borders, are characteristic 
of these carpets "). 

In begging you to be kind enough to make 
this correction of an oversight and of a misunder- 
standing of a German phrase, I should like in 
conclusion to express once more my pleasure in 
Mr. Van de Put's distinguished article, which 
does much to advance our knowledge of Spanish 
carpets. Yours faithfully, 

F. Sarre. 


Gentlemen, — After reading the review in your 
September number (Vol. XIX, page 361) of 
Mr. Meyer See's book on "English Pastels", I 
looked at his reproductions of the pastel by 
Richard Cosway and of that by Peters, and I 
recognized that they suggested a resemblance. But 
nothing is more misleading than a three-colour 
reproduction, and if your reviewer saw the two 
pastels he would admit that they could not possibly 
be by the same artist : they differ very much both 
in technique and colour. 

I have not seen any other pastel by Richard 
Cosway, but there is no reason to suppose that he 
never painted one ; most of the miniaturists painted 
pastels now and then. I did not know that 
Engleheart did, until I discovered a signed pastel 
by him last year ; and since then I have seen an 
unsigned one which also is certainly his. The 
pastel in question has strong affinities with Cos- 
way's painting, and family tradition gives it to him. 
The other artist whose work most nearly resembles 
it is Maria Co-;way, but her pastels are so much 
inferior to this one that it cannot be attributed to 
her, though the resemblance of it to her work is 
natural enough. 

Mr. S^e's book was not a " companion " to the 
Exhibition. It was published on the occasion of 
the Exhibition last April ; but it was in print long 
before the Exhibition opened, and even came out 
before the opening. There were 166 exhibits, of 
which Mr. See reproduces 55 — just one-third. 
Some of the most interesting pastels exhibited were 
obtained by Mr. S6e after the book was in print — 
so that the reproductions give no idea of the 
Exhibition itself. Yours faithfully, 

Paris, 10 September. Robert Dell. 


Altchristlicher u.\d Mittelalterliche 
byzantin'ische und italienische bildwerke, 

bearbeitet von Oskar WfLFF. Teil II. KonigUche Museen 
zu Berlin. Berlin : Georg Reimer. 

The first part of this catalogue, also by Dr. Wulff, 
has already been noticed in The Burlington 
Magazine (Vol. XVil, pages 235, 236). The 
present volume has six sections concerned with : 
(i) Late Byzantine and early Italian sculpture in 
stone; (II) Italian and Spanish sculpture in wood; 
(III) diminutive sculpture in steatite and other 
materials of Byzantine origin, or executed under 
Byzantine influence ; (IV) small objects of metal, 
Byzantine and Italian ; (V) Byzantine mosaic 
and fresco ; and (VI) Byzantine ceramic of about 
the thirteenth centun,-. The first division of the 
first section includes a few of the rare examples of 
larger Byzantine figure-sculpture produced be- 
tween the eleventh and thirteenth centuries ; 
one, a Virgin as orans, recalls a similar subject in 
S. Marco at Venice, another represents an arch- 
angel in imperial raiment with orb and sceptre : 
the remaining sculpture consists of closure-slabs 
with conventional designs, and a few late capitals. 
The second division comprises early Italian reliefs 
and capitals of the period bet\veen the eighth and 
tenth centuries, many of the designs showing the 
clear influence of oriental models. The same 
influences are apparent in the interesting third 
division, which is concerned with Venetian sculp- 
ture in stone from the eleventh to the thirteenth 
century, the ornamental features including 
zoomorphic designs in a Byzantine style and 
in low relief. Towards the close of the period 
the relief becomes appreciably higher, and through 
the sculpture decorating the architecture of the 
twelfth century and the first half of the thirteenth 
(division 4), we approach Italian Gothic sculpture 
dating from about A.D. 1250 to the beginning of 
the Quattrocento (division 5). The work of this 
period represented in the Museum includes reliefs 
and statuettes by the Pisani and their followers, 
and by masters of South Italian schools. 

At the head of Section II stands the charming 
Virgin with the Child from Borgo S. Sepolcro, 
signed by Martin the presbyter in the year 1199, a 
work discussed by Dr. Bode as long ago as 1888. 
A standing Madonna, remarkable for a certain 
simple dignity, is ascribed to a Florentine artist of 
the Trecento ; while a rather later Annunciation 
Group suggests the hand of a Pisan working on 
the eve of the following century. Of three Cruci- 
fixes, two are in the style of the Pisani, a third 
shows the characteristics of Venetian art about 
A.D. 1400. The second division of this section is 
formed by a single object, a strange crucifix con- 
jecturally assigned to Spain ; the third contains 
examples of the well-known box-wood crosses 
assigned to Russia or Mount Athos, and dating for 
the most part from the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Section III, Byzantine and allied 

Kleinplastik, includes good examples of the small 
steatite reliefs which bear so close a relationship 
to the ivory carvings of the best period, one, with 
the Twelve Feasts, recalling examples at Vatopedi 
on Mount Athos, and in the Cathedral of Toledo; 
other objects of note are a sardonyx cameo 
representing the Virgin (ninth — tenth century) ; 
and a series of the familiar oval " cameos " of about 
the twelfth century moulded in glass of opaque red 
or other dull colours. Dr. Wulff suggests that, as 
a group, these cameo pastes should be assigned to 
Venice, a theory which explains perhaps better 
than any other, the mixture of Byzantine and 
Latin elements by which their iconography is 
distinguished. Section IV comprises objects in 
lead (plaques encolpia, and pilgrim's signs) of 
Byzantine and Italian origin ; plaques, crosses, etc., 
of bronze (one, a plaquette reproducing a panel 
from the carved ivory paliotto of Salerno) ; and 
Byzantine church utensils in bronze and lead. 
The small Fifth Section contains two examples of 
the rare Byzantine miniature — mosaic ikons, one 
a fine half-figure of Our Lord, probably of the 
twelfth century, the other a Cruciti.xion, the style 
of which suggests affinities with the monumental 
mosaic in Kahrie Jami at Constantinople. Several 
heads in fresco from the excavations at Pergamon 
appear to be of the twelfth century. The con- 
cluding Section (VI), which is concerned with 
ceramics, is of much interest, though the majority 
of the objects illustrated are fragmentary. Byzan- 
tine ceramic art, as is well known, is not dis- 
tinguished by the same variety and excellence as 
that of the Mohammedan civilisation ; its ambition 
does not seem to have risen above the production 
of lead-glazed ware with subjects either moulded 
in relief or incised in a white slip under the glaze. 
Much of the work is vigorous and decorative, but 
neither in colour nor execution can it be com- 
pared with that of the contemporary Persian 
potters. Examples of this Byzantine pottery have 
been found on various sites, notably in the south 
of Russia ; the simplicity of the methods renders 
manufacture in different localities quite possible, 
but Constantinople itself may have been the 
principal centre of production, many fragments 
(some now in the Victoria and Albert Museum) 
having been discovered some years ago during the 
excavations on the site of the new Post Office. 
They have been finely illustrated by Mr. Henry 
Wallis in his book on Byzantine ceramic art. Two 
supplements include numerous additional e.xamples 
of decorative and other sculpture, a wooden icono- 
stasis of the sixteenth or seventeenth century from 
Smyrna, and the apse-mosaic from S. Michele in 
Affricisco, at Ravenna (sixth century), acquired as 
long ago as 1843 by Friedrich Wilhelm IV, and at 
last, after many adventures, including a bombard- 
ment, re-erected upon the banks of the Spree. 

Like its predecessor, this volume is well indexed 
and richly illustrated ; throughout it bears evidence 


Reviews and Notices 

of an encyclopaedic knowledge equally free from 
diffuseness and ostentation. To say so much is 
to ascribe to it the highest qualities which such a 
catalogue should possess. In concluding this 
notice, the writer may, perhaps, be permitted once 
more to sow the wind by drawing attention to the 
neglect by our own country of Christian anti- 
quities in Egypt and the Nearer East. Our 
Museums have no accredited representatives on 
the spot to rival in enterprise those of other 
countries ; and so long as the present lack of 
organized effort continues, our inferiority can 
only be accentuated with the lapse of time. 

O. M. D. 

GlOVAXNI DA ORIOLO, rittore faentino del Quattrocento. 

By Gaetano Ballardini. Firenze: Gonnelli. 
SiGNOR Ballardini has achieved a satisfactory 
piece of work in this little volume. The interesting 
portrait of Leonello d'Este in the National Gallery 
is the only painting that can be attributed to 
Giovanni da Oriolo ; for he is quite distinct from 
the Giovanni da Riolo (a different place from 
Oriolo) who signed the polyptych of Imoia dated 
14-53. The author gives records of Giovanni, who 
belonged to the family of the Savoretti of Faenza, 
dating from 1443 to 1474; he died between 23 
January, 1473, and 24 September, 1474. He 
publishes the important document recording 
the payment of the artist for the portrait of 
Leonello on 21 June, 1447. In 1449 he 
painted portraits of two little daughters of the 
house of Manfredi at Faenza ; these seem to be 
lost. In the course ot his researches the author 
has swept away certain traditional errors: for 
instance, the set of majolica plates in the Museo 
Correr, which were supposed to bear the artist's 
initials, cannot possibly be connected with him. 
The documentary part of the book is of great 
ser\-ice ; but the portion devoted to the aesthetic 
and historical aspects of the subject seems to us of 
less value. Though Giovanni may well have seen 
one of Pisanello's medals of Leonello, it is 
difficult to trace in his portrait any sign of his 
having been influenced by the Veronese master as 
a painter. And the suggestions as to what 
Giovanni might perhaps have seen at Ferrara, or 
what he might perhaps have done at Faenza, — \vell, 
the omission of these and other vague speculations 
might have brought the book within the limits of 
a magazine article. Nevertheless we gladly forgive 
these divagations for the sake of the undoubted 
contribution to knowledge from which they 
start. A word of praise is due to the woodcuts by 
F. Nonni which adorn the volume. G. F. H. 

Titian's Schmerzensreiche Mado.vnen. von 

Carl Peez. Vienna: Holder. 
Among the pictures with which the Emperor 
Charles V surrounded himself in his retirement at 
Yuste were two paintings of the Malcr Dolorosa by 


Titian, which had been painted at the Emperor's 
command. The subject was one for which there 
was a great demand in the service of the Church, 
and the various renderings of it by Titian seem to 
have been repeated and copied by as many hands 
as the later and even more popular Mater Dolorosa 
by Carlo Dolci. To trace the paintings of this 
subject, which can be supposed to be the work of 
Titian himself, has been an occupation for many 
writers. The writer of this pamphlet seeks to 
prove that a picture of the Mater Dolorosa with 
clasped hands, which has been in the collection of 
the Peez family at Vienna for some generations, is 
an original work by Titian. We feel some doubt 
as to this contention being accepted generally. 
Incidentally Heir Peez gives an interesting account 
of the other versions of the same subject attributed 
to Titian, which will be useful to students of the life 
and works of the great Venetian painter. L. C. 
GiocoxDO Albertolli, der Ornamentiker 

Kauffman'N. Strassburg : Heitz. 
The book is useful as a treatise upon Italian 
decoration of the latter part of the i8th century 
and the 19th century, about which comparatively 
little is known. Gerli, who was educated in 
France, was the first to break Barocco traditions 
in Milan, but his work fell flat. Shortly after- 
wards, in 1775, Albertolli decorated in Milan 
Castle for Pierraarini with tremendous success, 
and later he did even better work in the castle at 
Monza. Though the Frenchman Petitot had been 
his master, and French was the Milanese culture, 
AlbertoUi's decoration was his own and entirely 
Italian. It was based on Greek, Roman, and pre- 
Raphaelite models, heavier, perhaps, than the 
French, but less precious and virtuose. The 
reproductions of two designs for silver bowls 
make you want to see more — they are superb. 
Mr. Kauffmann defines the Renaissance as aiming 
at beauty of space (rather a vague definition), the 
Barocco effect of space, and classicism harmony 
of space. AlbertoUi's throne room in Monza 
Castle is a marvel of all three together. After 
only about five years of practical work Giocondo 
was made professor of ornament in the Milan 
Academy of Art, which post he retained for thirty- 
seven years. His nephew succeeded him, and 
raised the number of pupils from 300 to 600. 
The best pupils seem to have become professors, 
which shows how classicism is a professor's art, 
founded upon an almost e.xact science of optical 
conditions, and therefore teachable. According 
to Mr. Kauffmann, Albertolli was practically the 
only source and origin of the decoration of Italian 
classicism. The paucity of illustrations which 
marks this scholarly and industrious series of 
books is here as elsewhere a great hindrance to 
the reader who does not happen already to know 
by heart the works described. J. R. F. 

Reviews and Notices 

Les Tableaux de Peter Bruegel le Vieux. 

au Mus^e Imj-ferial a Vienne, par Gustav Gllck. Brussels ; 
Van Oest. 

PlETER Bruegel, the elder, has within late years 
received just notice from eminent critics, such as 
M. Hulin, M. Rene de Bastelaer, M. Hymans, and 
Pr. Friedliinder. All have united in pronouncing 
the elder, or rather the eldest, Bruegel as one of the 
great pioneer artists in history. His original work 
is extremely rare, the greater part of the works 
bearing his name being only repetitions, very skil- 
fully and admirably made, by his son Pieter 
Bruegel, the younger. Of the thirty or so acknow- 
ledged original works of the elder Bruegel, no less 
than fifteen are in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna. 
It was a happy thought, therefore, of the learned 
director of that Museum, Dr. Gliick, to issue 
these fifteen pictures in a separate work with an 
introductory essay on Bruegel and his Art. As 
the pictures themselves are fairly well-known to 
art students this introductory essay is the part 
of the work calling for most attention. In this 
Dr. Gliick sums up the somewhat scanty evidence 
concerning Bruegel's life, and points out that Van 
Mander cannot be right in classing Bruegel as a 
peasant by birth, or in attributing to him a voyage 
to Italy, with the resulting influence of the 
Italianizing school ofVanOrley, Floris, and Pieter 
Coeck. Pieter Bruegel, as Dr. Gliick points out, 
shows no Italianizing influence. His art is essen- 
tially Northern, and derives most obviously from 
that of his great predecessor, Hieronimus Bosch. 
Dr. Gliick states his belief with considerable 
authority that Bruegel received his early educa- 
tion as a painter in distemper on canvas, the 
" stained " or " painted cloths," that were so popular 
in the sixteenth centur^', and of which some strik- 
ing examples remain in the Museum at Rheims. 
The making of these " painted cloths " was an in- 
dustry in itself, and there was a special school for 
them at Malines. Another strong influence on the 
art of Bruegel was, according to Dr. Gliick, that 
of the Chambers of Rhetoric at Antwerp, with 
their literary and dramatic activity, to which many 
of the rather obscure popular allegories to be 
found in paintings like those of Bruegel must be 
traced. We have still much to learn about the 
influence of society on the Fine Arts, especially 
after the naive simplicity of the Middle Ages had 
given place to the restless medley of new learning 
and ancient tradition. Dr. Gliick's suggestions will 
be useful to any student who is able to give 
his time to the study of the Chambers of Rhetoric, 
and other corporate bodies, or confraternities, who 
had such an important share in the promotion of 
the Fine Arts. L. C. 

Die Casar Teppiche im Historischen Museum 
zu Bern . . . von Dr. Arthur Weese. Mit 4 farbigen 
Tafein, Bern; Francke. 

These tapestries illustrate the history of Julius 

Caesar in the terms of feudal monarchy, particularly 
of the Duchy of Burgundy. They must certainly 
have originally belonged to the Buigundian ducal 
family, for as Dr. Weese remarks, they accurately 
depict all its paraphernalia, and represent its whole 
atmosphere, while the figures of Philip the Good 
and Charles the Bold are recognizable under the 
guise of Cccsarian heroes. It was believed until 
recently that they were part of the spoils taken 
direct by the men of Bern from the tent of Charles 
the Bold after the battle of Granson. Modern 
research has now proved that they were looted 
from the Cathedral of Lausanne some sixty years 
later. Possibly the credit of their capture from 
Charles may thus be merely transferred from Bern 
to Lausanne, but if their presence in Switzerland 
may thus mark the external victories of the Swiss 
Confederation, their location at Bern more cer- 
tainly marks its civil wars. The tapestries were 
no doubt designed for wall-hangings in some 
Castle or Council-House, or even for the magnifi- 
cent tents which feudal leaders used in their 
frequent wars. They are of the type woven in the 
Netherlands, which under Philip the Good and 
Charles the Bold (1419-77) attained high perfec- 
tion in Arras, Tournay, Bruges, and even Brussels. 
The usual technique of the upright loom is fol- 
lowed, the warp being of linen and the woof of 
coloured wool, with considerable admixture of 
silk. Dr. Weese compares the tapestries with Mr. 
Pierpont Morgan's fine pieces, from the Mazarin 
collection, lately exhibited in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum ; and points of resemblance are 
also apparent with the Duke of Devonshire's four 
Flemish slightly earlier pieces still on loan there, 
which represent Stail Hunting, Fiilcoiiry, Otter 
Hunting, and Bear Hunting. The unknown de- 
signer of the Caesar tapestries records in the first 
word of his inscription his obligation to the poet 
Lucan for his literary and historical material ; but 
Dr. Weese shows that he had consulted Suetonius, 
Sallust, and Plutarch also, and yet more directly 
the popular mediaeval compilation called the 
"■Gesta Romanoruin". He follows the story of 
Cajsar from the creation of the Triumviri 
through his conquests in Gaul, his invasion of 
Britain, his victory at Pharsalia, and his Roman 
triumphs to the scene of his assassination. An 
event so inauspicious to princes is only incidentally 
represented. With true dramatic irony, the 
figure of Brutus with his dagger is placed be- 
side Caesar enthroned. Each of the four com- 
positions is divided into two separate scenes, 
and a commentary in verse written in old French 
runs along the blue sky-line above. There is 
throughout a wealth of beautiful detail, rich cos- 
tume, armour, vegetation, and especially flowers ; 
ox-eye daisies, violets, wild pansies, and blue-bells 
are scattered over the green sward of the fore- 
ground. Dr. Weese's commentary is clear, lucid, 


Reviews and Notices 

and thorough in its treatment, and the four-colour 
reproductions and general presentment of the 
book do credit to the Museum Association of 
Bern, under whose auspices it is published. 

S. B. 

Der Dreikomgenschrein des Nikolaus von 
Verdun im Kolner Domschatz. ctto von 

Falke. Munchen-Gladbach: B. Kiihlen. 
By the appearance of this book, the most famous 
of the great Rhenish reliquaries of the Middle 
Ages at last finds worthy publication, and it is 
possible to estimate both its importance in the 
general development of art and its place in the 
anvre of Nicholas of Verdun. The author of the 
text is eminently qualified for the task entrusted 
to his hands. Dr. von Falke was not only for 
many years director of the Kunstgewerbe-Museum 
at Cologne, but his "Deutsche Schmelzarbeiten 
des Mittelalters", published on the occasion of 
the Diisseldorf Exhibition of 1902, remains the 
classic on the goldsmiths' work of the Rhine and 
Meuse in the most brilliant period of Romanesque 
industrial art. The genius of Nicholas of Verdun 
has been appreciated many years ago by French 
critics, who claimed, and probably with justice, 
that while in the technical processes of manipu- 
lating the precious metals, and of enamelling, he 
learned from the artists of the Meuse, notably 
from Godefroid de Claire, his style in the treat- 
ment of the human figure, his pre-eminent claim 
to distinction, he underwent the influence of 
France. The embossed figures with which he 
decorated his reliquaries are of exceptional 
quality ; they stand out from all which immedi- 
ately precedes or follows them by such individuality 
and original force, that their creator takes his 
place among the great artists of the Middle 
Ages. Dr. von Falke quotes with approval the 
judgment of the late Emile Molinier, a judgment 
which is no less to the point at the present moment 
than on the day when it was written : "Nicolas 
de Verdun pent prendre place a c6t<^ des plus 
grands scuipteurs du XII' et du XI IP si^cle ; c'est 
un artiste aupres duquel les autres orfevres, quels 
que soient leur savoir ou leur virtuosite, passent 
au second plan ". The accuracy of this criticism 
will be confirmed by a comparison of the plates 
and illustrations in the present volume with those 
of Dr. von Falke's work already cited, and those 
in Drexler's publication of the well-known altar- 
piece at Klosterneuburg, near Vienna. In the 
figures by the master's hand we trace the develop- 
ment of a talent without rival among the contem- 
porary artists of the Rhine and Meuse Valleys. 
Here is a personality salient enough to dispose of 
the tradition that the mediaeval painter and sculp- 
tor had no accent of his own : such a figure as 
that of Abdias (PI. XI) would alone almost suffice 
to make a reputation. Comparison with other 

works of Nicholas shows that the Reliquary of the 
1 hree Kings was made when his powers were at 
their height. To be more exact, we should say 
that the sides are of this period, for the two ends 
have figures of inferior workmanship, and by 
another hand, the introduction of King Otto IV 
in the Adoration 0/ the Magi showing that these 
parts of the decoration cannot be older than A.D. 
1 198, when Otto of Poitou was elected to the royal 
dignity. The great shrine of Cologne must date 
from years preceding that event ; it thus comes 
between the Marienschrein at Tournai, made in 
A.D. 1205, and the Klosterneuburg altar, completed 
in A.D. 1181. 

Though the sculpture of the prophets and 
apostles, with their finely characterized heads and 
skilfully rendered draperies, must always remain 
the chief glory of the shrine, the enamels which 
enrich the surface are also of a high merit, and 
illustrate phases of the enameller's art upon which 
Nicholas himself exerted a considerable influence. 
In this part of his work he originally owed much 
to his predecessors from the region of the Meuse ; 
for this question, and for the changes of style and 
technical developments in the enamelled orna- 
ment of the whole period, the reader may be 
referred to Dr. von Falke's lucid account and to 
the process-blocks with which it is illustrated 
(pp. 9-13). Columns and arches, spandrels and 
borders are all adorned with enamel, accompanied 
in many places by plaques of filigree set with gems, 
the whole producing an effect of singular charm 
and splendour. The cresting along the top of the 
basilica-shaped reliquary is not equal in design to 
those of other contemporary shrines preserved in 
Rhenish churches, but the finials above it are 
sumptuous with globes enamelled in rich colour. 
The conditions under which the shrine is seen by 
the visitor to Cologne Cathedral are not favourable 
to leisurely inspection, but even so the effect is 
always impressive. The present volume has no 
coloured illustrations ; but those who saw the 
array of Rhenish reliquaries exhibited at Diissel- 
dorf will be able to supply from experience and 
imagination the brilliant colours which the collo- 
type plates are unable to render. 

The Reliquary of the Three Kings has not 
escaped mutilation and subsequent exposure to 
the caprice of the restorer. After the French 
Revolution, when it was removed and hidden in 
Westphalia, it was shortened by the breadth of a 
whole arch in order that losses might be made 
good by the ornamental material thus set free. 
Even then the roofs of the " nave " and " aisles " 
had to be redecorated, the former being covered 
with angels and stars upon glass, the latter with 
paintings by Beckenkamb, dismissed by the 
author with the pregnant adjective guigemeint. 
The extremities of various figures, which had 
been broken, were somewhat clumsily made 


Reviews and Notices 

good, the additions being in all cases suffi- 
ciently obvious ; here and there a lost subsidiary 
figure has been replaced. Much as the shrine 
has suffered from these causes, it is a matter 
for congratulation that it has come through the 
ordeals to which it has been subjected without 
far more serious loss. 

The volume, with its large plates illustrating 
every part of the shrine, tills a distinct want, for as 
long as the Cologne reliquary was incompletely 
published the comparative material for the study 
of Rhenish art in the twelfth century remained 
incomplete. Dr. von Falke's work will be indis- 
pensable to all students of mediaeval industrial art 
and to all who are interested in the sculpture of 
the pre-Gothic period. It is appropriately dedi- 
cated to Domkapitular Prof. Alexander Schnutgen, 
to whose influence the sanction of the cathedral 
chapter for this valuable reproduction may doubt- 
less in part be ascribed. O. M. D. 

Die Fruhen Bauformen der Gotik in 

SCHWABEN insbesondere dirzusammenhang mit details 

aus der Strassburger miinster-bauhutte. Von H. F. Secker. 

Strassburg: Heitz & Miindel. M. 4.50 
Ix his contribution to the " Studien zur Deutschen 
Kunstgeschichte ", the author confines the scope 
of his inquiry to the period between the years 1290 
and 1360. Within these circumscribed bounds it 
does not appear that Suabia developed any 
peculiarities notably distinct from the forms then 
prevalent in other parts of Germany. The analvt- 
ical plates illustrate the genesis and development 
of geometrical tracer}' whilst as }-et the double 
cur\-e of beauty, the ogee, had scarcely been 

The opening chapter deals with the histoiy of 
Suabian churches of the period, including Rottweil 
and Esslingen. The next is devoted to the Cathe- 
dral of Strassburg and early Gothic work in Alsace, 
including Schlettstadt, Colmar and Hagenau. 
The third chapter offers a critical examination of 
details in Wiirttemburg, and the book concludes 
with a brief review of the whole subject. 
The limits of the work preclude the author from 
dealing with such splendid mediaeval monuments 
as the rood-loft at Old Breisach, though he permits 
himself to include some works outside Suabia 
altogether. Thus he illustrates three drawings of 
details of the demolished rood-loft at Strassburg ; 
and the staircase to the rood-loft (also unhappily 
broken up) at Rufach. This staircase should 
attract the attention of English readers, because we 
have no such early example of the sort in our own 
countr}', and indeed ver}- few of later date, like that, 
for instance, at Totnes, Devon. 

The fanciful model of the Holy Sepulchre, 
erected about 1300 in Konstanz Cathedral, is of 
peculiar interest. We never had anything like it in 
this countr}', unless it be a structure designed for 
quite another purpose, viz., to enshrine the font at 

Luton Church, Bedfordshire."^ These sepulchres, 
native in detail, were yet intended to represent in 
general form and dimensions the original at 
Jerusalem. In later Gothic times thev were super- 
seded by more realibtic sculptured effigies of the 
entombment itself. Again, these groups, though 
they were widely spread and became objects of 
great devotion in the Western Continent of Europe, 
had no counterpart in England, unless indeed one 
should regard as their equivalents the statues which 
our forefathers venerated under the name of Our 
Lady of Pity. A. V. 

ReiNAERT DS VoS, naar Verschilhnde uitgaven van het 
Middeleeuwsche Epos, henvrocht door Stijn Streuvels ; met 
een inleiding van Prof. Dr. J. W, Muller en verlucht met 
Randen en Teekeningen door, B. \V. Wierink. Amsterdam. 
L.J.Veen. Unbound, 3(1.; bound 32!!. 

OFallthe medic-eval folk-sagas which have survived, 
hardly any one has enjoyed such unbroken popu- 
larity as that of Reynard the Fox, Reineke Fuchs, 
or in Dutch Reinaert de Vos. Among the many 
popular adaptations of animal life to human 
thought and action the story of Reynard the Fox 
has been, as it were, a protot}'pe, the parent-stock 
of all the legends about the Fox and his " slim- 
ness " and the blundering antics of Bruin the 
Bear, legends which seem to have found a new 
soil and a new growth in the Uncle Remus stories 
of America. A new edition of the famous poem, 
has been issued by Heer Stijn Streuvels, with plates 
and borders by B, W. Wierink. With the text of 
the legend we cannot deal here, but we can safely 
say that the book has considerable artistic merits as 
to the general design and decorative effect of the 
pages. The actual plates themselves seem to fall 
into the common disease of modern illustration, 
that of securing artistic accuracy at the expense of 
simplicity. The art of illustration is not an easy 
one. It involves greater unselfishness on the part 
of the artist than the artist is willing to give. It 
may seem strange, that the rough, uncouth wood- 
cuts of Caxton's time should give more pleasure 
than the really very excellent drawings by Heer 
Wierink, but we confess this to be the case. As it 
is, the publication makes a fine book. L. C. 

ChardiX. By Herbert E. A. Furst. Methuen. 12s. 6d. 

This is one of the latest volumes in Messrs. 
Methuen's handsome and rather ambitious series. 
The publisher's part in these is excellently done; 
they are well produced and illustrated, and their 
general appearance raises hopes which unfortu- 
nately have not in all cases been quite fulfilled. 
Mr. Furst's is the first monograph on Chardin on 
any considerable scale which has yet appeared in 
English, though he has himself produced a small 
brochure on the subject. He writes with spirit 
and genuine enthusiasm, in a style somewhat 
over-fluent and emphatic, but it cannot be pre- 
tended that his book is to be taken as a very 


Reviews and Notices 

effectual or permanent contribution to the study 
of the great F"rench painter. Mr. Furst has what 
IMatthew Arnold candidly disclaimed, "a system 
with principles, coherent, interdependent, sub- 
ordinate, and derivative ", and his chief concern 
is with its exposition, using Chardin as a motive. 
He starts many hares, and is pleasantly confident 
that he has caught them all. His main theory is 
that art is " an evolutionary process from intel- 
lectual to optical conception ", and he claims 
Chardin as " the first Impressionist", the first "to 
free art from the habit of seeing things intellec- 
tually", and to paint them as they actually appear, 
not as we know them to be constructed. What- 
ever may be the force of Mr. Furst's contentions, 
which open too many avenues to be entered here, 
it looks as if he had chosen the wrong hero as 
protagonist. To exalt the objective element in 
Chardin's pictures (wonderful as it is) at the 
expense of the subjective seems a strange mode 
of appreciating an artist the intellectual and 
spiritual significance of whose work it is almost 
impossible to overstate. The safest and clearest 
clue to Chardin's art is surely to be found in his 
own words, "What one paints with is not colours, 
but feeling". J. B. B. N. 

Catulli,Tibulli Properti Carmina quae extant 
omnia, cura ROBixsox Ellis, Joannis P. 
PosTGATE, Joannis S. Philllmore, apud p. h. 

Lee Warner, Mediceae Societatislibrarium, Londini. Boards. 

£i IS. net. 
Few publications reach us deserving such 
unqualified praise as this admirable volume, the 
printing from Mr. H. P. Home's type, the paper 
and general production being all that could be 
desired. This is not the place for examining the 
work of the respective editors, but Mr. Robinson 
Ellis's name itself implies the most advanced and 
culti%'ated scholarship. 

Leone Battista Alberti als Kunstphilosoph. 

By Dr. Irexe Behn'. Strassburg : Heitz. 
Alberti finds Beauty to be the essence and end 
of Art. Beauty is a unity in and in spite of variety. 
Nature seldom gives perfection in its forms. Art 
must not be content to get the likeness of nature 
but must add beauty. Such is the main contention 
of Alberti, certainly a step further than the Greek 
notions of Art's being purely imitative. Alberti's 
invention — viz., that Beauty is a manifestation of a 
spontaneous idea — is remarkable because, as Dr. 
Behn affirms, he could not have known Plotinus's 
metaphysics. But besides abstract beauty Alberti 
demands also of all the arts, save music, that they 
should express religious feeling ("history shows 
how the form of the temple changes along with 
religious conceptions"), the immortality of the 
gods, the notions of the soul, and truth to the 
ordinary facts of nature and fashions of man, 
{e.g., it would be absurd to paint Mars in female 

attire), moreover, he lays stress upon the beauty 

of constructive purposiveness in building. He 

rather anticipates Tolstoy when he says that a 

beautiful thing moves and pleases the uneducated 

as well as the educated. So httle abstract formalist 

is he that he must needs treat separately the 

principles of making temples, public buildings 

and private houses as serving different moral 

or social purposes. With such a mixture of 

metaphysical, logical or arbitrary doctrines 

Alberti's philosophy fails as a working system, 

suggestive and inventive though it be. The 

many of to-day who feel the need of an 

aesthetic, commonsense or otherwise, that shall be 

really applicable to all works of art, and to the 

actual process of creating and appreciating them 

will not find much to help them in Alberti, nor in 

what other philosophy ? For instance, we are told 

how one Demetrius fell short of fame because he 

thought more of truth to nature than of Beauty. 

This raises the pre-historic question, what, then, is 

it that the artist does with the forms of nature that 

makes his work something quite other than mere 

reduplication of the aspect of the original ? The 

only answer in this book is the equally pre-historic 

one — viz., he idealizes them. But there have always 

been and are to-day considerable artists who 

would indignantly repudiate such an unfounded 

charge against their aims and ideals 1 And the 

same artists would have the unfortunate Demetrius's 

work revived in preference to any other lost Greek 

painting. Would the philosopher then beg the 

question by asserting that these men are either 

not artists or are incompetent to understand what 

they are doing ? Perhaps they are incompetent, 

but should they be satisfied by the statement that 

" Nature is the teacher not of art but of the artist ; 

it is not slavish imitation, but the essence of Beauty 

that leads him to the goal of not only sensual 

but of spiritual form " ? Those who are interested 

in the development of metaphysical assthetic will 

find this an exceptional book, and Dr. Behn 

interprets his materials with deference and fine 

learning. The great and difficult chapters are 

those on colour, a half-anticipation of the later 

romantic science, and the subjective purposiveness 

of beauty in architecture and music according to 

a numerical principle. J. R. F. 

Glasgow. Fifty Drawings by Muirhead Bone, with 
Notes on Glasgow by A. H. Charteris. Maclehose. 423. 

Mr. Muirhead Bone has so firmly established 
his position as an artist in black-and-white, that it 
may seem presumptuous to treat of any work by 
him other than in a laudatory manner. The 
drawings of Glasgow, reproduced in the hand- 
some volume before us, are a daring challenge to 
the world of art, and one characteristic of Mr. 
Bone's temperament, as well as of the particular 
line in which he has made his reputation. Glasgow 

Reviews and Notices 

can hardly be called a picturesque town. Even 
Mr. Charteris in his interesting sketch of its history 
goes some way to admit this. Mr. Bone himself 
makes no attempts to cast a meretricious glamour 
over the scenes which he selects to illustrate. He 
teaches, however, a valuable lesson by pointing 
out how the trained eye of the artist can see some 
beauty of line, colour, composition, something 
sentient and appealing even in the grimiest 
corners of our great cities, while occasionally the 
setting sun, or even the driving rain, will convert 
a featureless block of houses into a romantic pile. 
Mr. Bone's danger lies in allowing the merely 
topographical to outweigh the purely artistic. He 
is too good an artist to be wasted on mere topo- 
graphy. Meryon was not free from the same 
tendency. The drawings appear to have been 
executed in pencil, and heightened with ink, and 
reproduced in a form of photogravure which in 
some cases closely resembles aquatint, this work 
being carried out with their customary skill by 
Messrs. Annan, of Glasgow. Four of the more 
careful and elaborate drawings have been repro- 
duced in collotype by the Oxford University Press. 
Scotchmen will, no doubt, be proud of the tribute 
paid to Glasgow, but we must confess that even 
after reading Mr. Charteris's notes, and seeing 
Mr. Muirhead Bone's drawings, we feel unmoved, 
and our thoughts fly to Edinburgh. 

L. C. 

The Garden Enclosed. Being certain fair examples 
and miracles of the Blessed Messer Saint Francis, now 
translated for the first time from a fifteenth-century MS. of 
the Fioretti, in the Riccardlan Library at Florence, with an 
introduction and notes by M. Mansfield. Florence : 
Cecchi. Illustrations by Alinari, photographers. Printed 
by S. Benelli. 5s. 

This pretty little brochure will make a charming 
souvenir for the learned pious. Its presentment 
shows the good inclination of all who have been 
concerned in it, though the result is rather too 
prettily fanciful for the theme. This is unfortu- 
nately not the place to do justice to Miss Mans- 
fields hagiographic scholarship, which seems to 
be extensive and accurate. 

Guide through the Old Pixakothek of 

Munich. By Johanna Kanoldt. Translated from the 
German by Clara Hellvig. Munich : Jaffe. 4.50 marks 
This book will be useful to British and American 
visitors who require a guide rather than a catalogue. 
Fraulein Kanoldt describes more or less minutely, 
according to her estimate of their importance, 
about two thirds of the pictures. They have been 
re-arranged by Dr. von Tschudi. Her object is to 
point out the characteristics of the artists, and to 
give some idea of the development of the schools. 
This is, on the whole, well done in the longer 
notices, and she prints well-chosen quotations 
from trustworthy writers. But such short notes 

as "Diffused in form and colouring", "The 
painting is evanescent . . . ", will not convey much 
information to her readers. Space and clearness 
would have been gained if her translator, Fraulein 
Hellvig, were more practised in English idiom. 
The " Alphabetical table of the names of the 
Artists ", showing the position of their works in 
the gallery, is plainly set out, and would be very 
useful if a complete list had come within Fraulein 
Kanoldt's scope. The illustrations are well printed, 
but the volume, like all such manuals, would be 
far better without them ; the experienced tourist 
will at once tear them out. 

Gerstfeldt u. Ernst Steinmann. Leipzig : Klinkhardt u. 

A MELANCHOLY interest is naturally taken in a 
book which is for the most part a posthumous 
collection of the unpublished impressions of a 
writer with so many personal friends as Mme. 
Steinmann. Her writings on subjects connected 
with art, published under her maiden name, Olga 
von Gerstfeldt, are already known ; indeed, her 
acquirements materially assisted her husband, her 
collaborator in this volume, in his duties as director 
of the Museum and Gallery at Mechlinburg- 
Schwerin. But she spent the winters in Rome, 
where she died early in last year. She knew Italy 
well, and it is with the Italian genius that this book 
is mainly concerned. In the first essay she 
describes the court of the Sforza at Milan, when it 
was graced by Bianca Sforza and Beatrice d'Este, 
and Leonardo was its guiding spirit. But her 
most interesting essay is on the Venice Carnival. 
She vividly reproduces all the characters of the old 
" Commedia dell' Arte ", the acrobats of the " Forza 
d'Ercole", the dancers of "Moresca", and the 
young nobles in the rich costumes of the different 
" Compagni della Calza ", amid the busy crowds 
in the Piazza and Piazzetta. Cremona is another 
city of which she recounts the history pleasantly 
and fully. Important both under Rome and at the 
Renaissance, Cremona fell later on evil days, and 
sank under stress of war and pestilence into a 
picturesque and poverty-stricken shadow of its 
former greatness. Other chapters are on Francesco 
Landini ; on Foligno ; and on Caprarola, the 
country residence of Alessandro Farnese. Landini 
was the blind son of the famous Giottesque painter, 
Jacopo da Casentino. The Umbrian city Foligno 
was the cradle of the art of Niccolo di Liberatore. 
Nor must the result of Mme. Steinmann's own 
careful research be forgotten, the paper reprinted 
here from the"Monatshefte fiir Kunstwissenschaft". 
It concerns Titian's Sacved and Profane Love in 
the Villa Borghese, and Mme. Steinmann cleverly 
traces the model used in that painting through a 
number of Titian's other masterpieces. 

S. B. 


Reviews and Notices 

One Hundred Masterpieces of Painting. 

With an Introduction by R. C. Witt. Metluien. los. 6d. net. 
This volume is avowedly intended for popular 
consumption and not for critics. Mr. Witt in his 
introduction propounds the question, " What is to 
entitle a picture to admission into this Century of 
Painting ?" and finds the reply inevitable, "that 
any selection of a Hundred Masterpieces must be 
an arbitrary one ". Mr. Witt, or the compiler, for 
it is not made quite clear if the selection has actually 
been made by Mr. Witt, has certainly succeeded in 
the object in view "to make the selection as catholic 
and representative as possible within the limits 
laid down ". We do not therefore wish to criticize 
the selection or to point out cases where we would 
ourselves have had some doubts, as to inclusion in 
such a series. The book is more than a mere 
picture-book, for there is no better guide to pictures 
than Mr. Witt, whose short descriptive notes are 
just calculated to stimulate the mind to make 
further inquiry on its own account into the 
history of a picture and the artist who painted it. 
Undeterred by the wails of Mr, Greig or the 
menaces of Mr. Robert Ross, Mr. Witt includes 
the Venus of Velazquez. He, in fact, includes no 
less than five paintings by the great Spanish artist 
in this anthology. We notice an ingenious piece 
of juxtaposition, in the landscapes by Rubens, 
Ruisdael, and Vermeer which follow on each other 
in the book. The list concludes with C. W. P'urse's 
Diana of the Uplands, a courageousand thoroughly 
justihable choice. This will be a good book to 
give to beginners in the art of criticism. L. C. 

Silk : Its Production and Manufacture. By 
Luther Hot)i>i;K. " Pitman's Common Commodities of 
Commerce". Pitman: 
Mr. Hooper is an excellent diagraphic draughts- 
man, and thoroughly understands the subject of 
artistic weaving. He has made his little book 
informative and interesting throughout — no easy 
task — and, with a little more concentration in the 
writing, it might serve as a model for such ele- 
mentary handbooks. It is a pity that our present 
commercial methods should require a neat volume 
of 126 pages to be stuffed out with 47 of 

Chats on Old Pewter. By h. j. l. j. masse. 

Fisher Unwin. 5s. net. 

A VAST amount of information has certainly been 
brought together in Mr. Masse's new book on 
pewter ; yet, in spite of its title, it is somewhat to 
be regretted that the volume has not been arranged 
in better order, as the layman must have great 
difficulty in dissecting it. Some interesting illus- 
trations are given ; unfortunately to these the 
same fault applies: a proper description is seldom 
appended, and the period to which they should 
be assigned is frequently either omitted or left in- 
definite. For example, two tankards which 

Print Restoration and Picture Cleaning. 

By M. J. GUNN. Urcott Gill. 6s. 6d. net. 

As the author of this book describes himself as 
Picture and Print Expert to " The Bazaar", and 
the book itself is issued by the publishers of that 
periodical, it must be looked upon as something 
of the nature of an advertisement both of the per- 
iodical and the various tradesmen recommended 
by the writer. If it is a good thing for amateurs 
to know how to restore and lay-down prints, many 
useful hints will be found in this book, as well as 
some instructive insight into the practice of the 
modern faker. The depredations of such enemies 
to books as the Anobiuin dontesticnm and Lepisma 
saccharina and the disease known as foxing, are 
noted and suggestions made for preventing their 
progress. Generally speaking, Mr. Gunn's direc- 
tions for collecting, framing, preserving and re- 
pairing prints seem sound and valuable. We feel 
less confident as to his recipe for restoring water- 
colour drawings. When Mr. Gunn treats of 
cleaning and repairing oil paintings, he touches 
upon a subject which is full of danger. Most 
people will agree with Mr. Gunn that the men who 
may fairly claim to be considered as capable 
restorers of pictures are singularly few. The 
destruction caused by the use of inferior var- 
nishes, and the unskilful removal of the same, has 
wrung the hearts of critics and amateurs, as well 
as professional artists. Those who wish to know 
something about the different methods of cleaning 
and varnishing a picture will find information in 
Mr. Gunn's book. Those methods are simple and 
few in number, but require the greatest skill and 
care, and even more than this — an innate instinct, 
as high in value as that of an original artist, and 
even more extensive. Any such operation may, 
as Mr. Gunn truly says, " appear a fairly easy under- 
taking, but it IS not one which I can honestly re- 
commend the amateur to undertake." L. C. 

Sketches of Deal, Walmer and Sandwich. 

By the late Jdhn Lewis Roget. With an introduction and 
notes by S. R. Koget. With 32 coloured plates and 8 black-and- 
white illustrations. Longmans. 12s, Cd. 

That the late Mr. Roget's outlook was limited may 
be gathered from the fact that for thirty-five suc- 
cessive summers he visited Walmer and noted down 
the trivial objects of the littoral, such as broken 
sea-walls, derelict anchors, scrap iron, capstans 
and beached bathing machines. Old Houses, 
Upper Deal And Saudoii'u Caslle in ruins are far the 
best of the illustrations. He had a laborious 
method and his sketches are not without a certain 
precise and formal claritude — preferable, certainly, 


Reviews and Notices 

to the haphazard vagueness of too many amateur 
draughtsmen. If he had only devoted himself, 
like William Twopeny, to recording the vanishing 
architectural beauties, he might have left behind 
him a valuable memorial. 

A. V. 

Gerard TERBORCH. Par Fraxz Hellens. Collection 
des grands artistes des Pays-Bas. Brussels : Van Oest. 
Fr. 3.50. 

The interesting series of monographs on Nether- 
landish artists in course of issue by MM. Van Oest 
and Co., of Brussels, is distinguished from similar 
publications by the literary flavour with which 
the learning embodied in the book is ornamented 
and relieved. The monograph on Terborch by 
M. Hellens is not only a compendium on the life 
and works of this great artist, but is a very readable 
essay on the Dutch domestic art of the period. 
Terborch illustrates the gentler side of life in 
Holland, that of the wealthy bourgeoisie, and 
thereby refutes the charge that Dutch painters 
could deal only with low and vulgar subjects, 
which in their time reflected Dutch life and habits. 
The art of Terborch is extremely refined both in 
subject and in execution. Such work is not pro- 
duced for the pot-house or the market place, and is 
therefore restricted in quantity, so that paintings 
by Terborch, like those by Vermeer of Delft, rank 
among the most precious treasures of collectors 
and museums. Gerard Terborch came of a family 
of artists at Zvvolle. We should have been grateful 
to M. Hellens for more detailed information about 
the Terborch family, since more than one besides 
the younger Gerard was a skilful artist. The 
father, Gerard, was a man of remarkable character 
himself, and deserving of more extended notice. 
The family, as M. Hellens says, " etaient des 
travailleurs acharnes. Une large aisance regnait 
dans leur interieur ; ou toute la societe cultivee 
des environs avait coutume de se rencontrer." 
It was not till Gerard Terborch left this circle and 
set up for himself at Haarlem that his peculiar 
genius began to develop. As M. Hellens rightly 
points out, although remaining always a petit- 
maitre, Terborch must be regarded as a grand- 
viaitre both in his genre pictures and his portraits. 
The principal paintings by Terborch are all so 
well known that there is little new to be said about 
them. His position in the history of art is so 
secure that he requires no champion or interpreter. 
Possibly M. Hellens, in his enthusiasm for Ter- 
borch, is inclined to rate him too highly above 
Metsu and to depreciate unduly so important a 
national artist as Jan Steen. We can, however, 
safely recommend this monograph on Terborch 
not only to scholars, but also to those who look 
upon art as something to be enjoyed and under- 
stood rather than dissected and classified, like 
objects for a museum. L. C. 

Geschichte der Kunst aller Zeiten uxd 

VOLKER. Von Karl WoERMAX.v. Vol. 3. Leipzig. 17 M. 
The third volume of Prof. Karl Woermann's great 
work on the history of art throughout the world's 
history comprises the period from the sixteenth to 
the end of the nineteenth century, from Leonardo 
and Raphael to Whistler and Zuloaga. So vast is 
the information packed within these seven hundred 
or more pages, that the work defies criticism. It 
will be sufficient to say that the careful, scholar- 
like attitude adopted by Prof. Woermann in his 
first two volumes has been maintained throughout, 
and that the three volumes must always remain a 
monumental work of reference, to which the 
reputation of the former Director of the Dresden 
Gallery adds considerable authority. L. C. 

Les Chefs d'CEuvres de la Galerie des 
Tableaux du Musee National du Louvre. 

Berlin Photograpiiic Comp.iny. Subscription price ;f6o the 
set, or £i a part. 

The Berlin Photographic Company, whose London 
house is at 133, New Bond Street, W., is bringing 
out a series of enlarged photogravures of the chief 
masterpieces in the Louvre. The work will con- 
sist of one hundred and eighty photogravures, to 
be issued in fifteen parts of twelve plates each. 
Judging from the specimens we have seen, the 
reproductions are of the finest quality, and some 
of them perhaps more complete as renderings of 
the originals than anything we have seen hitherto. 
Notably so is Raphael's Portrait de Balthazar 
Castiglione, where the exact quality of the pigment 
— and even the grain of the canvas — can be 
studied with absolute reliance, while the harmony 
of the whole effect has not been sacrificed by a 
minute rendering of detail. The same is true of 
Rembrandt's Les Pelcrins d'Enunaus, and above all 
of the Monua Lisa. An example of Greuze has, it 
is true, all the charm and elegance of the original, 
but does not perhaps give one quite so close an 
insight into the method of painting. On the 
whole, it appears to us an extremely desirable 
publication, and one likely to be of great use in 
bringing the masterpieces in the Louvre before 
the general mass of art-lovers. Such reproductions 
as these are quite worthy of exhibition in our 
public galleries as further illustrations of the work 
of the great masters of paintmg. This is frequently 
done in Continental galleries. 

Aspects of Death in Art and their Effects 

ON the Living. As illustrated by Minor Works of 
Art. By F. Parkes VVeber, M.A., M.D,, F.S.A. Fisher 
Unwin, ss. net. 
A series of articles reprinted, with many altera- 
tions and additions, from the " Numismatic 
Chronicle", 1909-10. Doctor Weber, the author, 
has tackled a very large and important subject of 
human thought and super-imposed it on a series 
of articles of rather special, than general, interest. 


Reviews and Notices 

Death, as a subject in Art, is so dominant in its 
influence on the mind of an artist, the memento 
mori has been so splendidly rendered by great 
artists of all countries from Holbein to Watts, from 
Orcagna and his school to Alfred Rethel, that it is 
rather annoying, after reading Dr. Weber's in- 
teresting, though rather inadequate introduction, 
to find that it leads up to nothing but a reprmt of 
certain articles on medals, gems and jewels. It 
was quite worth while to reprint these valuable 
communications to the " Numismatic Chronicle", 
but we feel a regret that the author, who given 
so much trouble to the subject, should not have 
remodelled these articles in a more popular and 
readable form. For museum purposes Dr. 
Weber's book will be very useful. 

The Art of the Munich Galleries. Being a 

History of the Progress of the Art of Painting, Illuminated 
and Demonstrated by Critical Dtscriptions of the Great 
Paintings in the old Pinakothek, the New Pinakothek and 
the Schalk Gallery in Munich. By Florence Jeax Assei.l 
and Frank Ray Fraprie, S.M,. F.R.P.S. Bell. 

It is useless, we fear, to enter any protest against 
this class of book. Their name is Legion, and it 
may be presumed that they would not be issued 
except to supply a demand. They are for the 
most part compiled by intelligent women with a 
fairly good superficial knowledge of their subject, 
and when the authors are contentto be mere guides, 
they have a distinct use as aids to the uninitiated. 
In the present instance the lady writer has been 
joined by a male assistant, apparently a photo- 
grapher, and between them they claim to have 
published a" History of the Progress of the Art of 
Painting, Illuminated and Demonstrated by Critical 
Descriptions", etc. We find nothing illuminatingin 
their work, but very much that is obscure and 
ignorant. Their demonstrations are not convinc- 
ing, and it is not necessary to follow them into 
their critical descriptions. We give an example. 
In describing the new discovery of mixing colours 
with oils by Van Eyck, the authors say : " This 
new discovery, which was eagerly sought for by 
the Italian painters, has given the world a distinc- 
tive colour known as ' the purple of Van Eyck ', 
which ranks with the ' gold of Titian ' and the 
'silver of Veronese'". There are many other 
purple patches of this description, such as the 
statement that Van Dyck "is not merely the 
descendant of Rubens, but the transition master 
from the forceful Baroque style to the light 
piquant grace of the Rococo ". 

The Oxford Poems of Matthew Arnold. 

O.vford : Taunt. 3=:. 6d. net. 
The second edition of Mr. Taunt's little book 
deserves a brief notice for its local merits and the 
pleasure which it gives to lovers of O.xford. 
Mr. Taunt has for many decades been preserving 
characteristics of Thames scenery by means of 


photography, and he has many negatives which 
are of very great service to antiquaries. In this 
volume Matthew Arnold, the most typical of all 
Oxford poets, is represented in his least learned 
and most atmospheric mode. Few are better able 
to follow the poet than Mr. Taunt, for few know 
the neighbourhood of Oxford better. 

ZuR Datierung der Miniaturen der Cod. 

Par. GR. 139. Von Dr, Rudolf Berliner. VVeida i. 
Th. : Thomas and Hubert. 

In this clever pamphlet of fifty pages the author 
argues that the miniatures now included in the 
famous tenth-century Psalter at Paris, but not 
originally made for it, have been at some tirne 
considerably overpainted, and that their origin 
may hypothetically be dated in the period 450- 
550 A.D. Stylistically (though, if they belong to 
a different art-circle, not necessarily in time) they 
are older than the Vienna Dioscorides, more 
recent than the Vatican Vergil 3225, the Milan 
Iliad, the Quedlinburg Itala. For the place of 
origin he inclines to Hellenistic Asia Minor. 

G. F. H. 


British Cathedrals. 100 illustrations, with an in- 
troduction by John Warrack, Schulze. 2s. 6d. net. 
A PICTURE-PAMPHLET of reproductions not very 
well printed from photographs of English, Scotch 
and Welsh cathedrals and a few important 
churches. Mr. Warrack tries in an interesting 
note on the conditions under which the churches 
were built to interest more pensive sightseers in 
the aesthetic and moral aspects of his subject. 
Most of his fanciful theories, however, have not 
much ground in the actual history of architecture. 

Leonardo Da Vinci ed i lavori di prosciuga- 


Leone X (1514-1516). 
Prof. Emondo Solmi reprints his paper in the 
" Archivio Storico Lombardo " (Fasc. XXIX, 
1911), which deals with some points hitherto 
overlooked concerning Leonardo's activity in 
hydraulics and engineering works. His project 
for draining the Marsh of Piorabino was dis- 
covered by the author in the Codex Atlanticus 
(f. 139 r.) with the marginal note " modo di seccare 
il padule di Piombino ", but the scheme, formulated 
in all probability for Cesare Borgia, was never 
carried out ; on the other hand the practical 
results of the works executed by the master for the 
Sforza around Vigevano, are still apparent in the 
luxuriance and present prosperity of that district. A 
very accurate plan of the " Agro Pontino", bearing 
Leonardo's signature, is among the Windsor MSS. 
(VII f. 6 r.), and there is no doubt, as pointed out by 
Prof. Solmi, that this is the first project for draining 
the Pontine Marshes made by Leonardo (c. 15 14) 

Reviews and Notice 

for Leo X and his brother GiuHano, wlio were 
then endeavouring to solve the problem of drain- 
ing this immense tract of country, For reasons 
explained by the author, the execution of the 
scheme was not entrusted to Leonardo (who 
left Rome before it was begun), but to a Lombard, 
Giovanni Scotti of Como, whose name lirst appears 
in documents relating to this work in May, 15 15. 
Among other points touched upon in this admir- 
able paper is the fact that the master accompanied 
Leo X to Civitavecchia in 1515; his drawings and 
notes referring to the fortifications there are of 
exceptional interest having been made before 
Antonio da Sangallo had destroyed the remains 
of the ancient fortifications in order to begin his 
own work there. The note on the " Zecca di 
Roma" (MS. G. f. 43 r.), is interpreted as referring 
to Leonardo's interest in the reform of the Papal 
coinage carried out by Julius II in 1504; and 
brief reference is also made to the master's ideas for 
the construction of the modern city. The frequent 
visitations of plague in the fifteenth century seem 
to have suggested to the artist a plan on rational 
lines in the form of a species of " double garden 
city", a scheme apparently in advance of our 
present day systems. Lack of space prevents us 
from dealing at greater length with this pamphlet, 
which can be warmly recommended as a notable 
contribution to Leonardo-literature and indis- 
pensable to every student of the subject. 

La Sala Pisanelliana dipinta da Gaetano 


Trecca. Verona : Bettinelli. Illustrated. 
SiG. Trecca enthusiastically represents Sig. 
Miolato's decoration with scenes from Luigi da 
Porto's famous romance, "Romeo and Giulietta", 
adapted to the types of Pisanello, as a serious 
work of art. But " un grazioso potpourri con 

spunti dcir Aitichieri, del Carpaccio, de Stefano 
da Zevio ", etc., consisting of figures taken from 
the art of Pisanello " interpretata e incorniciata 
dal trittico Miolato " and his collaborators is 
surely insufficient to establish that claim. Sig. 
Miolato's work would be ranked more justly as 
cartoons suggesting decor suitable for a production 
of " Romeo and Juliet ' on the stage, after the 
manner of Pisanello. 

Rubens elne krltik von Paul Kaemmerer mit 6 Abbild- 
ungen. Miinchen : Reinhardt. 
The writer, a German painter, persistently carries 
on an attack on Dr. von Tschudi, which another 
German painter, Hr. Linde, seems to have 
abandoned more discreetly than he started. 
Hr. Kaemmerer is irate because, among other 
improvements in the arrangement of the Alt- 
pinakothek, which both painters regard as delin- 
quencies. Dr. von Tschudi has reduced Rubens's 
Melcagcr and Atalanta and Tlie Two Satyrs to 
their original format by removing the later 
additions by which they had been pieced out. 
Even if Dr. von Tschudi were not unanimously 
supported by his consultative committee, he is 
obviously well able to deal with his critics. In 
this case Hr. Kaemmerer uses many words and 
much capital type to present his case in a 
thoroughly unconvincing manner. Perhaps the 
admiration, which he and Hr. Linde express and 
he reports on the part of Hr. von Bucklin for this 
spurious Rubensismus, helps to account for the 
higher appreciation of contemporary German 
painting in Germany than elsewhere. May he 
remain content with Hr. von VVehner's assurance 
to the Bavarian Landtag that " the pictures could 
at any time be restored to their former state " ; 
and may Dr. von Tschudi succeed in retaining 
the potential character of that course 1 



Cramer (F.). Das romische Trier. (9x5) Gutersloh (Bertels- 
mann), 2M. 50. "Gymnasial-Bibliothek" ; 47 illustrations 
and plan. 

Ward (J.). The Roman era in Britain. (9x5) London 
(Methuen), 7s. 6d. net. " The Antiquary's Books " ; illus- 

Barclay (E.). The ruined temple Stonehenge, its history and 
a short account of questions concerned with it. (7 x 3) 
London (St. Catherine's Press), is. Illustrated. 

Parsons (C. E.). All Saints' Church, Horseheath. (9x5) 
Cambridge (Univy. Press), 5s. net. 5 plates. 

Bridge (Rtv. A.). Worth Church, Sussex. (7x4) London 
(F. Sherlock), is. 6d. net. Second edition ; illustrated. 

Glasgow : fifty drawings by Muirhead Bone. With notes on 
Glasgow by A. H. Charteris. (13x10) Glasgow (.Vlacle- 
hose), 42s. net. 

Del Arcu (R). Guia artistica y monumental de Huesca y su 
provincia. (8x6) Huesca (Perez). Illustrated. 

Chiti(A.). Pistoia. (7x5) Pistoia (Pagnini). An illustrated 
guide of 160 pp. 

Len'SI (A.). Palazzo Vecchio. (8x5) Florence (Alinari), 

1. 5. Illustrated. 
Bessom (M.). Antiquites du Valais (V« -Xe siecles). (13x10) 

Fribourg (Fragniere), 32 M. 

* Sizes (height 


BfiN^ziT (E., editor). Dictionnaire critique et documentaire 
des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs et graveurs de t 'US 
les temps et de tous les pays. Tome I, A— C. (10x6) 
Paris (Roger and Chernoviz). 

NouviON (P. de) and LiEZ (E.). Un ministre des modes sous 
Louis XVI : Mademoiselle Berlin, raarchande de modes de 
la reine, 1747-1813. 4to (h.indinade paper), Paris (Leclerc), 
180 fr. Plates, some in colour. 

Klaiber (H.). Der Ulmer Munsterbaumeister Matlhaus 
Boblinger. (12x9) Heidelberg (Winter). 

Fan'tin-Latour (Madame). Catalogue de I'oeuvre complet 
(i849-i904)deFantin-Latour. Etabliet r^dige par Madame 
F.-T. (10x7) Paris (Floury). With facsimile signa- 

X width) in inches. 


Recent Art Publications 

POLLAK (F.). Anton Dominik von Fernkorn, tin osterreich- 

ischer Plastiker. (iix8) Vienna (Schworclla and Hcick), 

3M. , ^ 

EsTiGNAkD (A). Giacomolli, sa vie, ses ceuvres. (10x7) 

Besan?on (Delagrange), 1910 54 collotypes. 
Beruete y MoREi (A. de). Valdes Leal. (9x6) Madrid 

(Su.irez), 8 pesetas. 27 plates. 
K.\i;abacek (J. von). Riza-i Abbasi, cin persischcr Miniaturcn- 

maler. {10x6) Vienna (Holder). Reprint from the 

Proceedings of the Imp. Academy of Sciences. 4S pp., 

9 plates. 
GIRODIE (A.). Martin Schongauer et I'-irt du Haut-Rhiii au 

XVesiecle. (9x6) Paris (Plon), 3 fr- 5°- "LesMaitres 

de TArt " ; plates. 
Rapstlber (M.). Slephan Sinding. {12x8) B.rlin (Internat. 

Verlagsanstalt), 6M. 79 illustrations. 
Auquier (P.) and Astier (J. B ). La vie et I'ceuvre de Joseph 

Soumy. graveur et peintre, (12x9) Marseille (Ruat), 1910, 

12 fr. 50. 


GEYXifLLER (Baron H. von). Nachgelassene Schriften, I. 

Architektur und Religion. (9x6) Basel (Spittlers Nachf.), 

3 M. With a biography and bibliography ot the author. 
Burgess (I.). The ancient monuments, temples and sculptures 

of India. Pt. 11. monuments. (15 x 11) London 

(Griggs), £\o. 144 plates from photographs in the 

India Ottice, Calcutta Museum, etc. 
Klopfer (P.). Von Palladio bis Schinkel. Eine Charakteristik 

der Baukunst des Klassizismus. (11x7) Eszlingen a. X. 

(Neff), 15 M. 261 illustrations. 
Evelyn-White (Rev. C. H.). County churches: Cambridge- 
shire and the Isle of Ely. (6x4) London (Allen), 2s. 6d. 

net. Plates. 
LusiN'i (V,). II duorao di Siena. Parte prima. (13x9) Siena 

(Tip. editrice S. Bernardino). 181 illustrations. 
AsioLi (L.). La chiesa di S. Domenico a Fano. (9x7) Fano 

(Scuola tip. Fanese), 1. 5- Ulustr.ited. 
Benedetti (.y. de). Palazzi e ville reali d'ltalia. Con 

prefazione di Corrado Ricci. I. Roma e Firenze. (9 x 6) 

Florence (Alinari), 15 1. 
Caddau (L.). Monographic de la cathedrale de Tarbes. (10 x 6) 

Paris (Champion), 5 fr. 50. Illustrated. 
Les vieu.x hotels de Paris : le Ministere de la Marine, ancien 

Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, construit par Gabriel de 

1762 a 1772. Notices historique et descriptive par 

J.Vacquier. (18x13) Paris (Contet). 62 collotspe pl.ites. 
Vischer (E.). Die Schloss- (Stilts-) Kirche zum heiligen 

Michael in Pforzheim. (10x7) Strasburg (Heitz), 5 M. 

II plates. 
RoTHERY (G. C). Ceilings and their decoration : art and 

archaeology, (7x5) London (Laurie), 6s. net, "House 

Decoration series ". Plates. 
Seipp (H.). It.ilienische M.iterialstudien. Forschungen und 

Gedanken iiber Bau- und Dekorationssteine Italiens. (10 x 7) 

Stuttgart (Enke), 9M. Illustrated. 


Morrison (A.). The painters of Japan. 2 vols. (15X11) 
London (Jack), 105s. 122 plates, some in colour. 

Breitschedel (O.). Zur Technik der roraisch-pompejanischen 
Wand-Malerei : ein Uberblick iiber die Streitfrage Donner- 
von Richter gcgen Berger. (9x6) Munich (Reinhardt), 
iM. 36 pp. 

LoNDl (E.). II classicismo nella pittura fiorentina del quattro- 
cento. (8x5) Florence (Tipogr. Barbera). 

ScHlDLOF (L). Die Bildnisminiatur in Frankreich im XVII, 
XVIII und XIX Jahrhundert. Als Anhaug : Allgemeines 
Lexikon der Miniaturisten allsr Lander. (12x9) Vienna, 
Leipzig (Beyers Nachfolger). 57 plates, some in colour. 


Gazette Des Beaux Arts. May, 1911. 
M. Marcel Rey.mond proves that the altar of Val-de-Grace 
was designed by Bernini and executed by the architect Le Due 
and the sculptor Michel Anguier. The writer, who regards it 
as one of the most interesting examples of the art of Bernini, 
touches upon other works by him in France, including a bust of 
Cardinal Richelieu in the Louvre (of 1641), there ascribed to an 

RuBENSOHN (O). Aus demPelizaeus-Muscum zn Hildesheim. 

Hellenistisches Silbergeriit in antiken Gipsabgiissen. 

(II xg) Berlin (Curlius), 25, M, Illustrated. 
Mayer (M.). La coppa Tarantina di srgento dorato del Museo 

provinciate di Bari. (13x9) Bari (Commissione prov. 

di archeologia), 1. 7.50. Illustrated. 
Jackson (C. J). An illustrated history of English plate, 

ecclesiastical and secular, in which the development of 

form and decoration in the silver and gold work of the 

British Isles from the earliest known examples to the latest 

of the Georgian period is delineated and described. 1 vols. 

(13x10) London ("Country Life"; Batsford), 168s. 

Hesslisg (E.). Documents de style Empire. Dessins 

d'orfevrerie de Penier conserves a la Bibliotheque de 

I'Union centrale des Beaux-Arts de Paris. Paris (Hessling). 

20 collotype plates, 
American church silver of the seventeenth and eighteenth 

centuries, with a few pieces of domestic plate, exhibited at 

the Museum of Fine Arts, Julyto December, 1911. (10x7) 

Boston, U.S.A. Plates. 

Stettin'ER (R.). Das Webebild in der Manesse-Handschrift 

und seine angebliche Vorlage. (10x7) Berlin (Spemann), 

I M. 50. Illustrated. 
Nolhac (P. de). Tapisseries des Gobelins exposees au palais 

de Versailles en 1910. (20 x 14) Paris (Bourdier), 60 fr. 

30 plates. 
OvERLOop (E. van). Mat^riaux pour servir a I'histoire de la 

dentelle en Belgique. 2e serie. Dentelles anciennes des 

Musics royaux a Bruxelles. (18 x 14) Brussels (Van Oest), 

120 fr. 5 fascicles, each 20 collotype plates; i and a 


Herbert (J. A.). Illuminated Manuscripts. (10X7) London 

(Methuen's Connoisseur's Library), 25s. net. Plates. 
BiNYON (L.). The Flight of the Dragon : an essay on the 

theory and practice of art in China and Japan, based on 

original sources. (6 x 5) London (Murray's " Wisdom of 

the East' series), 2s. net. 
Giles (H. A.). Adversaria Sinica, No. g. (10x7) Shanghai 

(Kelly and Walsh). Contains: Chinese bronzes ; Who was 

Si Wang Mu .' ; Jade ; Notes on Laufer's " Chinese Pottery 

of the Han Dynasty" ; etc. 48 pp., illustrated. 
Marignam (A.). La decoration monumentale des eglises de la 
France septentrionale du Xlle au Xllle siecle. (7x5) 

Paris (Leroux), 6 fr. "Petite Bibliotheque d'Art et 

d'Archftologie ". 
Baum(J.). Ulmer Plastik um 1500, (12x9) Stuttgart (Hoff- 
mann). 58 plates. 
NlCOLAl (A.). Histoire de la carte a jouer en Guienne, avec 

etude-preface sur les mailres-cartiers de Guienne. Bordeaux 

(Feret) ; Lille (Lcfebvre-Ducrocq), 12 fr. Illustrated. 
Musees imperiaux ottemans. Catalogue des poteries byzantines 

et anatoliennes du Mus^e de Constantinople. (lox") 

Constantinople (Musee imperial), 3s. 42 pp., illustrated. 
Sammlung Lord Sudeleyt, Toddington Castle (Gloucestershire): 

Schweizer Glasmalereien vorwiegend des XVI und XVII 
Jahrhunderts. (12x9) Munich (Helbing). Sale 4th 

October, igii ; preface by H. Lehmann ; illustrated. 

Pineau. (15x12) Paris (Longuet) 80 fr. 100 plates. 
Deshairs (L.). Dessins originaux des maitres decorateurs, 

XVIIIe siMe, epoque de Louis XV : Nicolas et Dominique 

Sponskl (J. L.). Handzeichnungen deutscher Kiinstler des 

XIX Jahrhunderts aus der Sammlung Cichorius im Kiinigl 

Kupferstichkabinet zu Dresden. (21 x 16) Dresden (Hoist). 

45 plates, and text (11 x 8). 
Hesslisg (E.). Documents de style Empire. Le luminaire 
(16 X 12) Paris (Hessling). 60 collotype plates. 

anonymous French sculptor of the close of the seventeenth 
century. M. Hactecceur begins a series of artic'es on " Les 
Arts a Naples i la fin du XV1I1« siecle." Concluding notice 
of the painter Alexis Grimou by M. Gabilloi (former articles 
February and April). 

June.— M. Salomon Reinach publishes a paper, read by him 
before " I'Acadcmie des Inscriptions" {Comptes reticius, igio), 


French Periodicals 

o» new documents concerning the Vierge aux ivclien, in which 
he puts forward the suggestion that the Louvre picture was 
painted in Florence before 14S3, remained there under con- 
ditions of which we know nothing, and became a source of 
inspiration to other painters. He believes the London picture 
to be a later variant of this composition executed in part by 
the master himself. M. Tourneux gives new information 
relating to Paul Huet (d. 1869) and his worlc, and reproduces 
several of his landscapes, lllust.-ated notices by M. Bidou, on 
the Loan Collection of Dutch Masters of the 17th century 
at the Salle du Jeu de Paume, Paris, and by M. SOULIER, 
on the Florentine Portrait E.xhibition. 

July.— M. Bruel gives some account of the miniaturist Pierre- 
Noiil Violet (1749-1819)— a French emigre who settled in 
England, exhibiting at the Royal Academy from 1790 onwards 

and corrects erroneous statements of ottier writers relating to 

this artist. M. Soulier concludes his notice of the Florentine 
Portrait Exhibition. 

August.— M. Vaudoyer deals with "L'Orientalisme en 
Europe au XVIIle siecle", with reference to the Exhibition 
organised by the Central Union of Decorative Art in Paris. 
First article by M. SERVifiRKS on French artists at the Court 
of Saxony in the i8th century. M. Flandrik writes on 
two pupils of Ingres, Paul and Raymond Bilze, and M. 
Hautecceur concludes his notice of Art in Naples at the close 
of the i8th century. 

September.— M- Jamot discusses a picture recently acquired 
by Ihe Louvre, Apollo Inspiring a Young Poet, by Nicholas 
Poussin. M. Petrucci writes on Buddhist art of the Far 
East in the light of recent discoveries and refers to the Large 
number of sculptures, paintings and documents brought to 
Europe by various archDeologcal missions and now available 
for study. He touches upon the condition of Chinese art 
prior to the introduction of Buddhism a? represented by the 
sculptui-es of the Han dynasties ; the painting of Kou K'ai- 
tche, a document of great importance, belonging to the 
period when Buddhism was diffusing itself throughout the Far 
East ; and the rise and rapid development of the Graeco- 
Buddhist art of Gandhara in N.W. India, which took place 
between these periods ; the writer traces its march eastwards 
through Chinese Turkestan to China and tinally to Japan, shows 
that its evolution wai determined by contact with the art, 
already formed and developed, of China, and that if in its earliest 
plastic forms Buddhist an owes much to the West, it was in 
Eastern Asia that it attained its full maturity aad strength. 
Dr. BoMBE reproduces and explains a series of frescoes in 
one of the room; of the Davizzi-Davanzati Palace in Florence 
by a follower of Orcagna ; though weak in execution they are 
of great intsrest as showing for the rtrst time the influence of 
French mediaeval romance on mural painting in Italy. The 
subject represented is thought by the author to be taken from 
the romance "La Dame de Vergy", the painter having 
faithfully followed the Italian version of this popular 
tale as proved by a MS. of the Kiccardiana Library, 
Florence — "Rime Diverse" — the author of which may have 
been the Florentine poet Antonio Pucci (1310-90). The frescoes 
were, perhaps, executed to commemorate the marriage of 
Francesco Davizzi with Catalana degli Alberti in 1395. M. DE 
M^LY, writing on the signatures of the Primitives, draws 
attention to a " Book of Hours " in the Library of the Due 
d'.\renburg at Brussels known as the " Hours of the Princesse 
de Croy", in which he has discovered the date 1505 and the 
signature " Ian Rome ". This he believes to refer to the court 
pamter of Margaret of Austria, Jan van Roome (Jean de 
B.-uxelles), on whose tapestries the signature "Jan de Ron" is 
seen. M. de Mely has founl the signature "Rome" in the 
" Hours of Aragon " (Bibl. Nat.) and in the " Hours '' belonging 
to Baron Edmond de Rothschild with the additional monogram 
I. R., (not I. B. as some have thought), both MS3. being at 
present assigned to Bourdichon. The writer considers that 
they are closely connected with the " Hours of the Princesse de 
Croy". Other articles on Pajou and his busts of Mme. Du 
Barry, by M. Stein ; and on pictures in the Museum at Sens, by 
M. Saukier, including an early work, Jupiter and Aiitiope, 
of c. 176S, by Louii David ; ttvo young girls, by the brothers 
Lenain, and a portrait by Vestier. 

Revue De LArt Avciem et M >derms. Miy, 1911. 

M. Caqn.\t reproduces certain works of ancient art — copies in 

bronze and marble of Greek originals— discovered near Mahdia 

at a depth of 40 metres beneath the sea, and now in the Museum 
at Bardo. The ship conveying them from Athens, its destina- 
tion do-.ib'.less Italy, was wrecked off the east coast of Tunis 
probably at the close of the second or beginning of the first 
century B.C.; the treasure remained submerged until discovered 
by sponge-fishers in 1907. M. Dorbec has an article on 
Antoine Vestier (b. 1740), a number of whose portraits have 
recently been bequeathed to the Musee Carnavalet. 

June.— M. Bertaux in a first article on II Greco deals with 
family portraits and comments on the valuable collection of 
documents concerning this painter, discovered in the archives 
at Toledo and published by Don F. San Roman y Fernandez. 
M. Marcel Reymond writes on early painted glass in the 
Lyonnais with reference more especially to a recent book on the 
subject by M. Lucien Begule. He reproduces one of the few 
existing examples of 12th century gl.xss at Champ, near Grenoble, 
and refers to the still more important specimen of c. 1180 in the 
cathedral at Lyon, both of which derive directly from the glass 
at Charh-es. The revival of the art in France in the 15th 
century is also dealt with ; among fine examples the writer 
raenti ms the glass at Lyon, Ambierle, I'Arbresle, Villefranche- 
sur-Saone, Saint-Andre d'Apchon.etc, a, study of which proves 
that the union between France and Italy at this period was even 
closer than is usually assumed. 

July.— Comte Durrieu deals with the history and vicissitudes 
of two " Books of Hours " once belonging to Jean Due de Berri. 
In this first article he treats of the " Hours of Savoy " (which 
perished by lire at Turin in 1904), and of the fortunate dis- 
covery by Dom F. Blanchard, of Solesmes, of a number of pages 
in the Libr.ary of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Portsmouth 
belonging to this MS., and separated from it at some period 
unknown. A useful note at the end of the article deals with 
pages still missing (as proved by Comte Durrieu's studies made 
at Turin before 1904) and belonging to the earliest portion of 
the MS., executed for Blanche of Burgundy. This hit, valuable 
to collectors and bibliophiles, may aid in identifying these 
pages, should they still be in existence. M. Durand Greville 
examines the works attri'iuted to Petrus Cristus (many of them 
bearing his signature), and seeks to prove that the hand of two 
artists is discernible in them, and that the signature was used 
by two ptinters of the name, probably father and son. The 
author produces no document in support of his theory, which 
his, we believe, been advanced before by another writer. 
M. Lafond reproduces the portrait of the Chancellor Pierre 
Seguier m iking his solemn entry into Rouen in 1639, executed 
by Charles Le Brun when barely twenty. The picture dis- 
appeared at the time of the French Revolution, but was 
eventually acquired by a descendant of Seguier, and is still in 
the possession of the family. 

August. — M. EviiLE Male writes on the mosque (cathedral) 
at Cordova and shows that certain .architectural details met 
with there, are also found in 12th century churches in Velay 
and Auvergne — in the cathedral at Puy and in the church of 
Notre-Dame-du-Port at Clermont ; he concludes that the French 
architects must have visited Cordova (where great toleration 
was shown to Christians by the Mohammedans) in the early 
I2th century, and must have studied the details of the building. 
Second article by Comte Durrieu on the " Hours" of the 
Due de Berri, dealing with the compUcated history of the 
"H)urs of Turin." This MS. was the dismembered frag- 
ment of a much la-ger MS., " Les tres belles Heures de 
Notre-Dame ", the earliest portion of which was executed 
between 1404 and 1412. Eventually, after many vicissitudes and 
numerous additions at later periods, it was divided into 
three parts, of which one is in the Maurice Rothschild Collection ; 
another, the " Hours of Turin ", was burnt in 1904 (a few pages, 
detached at some period unknown, are in the Louvre, and others 
are missing), and the third part, in the Trivulzio Library, Milan, 
has now been published by M. Hulin de Loo under the 
title '^ Les Heures de Milan." M. Clouzot begins a notice 
of French enamellers under Louis XIV, and treats of such little 
known artists as Louis Hans (Van de Breuihen), Louis du 
Guernier, who probably worked in enamel before the return to 
Fiance (from England) of Petitotand learned the art from some 
member of the Toutin family ; Jacques-Philippe Ferrand (a 
friend of Petitot), who wrote a treatise on enamelling, entitled 
" L'art du feu," and Louis Chatillon ; a portrait by the latter in 
the Geneva Museum shows that he closely approached Petitot 
M. DuRAND-GRtviLLE continues his dissertation on " Les deux 
peintres Petrus Christus", attempts to establish the identity of 


French Periodicals 

two painters of this name, and to apportion and classify the 
work of each. The well-known triptychs at Granada and 
Valencia are ascribed to Petrus Christus " the Younger." M. 
Dacier publishes notes and documents on portraits of the 
dancer La Camargo, engraved in the i8th century. 

Revue de l'Art Chretien. March-April, 1911. 
M. Andre de Hevesey writes on the miniaturists of Matthias 
Corvinus (first article in Jan.-Feb.) and reproduces many MSS. 
executed for the King and now dispersed in public libraries and 
private collections. The examples given are of unequal merit ; 
one of the most striking is evidently of N. Italian origm, though 
the author does not appear to recognize it as such. Under 
"Milanges", Dr. Paul Cleme.>< gives a brief account of 
the excavation of the Palace of Charlem igaeat Ingelheira. The 
results obtained have been surprising and will be dealt with in 
a separate monograph by Dr. Rauch. M. Drouot writes on the 
" Pleurants " around the tombs of the Dukes of Burgundy and 
proves that their number should be forty-one. M. Casier refers 
to a paper read by M. Bergmans, before the Historical and 
Archjeological Society at Ghent, on a MS. given by M vs;aret of 
York to the Poor Clares and containing her autograph dedication 
and miniatures of the history of Saiiite Colette who reformed the 
Order, The MS. is preserved in the convent of the Poor Clares 
at Ghent 

May-June. — M. Chabbup writes on La Sainte-Chapelle 
at Dijon, destroyed, with the greater part of the works of 
art which it contained, in the French Revolution. Some 
of the fine 14th century glass is s.iid to have been taken 
to England. Dr. Liphart discusses and reproduces 
two panels by the Maitre de Flemalles at S. Petersburg, 
and treats of Robert Carapin in the light of the discoveries 
made by M. Hulin de Loo and M. Maurice Houtart. 
M. R. Michel publishes a document in the Vatican relating to 
the tomb of Pope Innocent VI at Villeneuve-les-Avignon. The 
figure of the Pope is by Bartholome Cavallier, ordered from 
him in 1361 during the lifetime of Innocent ; the execution of 
the whole was supervised by Bertran Nogayrol, overseer of 
works in the Pontifical Palace at .\vignon, " at the time of the 
Babylonian captivity ". Under " Melanges", M. l'.\bbe MfePAls 
writes on the tomb and the enamelled crozier of Regnault de 
Mou<;on Id. 1217), once in the Abbev- Church of fosaphat and 
now in the Museum of the Asile d'Aligre, which is built on the 
site of the abbey. On the enlargement of the Asile, the tomb 
was discovered in 19^9. M. Mayeux has a note on the belfry 
of the cathedral at Perpignan. The bell, dited 1418, is one of 
the largest and most ancient in France. The writer believes that 
it was cast by Ypolit Gil. 

Les Arts. July, 1911. 

The whole of this number is devoted to the Ingres Exhibition 
which took place in June. The article, by M. SaU.VIER, 
contains forty drawings and paintings by the artist. 

August. — M. RuscoNi deals exhaustively wich the Davanzati 
Palace in Florence. Originally the property of the Davizzi 
family and in the late i6th century owned by the Davanzati, 
it is now the property of Prof. Volpi, who has restored it with 
great skill and knowledge. 

Revoe ARCHioLOGiQUE. March-April, igii. 
M. CoURBY, in an article entitled " Sur le Frise du Tresor de 
'Cnide' a Delphes", combats the conclusions of Dr. Heberdey, 
who proposed a redistribution of the fragments which 
M. HomoUe had replaced in the frieze. M. Adolphe Reinach 
writes on " Divinites Gauloises au serpent ". with reference 
especially to two figures in the museum at Nancy, which he 
identifies as a god and goddess, each holding a serpent in the 
right hand ; he cites numerous examples proving the significance 
of the serpent in ancient art. M. Picard discusses certain 
questions relating to the Heracles Epitrapczios of Lysippus, and 
cites the mutilated fragment of a statue found at Delos, which 
he adds to the list of copies and replicas of the Epitrapczios, 
drawn up by Prof. Weiszacker. Mr. M. (astrow, jr., 
examines the question of the supposed " bearded Venus ", and 
explains the origin of the mistake. M. de Vasselot identifies 
one of the coats of arms on a well-known enamel plaque now in 
the Pierpont Morgan Collection, but is unable to throw any 
further light upon the chronology of the works of the myste- 
rious enameller known as Pseudo-Monvaerni. M. Oulmo.nt 
reproduces a picture by the Housebook Master in the museum 
at Freiburg im Breisgau, and a drawing which some would 
ascribe to him in the Cabinet of Engravings (Bibl. Nat ), Paris. 
M. DE Mely, under the heading "Signatures de Primitifs ", 
discusses an Ecce Homo belonging to M. Michy at Checy 
(Loiret), which has an inscription on the back of the panel, with 
the date 1494 and the name of the painter, which M. Mely 
deciphers as " Jean Hay ". The writer would identify this 
artist with the Flemish painter of that name who is mentioned 
in a poem of 1503 by Lemaire de Beiges (himself a painter at 
the Court of Margaret of Austria), and ranked by him among 
the best artists of the day. 

May-(une, 1911.— M. Ebersolt writes of the treasure found 
in a field near Stuma, and now in the museum at Constontinople, 
consisting of a rtaftcZ/HiH and three patens, Syrian goldsmith's 
work of the 7th century, belonging probably to a church which 
was destroyed at the time of the Mussulman conquest. Mme. 
RoBLOT Delondre writes on a picture at Versailles acquired 
from Carlsruhe, representing " Le Jardin d' Amour" of Philippe 
le Bon (not ;Charles of Burgundy as usually assumed). She 
identifies it as the copy of a panel picture described by Angote 
de Molina at " El Pardo," a country house of the Kings of 
Spain (destroyed in the early 17th century). The panel picture 
was produced, she considers, c. 1420, in a Netherlandish or 
Franco-Netherlandish workshop, and she regards the Versailles 
copy as a late i6th century work ; another and inferior version, 
formerly at Versailles, is now at Azay-le-Rideau. M. BRfeaiER 
has a note on " Le motif du Galop volant " in an ivory casket of 
Byzantine work at Ravenna, a motive of Mycenaean origin, 
very common in Asia, but of the utmost rarity in Byzantine 
art. M. Salomon Reinach reproduces in colour a funeral 
stele found at \chlida, and a head found at Chersonesos, both 
in the museum at Candia, as examples of colour-photography 
from negatives of M. Lumiere of Lyon, which were placed at 
M. Reinach's disposal by I'Abbe Archambault ; these plates 
represent one of the first attempts to utilize M. Lumiere's dis- 
covery for the purpose of polychrome reproductions of ancient 


HE disappearance of La Joconde 
remains a mystery, and we have to 
face the deplorable possibility that it 
is lost for ever or, at least, for many 
years. The judicial investigation 
pursues its course, but no clue to the thief has yet 
been discovered. It would seem ahnost certain 
that there was complicity within the Louvre, not 
necessarily on the part of a guardian ; there are 
other employees in the Louvre, such as the 
architect's staff, etc. The thief must have 


been very well informed in advance as to the 
peculiar circumstances of that particular morning, 
and such information could come only from 
inside. It can hardly be a mere coincidence 
that he chose the time when most of the guardians 
were called off to take down the pictures of the 
Spanish School, in order that the architect might 
repair the walls in which there had been an 
infiltration of water. It appears that even the 
Keepers of the Department of Painting did not 
know until the Monday morning that the guardians 

Art in France 

would be required for that purpose on that morn- 
ing (the fact that they knew so late throws lighten 
the administration of the Louvre), but the stati" 
had been informed on the previous Saturday. As 
it must be known to whom the information was 
given, the sphere of investigation is limited. 

This deplorable event — an international no less 
than a national disaster — has been made the 
occasion of violent and most unjustifiable attacks 
on the Director and Keepers of the Louvre. One 
London evening paper, for instance, held them up 
to universal reprobation. Such attacks, when they 
are not interested (as they certainly have 
been in some cases), can be only the result of 
a complete misapprehension of the facts of the 
case. The Keepers (the " Conservation ") 
are no more responsible for the protection of the 
Louvre than are the writers who have 
attacked them ; they do not appoint the guar- 
dians ; they have no voice in assigning to them 
their duties ; they have no power to say that 
such-and-such guardians shall be on duty in this 
or that room. These matters are under the control 
of the " Direction " of the Louvre. M. Homolle 
was, of course, the Director, but it is a curious fact 
that the official who has the greatest responsibility 
in all these matters (M. Rieu, the "secretaire de la 
direction ") has never been so much as mentioned 
in the press. I am far from suggesting that it is 
the fault of M. Rieu that La Joconde was stolen ; 
the chief culprits must be looked for, in my opinion 
and in that of many other people, not in the 
Louvre itself but in the rue de Valois. But, if the 
officials of the Louvre are to be attacked at all, 
justice demands that the attacks should be made 
on those officials who have the responsibility for 
the protection of the Museum, not on those who 
have no such responsibility. There may be a prima 
jade case for criticism of M. Homolle and M. Rieu 
(I shall have a word to say on that point later) : 
there is none at all for criticism in this regard of 
the Keepers of Painting. Yet so important a 
newspaper as the " Temps " actually made, in a 
leading article, the most unjust and inaccurate 
attack on M. Leprieur, who forthwith replied in a 
letter which completely disposed of his critic. 
Certain other papers have been equally unjust. 
ReaUy, the candidates for the succession show an 
eagerness which is positively indecent. 

Fortunately, it may be said with confidence 
that M. Leprieur's position has been assailed in 
vain; other intrigues have, unhappily, been 
crowned with more success. As everyone knows, 
M. Homolle has been made the scapegoat, and 
there is more than a suspicion that the loss of 
La Joconde was the pretext for, rather than the 
reason of, a measure which had long been desired 
in certain quarters. It is unnecessary to dwell 
on M. HomoUe's qualifications ; he is one of the 
most distinguished scholars in France, an authority 

on art and aixh^ology of world-wide reputation. 
The nation was under an obligation to him (and 
that is true of other officials of the Louvre) for 
giving his services in return for a salary totally 
inadequate to the duties and responsibilities of 
the position. The French nation pays the 
Director of the greatest museum in the world 
^"500 a year, and the combined salaries of the 
twenty Keepers amount to a trifle more than 
;^2,ooo a year. The compulsory retirement of 
M. Homolle is, therefore, more to be regretted 
from the public point of view than from his 

The proceedings of the administrative inquiry 
which led to this measure were secret ; but nothing 
has yet been published which gives the smallest 
colour to the suggestion that M. Homolle was negli- 
gent in the exercise of his duties. It is true that 
the Louvre is insufficiently protected both against 
robbery and against fire ; but is M. Homolle or 
M. Rieu responsible for this state of affairs ? As 
I have said, the responsibility rests with the system 
at work in the rue de Valois. The Louvre is under 
thecontroloftheAdministrationof Fine Arts, which 
hampers the Director and the Keepers at every 
turn ; the latter are denied the power which must 
go with responsibility and, when things go wrong, 
it is they, forsooth, who are to be held responsible. 
If M. Homolle has made a mistake, it was in not 
resigning long ago and telling the public why he 
did so. Year after year he has insisted that the 
Louvre was insufficiently protected and the 
Administration of Fine Art has turned a deaf ear 
to his representations. If he asked for twelve 
more guardians, for instance, the Government 
allowed him six or seven. It is only within the 
last year or two that steps have at last been taken 
to diminish the risk of fire — the removal of the 
Ministry of the Colonies, whose proximity to 
the Museum was a constant danger, took 
years to accomplish — and much remains to be 
done in this respect. Those who have criticized 
the Keepers for not fixing the pictures to the walls 
forget that, even in present conditions, it would be 
impossible, in case of tire, to save the majority of 
the pictures. If they were fixed, as has been 
suggested, the destruction would be still worse. 

Here is an incident which shows the relations 
between the Administration of Fine Arts and the 
Director of the Louvre. The guardians asked M. 
Homolle for a certain amelioration of their condi- 
tion ; M. Homolle duly transmitted the request to the 
Administration of Fine Arts, with the recommenda- 
tion that it should be granted, and it was refused. 
The guardians then applied directly to the Admini- 
stration and obtained what they wanted. What 
is likely to be the organization of a museum 
whose director is thus flouted by his official 
superiors ? No wonder that there are complaints 
of insufficient control over the guardians. 


Art in France 

The manner in which the guardians are 
appointed is not calculated to make the organiza- 
tion of the Museum easy. By law they must all 
be retired non-commissioned officers chosen from 
a list supplied by the Ministry of War. This 
already unduly restricts the choice, and, in practice, 
the appointment is almost altogether in the hands 
of the Ministry of War, which sometimes refuses to 
give any adequate information about its nominees. 
On one occasion the officials of the Louvre suc- 
ceeded, only with great difficulty and after strenuous 
efforts, in preventing the appointment as guardian 
of a gentleman who had been previously convicted 
of theft. In a word, the Louvre has a Direction 
which is not allowed to direct and it is dis- 
organized by outside interference. 

There is an obvious remedy for all this : it 
is to give the Director at once power and 
responsibility, and to free the Louvre from the 
grasp of Government departments. It is most 
improbable that that remedy will be adopted. At 
present M. Eugene Pujalet, " inspecteur-general 
des services administratifs" at the Ministry of 
Finance, has been appointed temporary director 
of the Louvre in place of M. Homolle, presum- 
ably on the ground that he has had no experience 
of the organization and administration of a 
museum, although his great qualifications for 
his own post are undeniable. He has, it is 
understood, greater powers than were vouchsafed 
to M. Homolle, but he cannot reform the adminis- 
tration of the Louvre unless the principle is first 
accepted that power and responsibility must go 
together. So long as there is a sharp separation 
bet.veen the " Direction" and the "Conservation " 
(the latter being the purely artistic department), to 
such an extent that the keepers so netimes do not 
recognize the guirdians nor the guardians the 
keepers, it is impossible that the Louvre can be 
satisfactorily organized. There should be one 
control, and one only : a director with full powers 
and entire responsibility, and under him keepers 
of the various departmants with such powers and 
corresponding responsibilities as their positions 
demand ; and the Director and keepers should 
be subject to no outside interference. Two 
Government departments have already had their 
hand in the administration of the Louvre. The 
introduction of a third seems hardly likely to 
bring order out of chaos. 

Meanwhile the public is being punished for the 
loss of La Jocondc. Only the departments of 
painting (exclusive of the Thorny- Thierry collec- 
tion) and antiquities are now open every day 
(except, of course, Monday) ; the furniture, 
drawings and pastels are open on Sunday, Tuesday, 
Thursday and Saturday ; the bronzes and ceramics 
on Tuesday and Saturday ; the Egyptian antiquities, 
sculpture galleries, Grandidier collection, etc., on 
Wednesday and Friday ; the Assyrian antiquities, 


marine museum and Thomy-Thierry collection on 
Thursday and Sunday. The inconvenience of 
being obliged to remember on what particular day 
a particular department is open need not be 
insisted on. To it is added the even more grave 
inconvenience that the Louvre now never opens 
before eleven o'clock in the morning, so that 
it is practically impossible to visit it before 
lunch, and on Thursdays it opens only at 
one o'clock. From ist October, therefore, it 
will be open for five hours five days a week and 
for three hours on Thursdays. These drastic 
measures are attributed to the inadequacy of the 
staff and may be justifiable, as a temporary measure, 
on that ground. It is to be hoped that, as soon 
as Parliament meets, sufficient credits will be 
obtained to restore the National Museum to the 

The superb picture by Nicholas Poussin from 
the Hope collection, which the Louvre recently 
acquired for 130,000 francs, has now been hung 
with Poussin's other works in the French Gallery. 
Itoccupies a place of honour, which it well deserves, 
in the middle of one of the walls. If it is not the 
masterpiece of the painter, it is one of his master- 
pieces, and its unusually fine condition adds to its 
value. Among the new acquisitions on the screens 
is a very interesting portrait of Mere Angelique by 
Philippe de Champaigne. 

The Autumn Salon will hold its " Vernissage " 
on Saturday, 30th September, will be opened to 
the public on the following day and remain open 
until Wednesday, 8th November, inclusive. Al- 
though at the time of writing it is impossible to 
give even a general impression of the exhibition, 
the little that I have seen of it at present leads me 
to believe it will be unusually interesting. It has 
long since becoms the most important Salon of 
the year, from the artistic point of view. The 
sculpture includes a remarkably fine monument 
to Beethoven by M. de Charraoy, which was 
ordered by the town of Paris and subsequently 
refused. The Salon will include a large section 
of decorative art, occupying twenty-seven rooms, 
on the lines of the Munich section last year, but 
this time entirely French. There will also be a 
collection of the designs for the scenery of the 
Theatre des Arts, all by well-known painters. The 
retrospective section will consist of the works 
of Camille Pissarro, Henry de Groux and 

It has for some time past been rumoured in 
Paris that M, Jacques Doucet had decided to sell 
his collection. The report is true, at least as 
regards the pictures and objects of the eighteenth 
century ; it is understood that M. Doucet will 
retain his Chinese and other oriental objects. The 
sale will take place ne.xt year, and will, no doubt, 
be one of the chief events of the season. 

R. E.D. 



HE Italian phrase is 
convenient, since it re- 
calls the fact that Italy 
has from very early days 
— so early as the seven- 
teenth century in Tus- 
cany, at least — believed that great works 
of art, even though held by private indi- 
viduals, were also indirect appanages of 
the State, and that the State had a right to 
stop their exportation. At the cost of a 
great deal of friction, and to an accom- 
paniment of widespread corruption, a 
small number of works of art has been 
held up in this w-ay. The example of 
Italy's endeavour to interfere with the 
natural trend of the market is not 
encouraging, and we fully endorse Earl 
Curzon's repudiation of it in his eloquent 
speech at the Grafton Galleries. He 
assumed, what our readers will assuredly 
grant, the clear necessity for some action 
that will secure to the nation the few 
remaining masterpieces which are of such 
importance that their loss might be 
considered as a national disgrace. He 
proposed two remedies : the increase of 
the yearly grant to the National Gallery 
and an invitation to Members of Parlia- 
ment to hand their salaries over to the 
National Art-Collections Fund. Both 
are excellent suggestions, but perhaps 
inadequate to meet the situation. What 
is required is that as quickly as pos- 
sible a list of these masterpieces should 
be made, and a sufficient capital sum set 
aside for their purchase. The reversion 
of the works upon this list should be irre- 
vocably secured to the nation at a price to 
be fixed at once by confidential agreement 
between the Government and the owners, 
which would be binding on both parties 
in the future. This would have the effect 
of nationalizing the masterpieces as against 
a private purchaser, while the owners 

The Bcrungton Magazine, No. 104. Vol. XX.— Xovember, 1911. 

would still retain and transmit to their 
heirs their property in them so long as 
they chose to do so. We do not ask of 
owners more patriotism than they have 
already shown spontaneously. Hitherto 
owners have generally offisred to sell their 
masterpieces to the nation on specially 
favourable terms ; the trustees of the 
national collections have had no money, 
and have been unable to accept those 
terms ; and the Treasury ultimately has 
been obliged to supplement private sub- 
scriptions by extraordinary grants in order 
to secure the very same objects, but by 
this time at enormously enhanced prices. 
We hope by some such scheme as we 
suggest that the rights of owners may be 
fully met, and that the Treasury may be 
saved from sudden and imperative calls — 
in addition to an annual grant — too often 
for the profit not of owners, but of middle- 
men. It has become evident that private 
generosity must not be counted upon 
much longer to increase the profits of a 
lucrative trade, nor can any Government 
be expected to single this trade out tor 
such an effective, if indirect, form of 
protection. On the other hand, an owner 
cannot be expected to carry his patriotism 
so far as to hold his property at the disposal 
of the nation at a reduced price, and at 
the same time to run the usual risk of 
incurring a heavy fine for doing so. It 
would not be unreasonable, therefore, if 
masterpieces thus "retained" for the 
nation were placed in a privileged 
position as regards death duties and suc- 
cession duties. 

If these few masterpieces could be 
secured, the financial needs of the National 
Gallery could be much more clearly de- 
fined. If the capital sum required be 
beyond that which a Government could 
ask Parliament to provide, might it not be 
possible for the Government to commute 


Our Patrimonio Artistico 

its contributions, and hand over to the 
Trustees a sum sufficient to purchase these 
masterpieces at once or hereafter, and at 
the same time provide a revenue sufficient 
to meet the ordinary needs of the Gallery 
in the future ? In this way the particular 
question, which may be called national — the 
retention of those works the loss of which 
would entail national humiliation — would 
be solved by Government action. One 
thing is quite certain : if we go on as we 
are now, we shall in the near future lose 
these great masterpieces for ever, and the 
National Gallery can do nothing to save 
them. The purchase of minor works, 
whatever their interest and charm may 
be, cannot in any way compensate us for 
the loss with which we are threatened. 

One other alternative : let us suppose that 
we do as a nation declare that the effiDrt 
to keep these few supreme works of earlier 
art in England is too great, that we do not 
care enough for them to pay the price, 
then surely one line of future policy 
becomes clear. There is no point in the 
nation being a collector as such ; we 
have no actual need for mere curiosities 
or rarities. Let us at least buy master- 
pieces, and, having given up the struggle 
for masterpieces by the old masters, let us 
buy modern ones, and even >r5,ooo a year 
will do something when, instead of Titian, 
Rembrandt and Van Dyck, we are talking 
of contemporary masters of such indis- 
putable reputation as Ingres, Daumier or 



HE present Exhibition of Old Masters 
at the Graf ton Galleries containsseveral 
paintings which, though mostly pub- 
lished in one form or another, are so 
far unfamiliar as to justify ourbringing 
to the notice of our readers. As regards a 

few which will be reproduced here, there has indeed 
been no previous publication at all. This is the 
case with regard to the very interesting tondo 
reproduced in Plate I. It shows a figure of Christ 
holding the Book of Life in His left hand while He 
blesses with the right. It is in tempera with a gold 
background on panel. The robe is of a deep 
brown-crimson, the flesh-colour full and rich ; 
and the effect upon the untouched gold background, 
which age has darkened to a subdued intensity, is 
singularly impressive. The panel is of unusual 
shape : a quatrefoil imposed on a diamond with 
truncated base. This shape would indicate that it 
formed originally a part of an altar-piece or was 
superposed on some architectural structure. The 
picture is lent by Lady Jekyll, and was once in the 
Graham collection. Mr. Graham acquired it in 
Italy, but its exact provenance is no longer 
known. It has always been attributed to Giotto. 
This is an attribution which usually arouses a 
well-justified suspicion in the critic's mind. It 
would be too rash, considering how little we know 
for certain about Giotto's work, to be dogmatic 


about this attribution, but at least it will be con- 
ceded that in this case the claim is worthy of 
serious consideration. It has nothing in common 
with the work of the regular Giottesque painters. 
It is distinguished from their work by its intensity 
of mood and vitality of design. Bernardo Daddi, 
it is true, did in his earliest works show something 
of the imaginative conviction of this, though he 
degenerated (as may be seen from his great signed 
polyptych in the present exhibition) into a 
more academic and elegant perfection ; but Lady 
Jekyll's Chn$\ has not the peculiar elongated type of 
head which is Daddi's most striking characteristic. 
Nor, to go to the companions of Giotto's earlier 
period, has this any resemblance to the work of 
the master of the 5. Cecilia altar-piece. Giotto's 
tempera-panels are so rare that it is difficult to 
establish points of comparison whereby to judge 
this impressive work; but in technique and hand- 
ling and in the peculiar richness and force of its 
tonality it comes very near to The Crucifixion in the 
sacristy of the Arena Chapel at Padua ; and I 
should be inclined to attribute it to about the 
same period of Giotto's activity. It certainly 
possesses in a marked degree the characteristics of 
Giotto's art. In the body there is the peculiar 
realization of volume and mass within a contour 
of surprising economy ; and the movement of the 
hands >;hows that astonishing intimacy of feeling 





the madoxna and chili) enthroned with angels, liy masaccio. rev. a. f. 
sltton's collection 


Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries 

for gesture, as expressing a psychological state, 
which gives to Giotto his unique dramatic power. 
The picture is nobly expressive of the new ideal of 
Christianity to which the religious movements of 
the thirteenth century had given birth. It is 
definitely a Franciscan Christ, in Whom the 
terrible majesty of the earlier Byzantine concep- 
tion survives only in the solemnity of His move- 
ment, and is veiled by the pathetic tenderness and 
mystic absti action of the face. 

In certain qualities the tondo I have just de- 
scribed stands alone in the present exhibition. It 
alone imposes its mood of exalted and profound 
reverie by that mysterious language of direct sym- 
bolism of line, of mass and of colour scarcely 
passing through the ordinary channels of pictorial 
presentation. Doubtless the four exquisite pre- 
della-pieces by Duccio di Buoninsegna have 
something of the same quality, but the mood 
they evoke is slighter, their aim is narrative rather 
than dramatic. They show indeed that gift 
inherent in Siennese art of creating the illusion 
of a wide circumambient space in which the 
figures move ; and in the case of The Temptation 
of Christ this gives to the scene a quality of 
vastness and isolation which has an almost tragic 
poignancy. Scarcely less vivid in its realization 
of a similar significant isolation is T/ie Call of 
Peter and y antes ; but in T/ie Raising of Lazarus 
the absence of any real dramatic sense makes 
itself apparent, and we are let down to the level 
of simple and charming legendary narration. 

In contrast at once to the Giotto, Masaccio in 
his great Madonna [Plate II] sets up a new 
standard and hints at new methods. He stands 
between Giotto and Rembrandt, and one hardly 
knows which he resembles the more. In the 
general mode of expression, clearly the likeness to 
Giotto is very strong. In many ways Masaccio 
appears as throwing back to Giotto's principles 
after the experimental elegances and superficial 
refinements of the later Gothic designers ; but in 
its imaginative content this comes nearer, perhaps, 
to Rembrandt. Like Rembrandt's greatest things 
— like the works of the great realistic creators of 
all times — it seems to us surprisingly modern ; 
incredibly audacious, too, in its relentless and 
undeviating sincerity. What an age it must have 
been when a young man of twenty-five who made 
such things as this was not only not persecuted for 
blasphemy but enlisted in the service of the Church 
itself ! The man who should do the equivalent of 
this to-day would have but little chance to say his 
say before the age of twenty-seven, at which 
Masaccio left the world eternally his debtor. 

For what Masaccio has done here is to abandon 
all systematic idealism, not in favour of a super- 
ficial realism such as the Flemings and North Italians 
like Pisanello were adopting, but in favour of a 
much more radical, rationalistic realism. For the 

sublimest mystical conception is here treated, not 
only on the human plane, but upon the plane of 
ordinary familiar and unheroic humanity. The 
Virgin is such a mother as Masaccio knew in 
contemporary Florentine streets : only he knew 
her with the penetrating intensity of an imagi- 
nation bent solely on reality. The Child, 
mumbling the grapes, which give, by a piece of 
conventional symbolism, an adventitious clue to 
the imaginative idea, makes no direct pretence to 
Divinity. It is out of the sheer intensity of his 
expression of humanity that Masaccio will make, 
if at all, his claim to expound spiritual mysteries. 
This implies a supreme resignation on the artist's 
part to reality, an attitude of sublime faith in life 
itself such as religion but rarely attains to. There 
is to be no imposition of a willed illusion on things. 
He must dig out of the mi.xed and incoherent 
texture of life the spiritual satisfaction that the 
imagination demands. 

And here, assuredly, Masaccio's heroic faith has 
triumphed, for no Mother of God ever imposed 
more awful tenderness on the spectator than this 
common woman ; no Christ was ever more 
prescient of His supreme task than this Baby with 
the vague, indefinite gestures of his animal needs; 
and nowhere does the mind's ear guess at a more 
celestial harmony than is made by these demure 
children who handle their lutes with all-absorbing 
and deliberate care. 

One asks for curiosity (for it is really immaterial 
to the understanding of the work), how this comes 
about. Esthetics hint at numberless analytical 
explanations which all leave the last essence 
uncaptured. Still, the general lines of approach 
are clear enough. What is common to most 
Florentine design, and what is hardly found out 
of Florence, is here raised to its highest efficiency — 
perfect plastic synthesis of the design, its extra- 
ordinary compression and its intellectual lucidity. 
It is through the compression of these ample forms 
within the picture-space, through the apprehended 
effect of momentum in their large and simple 
gestures that the mysterious significance of the 
whole appears.' 

And yet these explanations carry us but a step ; 
they serve to classify rather than to explain ; for 
they would apply almost as well to Lady Cowper's 
Fra Bartolommeo in the next gallery. This is a 
work of impeccable artistic science so far as design 

1 The picture is in tempera on panel on a gold background. 
The gold is very solid and almost intact. The colour is 
remarkably rich and deep, intense blue and various strangely- 
harmonized reds. The flesh is unusually warm, though painted 
on a terra verde ground which has begun to show through in 
the lights of the Virgin's face. The picture has suffered in places, 
but the ill-restored patches are qiiite local, and elsewhere the 
condition is excellent. Those critics who have animadverted 
on its condition fail to realize how much less objectionable a 
few obvious repairs are than that uniform retouching and 
obliteration of the general surface which has been too often the 
fate of the Italian primitives, 


Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries 

is concerned, science such as only Florence and 
occasionally Paris have understood or cared for. 
Moreover, one may well believe it to be a work of 
genuine religious feeling of a kind ; and yet the 
mystervhas gone : there is no imaginative compul- 
sion. "If science of itself availed, here surely 
is a picture for students to copy as Raphael himself 
copied, for the secret of all Raphael's early figure- 
design is here. Here, too, as in Masaccio, is a 
vigorous compression and simplification of form; 
evei7 contour contains a definite volume and every 
plane is clearly apprehended in its functional 
relation to the whole perfectly poised mass. For 
sheer constructive power and intellectual lucidity 
it would be hard to surpass the logic of this 
pyramidal design. But, alas, a totally false and 
unfelt system of chiaroscuro, vague, functionless, 
and yet horribly insistent, and an almost worse 
system of hard enamelled colour, come between 
us and the real conception, making us doubt almost 
the sincerity of the design itself. And, indeed, 
such sincerity as it has is rather due to a passion 
for intellectual definition than to any feeling more 
directly connected with life ; for already such 
religious feeling as is the pretext of Fra 
Bartolommeo's painting has in it the forced quality 
of edification and religiosity. 

Certain striking characteristics of the Florentine 
tradition come out, too, in a work of intermediate 
date between the Masaccio and the Fra Barto- 
lommeo: the Hylas and the Nymphs, by Piero di 
Cosimo. This picture is in some ways unique among 
Florentine works of the period, being painted on 
a diamond-twilled canvas of the design which one 
sees in representations of fifteenth-century table- 
cloths. One is tempted to think that the youthful 
and inventive Piero, unable to afford a large panel, 
seized on the opportunity which the introduction 
of oil-mediums allowed, to try a large and ambi- 
tious design on this cheap substitute. It is, I 
think, painted in a viscous medium which allowed 
of fusion and impasto, though clearly by one who 
was more familiar with tempera. In any case the 
treatment and surface are very peculiar and the 
whole effect has something of the burr of Venetian 
painting. This has led one of the most distinguished 
critics of Italian art to express verbally a doubt as to 
the attribution and to suppose that Mr. Benson's 
picture may be a later Venetian copy. After 
examining it again carefully I cannot see how to 
accept this view. It seems to me to bear through- 
out the marks of original creative effort. Its very 
crudities and the extreme gaiicheric of the figures 
are but characteristic proofs of the intense convic- 
tion and sincerity of Piero di Cosimo's perplexing 
genius. It is just in this fierce insistence on those 
characteristics of form which made a personal 
appeal to his sensibility that Piero shows himself so 
truly Florentine; in the combination of an objective 
attitude with intense individual conviction in the 

absence of any trace of compromise with average 
correctness of form. And these qualities of artistic 
purity become the more remarkable in the present 
case when we take into consideration the inspira- 
tion of the present work. For one can scarcely 
avoid the conviction that Piero di Cosimo had 
seen Botticelli's Primavera, and that this had fired 
his ambition to rival it in general effect while 
holding to his own peculiar, whimsically roman- 
tic feeling. The nymph who stands upright to 
the right of the fallen Hylas has certainly a curious 
reminiscence of Venus in the Primavera, while the 
grotesquely fascinating nymph to her right recalls 
vaguely the figure of Flora. But Piero shows the 
authentic nature of his inspiration in the totally 
new quality of linear rhythm which he imposes. 
Certainly it is less seductive than Botticelli's, but it 
has none the less a completeness and continuity, 
which few artists have surpassed. 

Returning once again to the first room there are, 
besides the great Bernardo Daddi polyptych 
(which was the object of special study in The 
Burlington Magazine, Vol. II, page 121), several 
examples of Florentine art of the trecento, which 
have never before been exhibited. Mr. Henry 
Wagner lends an exquisite little panel, a Noli me 
Tangcre attributed to Taddeo Gaddi. Here, 
although the figures lack the particular vitality and 
incisiveness of Giotto's art, the general design is 
at once original and strikingly dramatic. The 
stamped gold background and the peculiar suavity 
and grace of the figures are certainly unusual for 
Taddeo Gaddi, and almost suggest the possibility 
that this may be an early work by the more subtle 
and delicate Agnolo. To Agnolo Gaddi's later 
and fuller development belong the three panels 
representing The\Annnnciation and The Saviour \tni 
by Mr. Herbert Cook. They are fine and well- 
preserved examples of the somewhat decadent but 
refined tradition of the later trecento. 

But of far greater artistic importance than these 
are the two panels by Luca Signorelli lent by Sir 
Frederick Cook [Plate III]. These have been 
described in " Les Arts " ^ and are included by Miss 
Cruttwell in her list of Signorelli's works, but have 
never received the attention they deserve. The 
general idea is that they are parts of a picture of 
the Baptism ; but if, as would seem probable, they 
represent accessory figures in the middle distance, 
the picture itself must have been on a very large 
scale, and some record of it ought to exist. They 
form singularly complete compositions in them- 
selves, though there are certainly evidences that 
they have been at some time reduced in size. The 
insertion of a fragment of island or promontory to 
the left of the panel with a woman and child 
would, for instance, hardly have been thought of 
by an artist composing within the present picture 

2 August, 1905. 



2 s 

3 a 





I'l.ATI- IV 

Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries 

But whatever their original object, whether they 
prove part of a larger composition or are inde- 
pendent studies, they are singularly perfect 
examples of Signorelli's genius. They show the 
passionate intensity of Signorelli's feeling for the 
figure as a vital machine of incomparable elasticity 
and certainty of movement. What strikes us 
here, as in the Masaccio, is the modernity of his 
feeling, and even of his methods ; for in his desire 
to assert the rhythmic unity of his design he 
employs the most brusque and unexpected simpli- 
fications, marking out his planes with almost brutal 
determination, suppressing the intervals and dis- 
carding modulations with an uncompromising 
vehemence which would lay him open to the 
charge of wilfulness and insolence if his works 
had to run the gauntlet of contemporary criticism. 

No less surprising is the simplicity and direct- 
ness of his technique, in which the effect is 
attained by methods far more immediate and 
direct than were usually employed by artists of 
the time. 

If we accept the view that these figures formed 
part of a Baptism, they become remarkable as 
e\-idences of Signorelli's curiously pagan attitude 
towards Christian mythology. It may well be 
that no Greek artist ever drew the figure with 
quite such insistence on its vital unity of action, 
or realized so clearly its obedience to the will ; 

but the mental attitude expressed is none the less 
unchristian in its indifference to spiritual aspira- 

Coming now to a somewhat later period, 
Bramantino's Madonna and Child [Plate IV], 
lent by Count Victor Goloubew, claims attention 
for its intrinsic beauty and as an expression of the 
later and riper period of the artist's development. 
Bramantino started with almost as oddly personal 
a vision of form as Piero di Cosimo, but either his 
Lombard milieu was too strong for him, or his 
temperament lacked the intensity of conviction of 
the Florentine. Certainly by the time he painted 
this picture he had learned to modify the bare 
ruggedness and caricatural quality of his early 
works, and had taken on something of the sweetness 
and elegance of the Lombard tradition. None the 
less his drawing has a certainty, especially in the 
treatment of the \'irgin's hand, which marks him 
off from the general run of Lombard painters. 
The space-composition of this little panel is 
singularly fine. He has chosen to symbolize the 
Hortiis Inclusns by a courtj-ard surrounded by grey 
crenellated towers, and by a nice use of perspective 
and a delicate sense of interval and silhouette he 
realizes, with a tenderness which reminds one of 
his contemporary, Borgognone, the idea of the 
beautiful seclusion and repose of the Virgin's life. 
{To be continued.) 


R. S.ALTING'S characteristics as a 
collector have been freely and fre- 
quently commented on, and in 
' regard to his collection of Limoges 
.painted enamels it is enough to say 
that he was true to himself. It is as evident here 
as elsewhere that he was inspired not by an 
academic ideal, but by the pleasanter promptings 
of a fine taste ; in other words, he formed his 
groups on an aesthetic and not on a scientific 
method, choosing the piece that pleased his eye 
rather than the piece that illustrated some point of 
the progress of craftsmanship. Guided as he was 
by a real instinct for artistic quality, the happy 
result has been that his collection will always be a 
source of delight to those who love the thing 
which rises above the average level on to some little 
special eminence of beauty. 

To students of Limoges enamels one of the 
results of this method of his will no doubt, on the 
other hand, be some disappointment at the absence 
from his collection of any example of the primitive 
school which for the last fifty years has passed 
under that name of fantastic invention " Monva- 
erni ", but would be more accurately described as 
the pre-Penicaud school. It is easy to understand 

that the gaunt figures, doubtful colours, and crude 
workmanship of these early attempts were not of a 
kind to attract the lover of the exquisite. Never- 
theless, the want of a good example to illustrate 
the beginnings of the art is something to regret, 
especially at a time when prices rising to thousands 
of pounds place such pieces beyond the usual 
means of purchase for our national museums. 

The series in the Salting Collection, now displayed 
in its permanent home in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, opens therefore with the accomplished 
work of the earliest of the Penicauds. The triptych 
illustrated in Plate I, representing the Crucifixion, 
with the Road to Calvaryand the Mourning over the 
dead Christ on the wings, exhibits in a high degree 
the peculiar beauty of Nardon Penicaud's colouring 
— a splendid chord of blues, greens and purples, 
which only those familiar with his work can at all 
image to themselves from the reproduction. None 
of Nardon's successors quite equalled the splendour 
of colour he achieved with his translucent 
glazings over a ground of intense white, and even 
among his works this piece is remarkable. The 
three plaques composing it have only latterly been 
brought together again, an incident in what may 
be called " the romance of collecting ", which a 


The Limoges Enamels in the Salting (Collection 

recent writer has stated probably gave Mr. Salting 
more pleasure than any other event in the whole 
of his career as a collector.' 

One other piece may, from its style and colouring, 
be confidently attributed at least to a talented pupil 
of Nardon. This is a plaque representing Christ 
bearing the Cross, unusual in being executed in 
translucent colours on foil instead of on Nardon's 
favourite white enamel, 

Jean Penicaud the First is represented by a 
superb panel of the Flagellation, distinguished by 
the varied colouring with a strong note of yellowish 
brown, the vigorous figiu^es and expressive faces, 
and the provincial Renaissance details of archi- 
tecture which are among the characteristics of this 
artist's work. The panel, noted nearly sixty years 
ago by M. de Laborde in the Daugny Collection, is 
in extraordinarily perfect condition ; the colours 
and gilding have still the freshness and bloom 
with which they emerged from the furnace four 
hundred years ago. At the bottom is the signature 
lOHAM : P. ; a piece of drapery denied room for 
the completion of the name. This plaque is one 
of a series of Passion subjects, of which another 
piece, also known to M. de Laborde in the Daugny 
Collection, representing the Mocking of Christ and 
signed in full lOHAH : P:E1IICAVLT, was 
acquired for the South Kensington (now the 
Victoria and Albert) Museum in 1870. 

Another piece of Mr. Salting's which has been 
attributed to Jean I Penicaud, if not an entirely 
modern production, is an interesting example of 
the practice among the Limoges enamellers of latei 
periods of imitating the works of their predecessors, 
especially in the rendering of religious subjects. 
This panel, representing Christ in the Garden of 
Gethsemane, has just enough of the colouring and 
character of Jean's work to indicate the source of 
its author's inspiration ; and having regard to its 
subject, size, and shape, it may well be a copy of a 
piece forming one of the series of Passion subjects 
referred to. But the fine quality of the original, 
both in drawing and technique, are here represented 
by a spiritless rendering in the smooth manner of 
painting on a bulging plate of a later generation. 
In place, too, of Jean's modelling of the flesh by 
cinpulciiicitt in semi-translucent whitish enamel 
over purple (producing the violace flesh spoken ()f 
by French writers), these later imitations (there is 
another in thcWallace Collection) render the flesh by 
opaque white with red-brown shading painted over 
it, a method producing an entirely different effect. 

'The central panel had been in Mr. Salting's possession for 
some years when the side panels were shown in the Amherst 
sale o( December, 1908. Il was more than anything else their 
exceptional brilliance of colouring, especially in the sky, which 
enabled a fervent admirer of the principal piece to recognize 
the side wings as belonging to it as soon as they were seen at 
Messrs Christie's. Mr. Salting was for once not slow to avail 
himself of the intimation conveyed to him, and acquired the two 
plaques at the sale for the sum of ^1,627 los. All three pieces 
are coated on the back with opaque green enamel. 


With Jean Penicaud the Second we find ourselves 
in presence of another method applied in a new 
spirit to different ends. The subjects, when 
religious, are treated in as frankly pagan a style 
as the subjects of classical mythology which now 
excite men's interest ; the spirit is no longer a spirit 
of religious fervour, but a spirit of delight in the 
beauty of the human form ; the method en grisaille 
now fully established in favour, though often 
modified by the addition of varying degrees of 
colour, is essentially a method of rendering design 
apart from colour, doubtless suggested by the black- 
and-white prints of Marc Antonio and other Italian 
masters who supplied the models. 

In this method of woik Jean II Penicaud was 
one of the finest craftsmen that Limoges produced. 
The high finish and laborious perfection of his 
work must always excite admiration, and if his 
figures, with the excessively thick legs which are 
one of their marked peculiarities, appear clumsy 
and heavy, they are never carelessly or weakly drawn. 
The tazza and cover representing scenes from the 
story of Samson [Plate II] is not only admirable 
in the drawing and modelling of the figures and 
in the lustrous surface and finish of the enamel, 
but it is one of the leading documents for studying 
the work of this master, signed and dated 
interior of the cover is decorated with subjects 
beautifully drawn in gold on the black ground. 
This piece was in the possession of Horace Walpole 
in the eighteenth century, and in the nineteenth 
figured in the Hamilton Palace Collection. It was 
acquired by Mr. Salting from the T. M. Whitehead 
Collection, sold in 1898, at which time the centre of 
the bowl was occupied by the dial of a watch ; 
this has been removed and the enamel has been 
restored at this point. 

Another fine specimen of the same artist's work 
is a rectangular panel in grisaille heightened with 
colour, formerly in the Magniac Collection. It 
represents an arrangement of allegorical figures, 
borrowed from Raphael through the medium of 
engravings by Agostino Veneziano and Marc 
Antonio, and bears the coat of arms of the 
Cardinal de Gramont, the negotiator of the 
inarriage of Henri II and Catherine de' Medici. 
The cardinal died in 1534, and the panel was 
probably executed either shortly before or just 
after his death. It is unsigned, but bears the 
Penicaud faiiiily stamp on the back, and the 
style is unmistakable evidence of its execution 
by Jean the Second.- No less certainly the tazza 

-This piece and many others noticed in the present 
article are admirably reproduced in the Catalogue of the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of European Enamels, 
1897, from which the sources of the designs here noted 
are mainly derived. Mr. Salting contributed to that exhibition the 
whole of his collection of painted enamels as it then existed, 
and they are carefully described in the catalogue, though the 
attributions arc not in every case well founded. 
















S " 

S Id 

3 .J 
H O. 


The Limoges Enamels in the Salting Qollection 

painted in tinted grisaille with the subject of David 
and Goliath, sometimes attributed to the same 
master, is by a hand of very different accomplish- 
ment. Its attribution, in the Spitzer Catalogue, to 
Couly II Nouailher may perhaps be justified on 
the strength of the late M. Molinier's opinion as to 
the occasional similarity of his work and that of 
Leonard Limousin. 

It must be regretted that Mr. Salting had no 
example of the third Jean Penicaud's work com- 
parable with those of his earlier namesakes. Such 
a piece as the covered tazza from the Mannheim 
Collection, now in the possession of Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan, shows what a rendering of action and 
effect the artist, who, rightly or wrongly, is always 
identified as Jean III, anuved at by his method of 
blot-like shadows and rapidly touched milk-white 
lights. The Salting example is a salt-cellar deco- 
rated with a combat of horsemen ; hardly a 
sufficiently important piece to represent the work 
of the" impressionist" of the Limoges school. 

In compensation we are provided with an 
admirable group of little works by another artist, 
hitherto wholly unrepresented in the Museum 
collection — Jean Poilleve. By reason of his initials 
his work has been freely confounded with that of 
Jean II Penicaud, in spite of its strongly marked 
peculiarities, while his use on some of his works of 
the initial K of a pseudonym in conjunction with 
the initials of his name has at other times earned 
for him the name of "Kip". The peculiarly 
delicate charm of his work made a special appeal 
to Mr. Salting's taste, and one of his latest acquisi- 
tions was an addition to this group from the 
Amherst Collection.^ 

Leonard Limousin figures in the Salting gallery 
in a group of those admirable portraits in colours 
which have won him a fame above all his rivals in 
the art. The posthumous portrait of Franfois I, 
signed and dated 1550, and the exquisitely delicate 
companion portrait of his queen, Claude, are alone 
enough to justify Leonard's appointment as 
" esmailleur et peinctre ordinayre de la chambre 
du roy ". Both of these pieces passed successively 
through the Dcbruge, Soltykoff, and Seilliere 
collections before Mr. Salting acquired them. 
The Jeanne de Genouillac, also dated 1550, is 
an even more instructive example of the possi- 
bilities of enamelling in portrait-work. A piece on 
a smaller scale, Antoine de Bourbon, afterwards 
king of Navarre, (b. 1518, d. 1562) gains fine effect 
from a purple cloak and black cap. 

Leonard's work in grisaille is seen in two 
beautiful roundels from the Fountaine Collection — 
The Rape of Helen (dated 1545), and Psyche received 
among the Gods, from the engraving by the Master 

' The whole group, with the exception of the last item, is 
figured in The Burlington Magazine for Februarj", 1909, in 
illustration of an article by the present writer, " Who was the 
Limoges Ennmeller ' Kip ' ? " 

of the Die, after Raphael. The latter is signed, the 
former is obviously by the same hand ; in both 
the sky is rendered in gold with fine decorative 
effect reminiscentof mosaics. A tazza-cover, signed 
and dated 1536, a useful document for the early 
years of the painter's activity, is followed by a tazza 
of 1543, in which the subject of ^neas visiting 
Dido, painted with laborious finish, is unfortunately 
disfigured by a terribly inartistic setting. 

A salt-cellar signed with the same initials L L, 
decorated with figures after Etienne Delaune in 
colours on foil, is an example of the work of the 
supposed nephew of Leonard, who inherited his 
name but not his talent. Surely no style of the 
Limoges school is more unpleasing than this 
combination of brilliant foiled colours with a black 

A finely shaped vase, unsigned, decorated in 
grisaille with Apollo and the Muses, after Marc 
Antonio, is probably an example of Pierre Reymond, 
working in his earlier and better manner. No 
name has suffered more than Pierre Reymond's 
from the appearance of his initials on unworthy 
work ; here, however, the subject is drawn and 
finished with the care which marks his earlier 
productions. A tazza from the Fountaine Collection 
with The Toilet of Psyche in grisaille, taken from 
the series by the Master of the Die, is a specimen 
of the artist's later style, marred by a use of 
hatched shading too strongly reminiscent of the 

Three works signed by the artist whose name 
appears variously as Pierre Courteys, Corteys, 
Courtois,or Cortoys, illustrate the extreme difficult}' 
of identifying the works of some of the Limoges 
artists on grounds of style, a difficulty enhanced 
by their habit of borrowing their designs from 
every available source. It is difficult indeed to 
trace a relationship between the fine circular dish 
decorated in grisaille with subjects representing 
the three Spring Months, after designs of Etienne 
Delaune, and two caskets painted in colours with 
biblical subjects. Yet the dish is signed in full 
and of the caskets one is signed with the artist's 
initials and the other is signed and dated P* 
CORTEYS 1568; while a grisaille plate with a 
scene from the story of Psyche, signed and dated 
PC 1560, sets up yet another standard of execution. 
Is the explanation to be found in the efforts of 
assistants having been marked as the master's 
work, or in the known practice among the people 
of Limoges of repeating a favourite Christian name, 
not merely among relatives but even among 
children of the same parents ? 

Among the problems of authorship none is more 
perplexing than that raised by the numerous works 
signed I C and IDC, variously distributed among 
Jean Court, Jean de Court, and Jean Courtois. Of 
these, Jean de Court, the author of the portrait of 


The Limoges Enamels in the Salting Qollection 

Marguerite de France in the Wallace Collection, is 
doubtless the artist who succeeded Fran9ois Clouet 
in the office of " peintre du roy " in 1572. With 
another Jean Court in the field, " dii Vigier " by 
way of distinguishing nickname, the elements of 
the problem are complete. 

A great dish from the Hamilton Palace 
Collection, boldly painted with The Feast of the 
Gods at the Marria'^e of Cupid and Psyche, a subject 
borrowed from the engraving by the Master of the 
Die, after Kaphael, and rendered with nauseating 
iteration by the Limoges enamellers ; two from a 
set of plates in grisaille representing the Twelve 
Months ; two others of finer quality with subjects 
from the stories of Myrrha, and of Orpheus and 
the Thracian Women ; and an exquisite little 
plate in foiled colours, representing the birth of 
Manasseh and Ephraim, all bear the same signa- 
ture I C, in spite of their manifest differences of 
style, to confound the inquirer after authorship. 

Thanks to the guidance of a few pieces signed 
in full, the work of Jean Court dit Vigier offers a 
less troublesome problem, while the e.xceptional 
quality of his art makes the problem better worth 
solving. It is clear from these signed pieces that 
he was not merely one of the most skilful of the 
Limoges craftsmen, but an artist with a sense for 
beauty of form and effect of a high order. From 
the fewness of his signed pieces it has been 
concluded that his work is seldom met with. I 
believe a careful criticism may disengage from the 
large body of unsigned work at present attributed 
to other artists many beautiful specimens, and 
justly give the credit of their execution to Jean 
Court dit Vigier. A group of six plates in grisaille 
in the Salting Collection, part of a set representing 
the Seven Planets, are attributed to this artist, and 
show the exceptional beauty and softness of his 
modelling of the figure. A splendid dish bearing 
the same coat of arms, and doubtless originally 
forming part of the same service, in the possession 
of the Duke of Devonshire, was shown at the 
Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of 1897. 
1 venture to add to them an unsigned oval panel, 
one of the most beautiful things in Mr. Salting's 
collection, representing a subject from the story 
of Medea (Medea seething the ram in a cauldron, 
with Pelias lying on the ground in front), carried 
out in a sombre and very peculiar key of colour, 
in which a bluish green and a deep violet-grey 
predominate [Plate III].* The effect of lighting 
on the lovely figure of the sorceress, and the general 
atmosphere of mystery which pervades the scene 
are given with a power rarely approached by the 
Limoges artists. Nothing, indeed, is so character- 
istic of Jean Court dit Vigier's work as the pearly 
translucency of his figures, emerging from shadows 

•* The reverse is covered wiih clear colourless flux, and shows 
no trace of any stamp. The same remarks apply to the backs of 
the two little plaques illustrated in Plate II, described below. 


soft as smoke — not even Leonard Limousin 
himself can paint flesh luminous like this. 

Another piece, a tazza decorated with the too- 
familiar Feast of the Gods, from the story of Cupid 
and Psyche, hitherto attributed to one of his 
namesakes, clearly betrays the hand of the finer 
artist. A comparison of this example with the 
great dish bearing the same subject, signed I C, 
noticed above, at once makes manifest the un- 
approachable quality of the work of Jean Court dit 
Vigier. I think it is obvious, indeed, that the 
enameller who signed I C, whether Jean Court or 
Jean Courtois, tried very hard to imitate the work 
of the greater artist, and sometimes not altogether 
unsuccessfully ; but his raw flesh-colour and his 
want of understanding of the wonderful chiaro- 
scuro of his model betray the imitator. A large 
panel in the Pierpont Morgan collection represent- 
ing The Adoration of the Shepherds, signed IDC 
(presumably Jean de Court), reproduces very 
obviously the peculiar colouring of bluish-green 
and grey which distinguishes the Medea of Jean 
Court (/// Vigier, but quite fails to reproduce the 
quality of the figure-painting. Two plaques in the 
Salting Collection with figures of Spring and 
Summer are also related by colouring and method 
to the Medea plaque, but here again the flesh 
painting fails to come up to the same level. 

Caskets and similar small objects in the 
mannered style of Couly Nouailler, and plates and 
tazze by Pierre Reymond, form part of the 
groundwork of every great collection of Limoges 
enamels, and need no further notice than to 
say that they are not wanting here. On the 
other hand, a feature of Mr. Salting's collection 
which calls for special remark is its rich- 
ness in small pieces of exquisite quality which 
at present defy attribution to any known master. 
A Martyrdom of S. Laurence in bluish grisaille, from 
a print by Marc Antonio after Baccio Bandinelli, 
has a multitude of figures done with extraordinary 
softness and delicacy on a miniature scale [Plate 
II]. It is signed with a monogram M P, 
sometimes supposed to represent Martin Didier 
Pape, but the characteristics of his known work, 
as for instance in a signed plaque here of Samson 
slaying the Philistines, makes the attribution hardly 
possible. The name Martial P^nicaud, which has 
been suggested for the initials, appears to be 
supported by no evidence of the existence of such an 
enameller. In softness of effect and general style 
this little work may be compared witli the medal- 
lions on the foot of a monstrance, depicting scenes 
from the Passion, which by a misreading of an 
inscription has sometimes been believed to bear 
the signature I P. Another little oblong plaque, 
also from the Lafaulotte Collection, painted in 
purplish grisaille with Mars and ]'euus discovered 
by the Gods in a style of exceptional grace and 
vivacity [Plate II], has been tentatively attributed 













The Limoges Enamels in the Salting Qollection 

to the third Jean Penicaud ; a comparison of the 
illustrations, however, suggests a relationship with 
the S. Laurence plaque, especially in the rendering of 
the hair and the drawing of the legs of the figures. 

A small plaque with the subject of Christ before 
Pilate in colours, adapted from the fresco of S. 
James the Great before Herod Agrippa, by Mantegna, 
in the church of the Ereraitani at Padua, and two 
others of brilliant quality, representing a betrothal, 
with a quotation from Horace inscribed, are among 
those which it has been the fashion to associate 
with the name of Jean II Penicaud. It seems 
at least possible that some of these little works of 
the first half of the sixteenth centur}- are rather from 
the hand of Jean I Penicaud, in the later part of 
his career — he is believed to have been still under 
sixty years of age in 1 543 — when he may naturally be 
supposed to have assimilated something of the 
spirit of the Renaissance. A very diiTerent style 
is observable in two Passion scenes — the Betrayal 
and the Entombment. One of these is stamped 
on the back with the initials I G (?) under 
a crown, a mark so far unrecorded, I believe. 
They are distinguished by peculiarly delicate shades 
of green, blue, and violet, the lights put in with 
heavily loaded white, and by details drawn in 
par enlcvage with a line of exceptional fineness.* 
On the other hand, for a perfect gem in intensity 
of colour, what could surpass the little Fortune, 
afloat on a sea of glass, stretching a blood-red sail 
against the deepest azure sky ? 

Much may be said, no doubt, against the art 
of the Limoges enamellers on the score of their 
attempting to do in enamel what can be better 

' I hope shortly to be able to publish these two plaqjes, with 
a drawing of the mark, toge;her with one or two other pieces 
apparently by the same artist. 

done in another medium; in other words, it may 
be held that enamelling is a method fit for pur- 
poses of decoration, not for purposes of fine art. 
Yet it must be admitted that no painting in 
another medium could equal the brilliance and 
permanence of colour achieved by the Limoges 
enamellers. And if the test of a work of art is its 
power of conveying emotion, such things as 
Nardon P6nicaud's Crucifixion and Jean Court dit 
Vigier's Medea can meet the test. Even leaving out 
of account the subject expressed with somuchfeel- 
ing, does not Nardon's sky strewedwith gold cloud- 
lets rouse something of the exaltation which must 
have moved the painter on witnessing the beauty of 
some perfect morning four centuries ago in central 
France ? And when we come to Nardon's suc- 
cessors of the mid-sixteenth century, we find 
ourselves fall under the spell of that exotic growth 
of the Italian Renaissance which spread over 
France from Fontainebleau, lovely as an orchid 
hiding the decaying trunk of a greater art 

The Salting Collection includes altogether some 
ninetj^pieces of painted Limogesenamel,andamong 
such a number it has only been possible to glance 
at the most notable. There can be no doubt 
of the pleasure Mr. Salting found in forming the 
collection — we may well suppose his satisfaction 
was enhanced by knowing that he was at work not 
for his own enjoyment alone nor for his own life- 
time merely. It is pleasant to know, too, that 
another benefactor of the national collections, his 
associate of long standing, Mr. F"itzhenry, had 
a share in initiating the good work when, many 
years ago, he presented Mr. Salting with the 
writings of De Laborde and Labarte, as a means 
of directing his friend's thoughts to Limoges 
enamels as a subject worthy of his attention. 


|T seems next to a truism to say of 
/Raphael that not only may he be 
looked upon as one of the greatest 
) among portrait painters, but, all things 
I considered, deserves to rank highest as 
a representative of that branch of art. However, 
it cannot be denied that the immense prices known 
to have been paid for certain effigies by Rembrandt, 
Franz Hals,Titian or Velazquez, leaving apart Van 
Dyck, Rubens or Gainsborough, seem to leave 
almost unconsidered such admirable works as the 
portraits by Raphael which a fev/ galleries have 
the good fortune to possess. 

Nobody probably could think of excluding the 
Leo X at Florence, Cardinal Passerini at Naples, 
or, not to be prolix, the Young Cardinal at Madrid, 
from the most admirable portraits ever painted. 
And no visitor to the Prado, where almost every 

work may be said to be a masterpiece, can be 
supposed to have forgotten the head in which dis- 
tinction of features blends with depth of expression 
and perfection of handling, notwithstanding the 
near neighbourhood of some of the most noble 
works by famous portraitists [Pl.\te]. 

And yet the celebrity of the painting in question 
cannot be said to equal its unimpeachable value. 

As for the identity of the personage, so far we 
have the choice between a certain number of 
identifications proposed long ago by different 
iconographers. On a plate by Lewis Gruner, dated 
1834, the Young Cardinal is given as Giuliano de 
Medici, better known as Pope Clement VII. 
Somewhat later Passavant, quoting \'asari, pro- 
posed Cardinal Bibiena, not on account of a 
resemblance to the prelate, but according to the 
" Memoirs of Cardinal Bandini". Bibiena would 


Raphael'' 5 " Young CardinaV'' at Madrid 

have bequeathed his portrait to Count Castiglione, 
through whom it came to Spain, with the count's 
own portrait from the same brush. 

Then came Don Valentino Carderera, author of 
a famous Spanish iconography. Neither Pope 
Clement VII nor Cardinal Bibiena could be 
considered. Raphael's sitter was, in his view, 
Cardinal Alidosio, the same illustrated by Paolo 

More recently we heard of a most unexpected 
circumstance. On the reverse of the panel, the 
name of the great Dutch portrait painter Ant. 
Moro seems to have been inscribed centuries 
ago.* I did not think it advisable to accept 
the ascription,' and I was right. 

The identification I now venture to propose, 

' Cf. Don Pedro Madrazo's : Calalogo descriplivo e historico 
del Miise^ del Prado. Parte Primera. " Madrid, 1892. N. 367. 
'Narciso Sentenach y : La Pinturacn Madrid ; p. 19. 
"Henri Hymans : Antonio Moro, ses oeiivresct son temps ; p. 68. 


N publishing the first two of the notes 
that follow, I make no claim to origin- 
ality, and desire, on the contrary, to 
make the fullest acknowledgment of 
indebtedness to the friends who have 
helped me in compiling them. Their publication 
is justified, I hope, by the new light that they 
throw on Diirer's methods of working during the 
years 1510-1513. 

A drawmg of S. Catherine [Plate I, a] in the 
National Gallery of Ireland' was reproduced as 
Plate I in the twelfth portfolio of the D"rer Society 
(191 1). I left itto speak foritself.andmadenoattempt 
to fi.x its date precisely. Sir Martin Conway, in some 
notes communicated to me on 30 May, 191 1, 
dates it c. 151 1-12, adding " more likely 1512 or '13 
than '11. Note the crown and its resemblance to 
Kaiser Sigismund's. Cf. S. Catherine in design for 
Tucher altar-piece. The style of the pen-drawing 
not found before 151 1 ". The accuracy of this 
diagnosis is confirmed by the discovery, made by 
Professor Ernst Heidrich, of Basel, and com- 
municated to me in a letter of 8 August, 1911, that 
the drawing is a study for the S. Catherine on the 
Tucher triptych in S. Sebald's, Nuremberg, as 
carried out by Hans von Kulmbach in 1513 
[Plate I, c] (Diirer Society, 1906, i.x, 2). The design 
to which bir Martin Conway had referred was the 
preliminary drawing dated 15 n, at Berlin, for the 
whole contents of the triptych (Lippmann 31, D. 
S., ix, 19). Kulmbach adhered, in general, to 
the contents of the composition as settled by 
Durer, no doubt in accordance with the donors' 
wishes, but allow^ed himself considerable liberty in 
' Pen and ink, 23 by 14 cm., purchased 1898, 


rests not on a text, which perhaps would be of 
slight value, but on a more speaking document, 
so to say, a medal belonging precisely to the time 
our portrait seems to have been painted. Ascribed 
to Caradosso (Cristoforo P'oppa) by von Fabrizy* 
the medal represents in profile the young 
Cardinal Scaramuccia Trivulzio.^ There can be no 
doubt as to the identity of features and, besides, 
there is a perfect concordance of dates between 
painter and model. 

Scaramuccia Trivulzio became bishop of Como 
in 1508 and a cardinal in 1517. In high favour 
at the Papal Court he was made bishop of 
Piacenza in 1522. Raphael was no longer living at 
this latter date. On the medal we see the person- 
age as bishop of Como. Three years had elapsed 
since the painter's death. The portrait was thus 
painted between 1517 and 1520. 

* Mcdaillcn dcr Italiciiischen Renaissance, p. 85, fig. 
' See Burlington Magazine, Vol. XVIII, p. 15. 


the treatment of details. The S. Catherine, in par- 
ticular, holds herself, in the Berlin drawing, more 
upright and with a greater air of aloofness and 
austerity; the sword is held under her right arm 
and does not touch the ground ; the cast of the 
drapery is very different. Were it not for the 
context, one would hardly think of the S. Catherine 
in the drawing as a design for the same saint in the 
painting. The new drawing at Dublin comes 
in some respects much nearer to the final version 
[Plate I, c]. The hilt of the sword is grasped 
by the left hand, and its point rests on the ground. 
The general arrangement of the drapery is much 
nearer to that adopted by Kulmbach, though there 
is no hint of the loops by which the long, hanging 
sleeves are shortened in the picture. The attitude 
of the right arm in relation to the body is much 
nearer, though the hand now no longer holds a 
ring, and there is no palm in the left hand. But 
the resemblance is most convincing in the pose of 
the head and even in such details as the pearl upon 
the brow and the stray ringlets that fall down the 
cheeks, though the head-dress is again quite dif- 
ferent. There can be little doubt, I think, that we 
have here a revised design by Diirer for this single 
figure, later in date than the general design of 15 11, 
and that the elegance and prettiness, which strike 
one as somewhat unusual in Diirer, were introduced 
deliberately to modify the sternness of the 
philosopher-princess and mystic bride of Christ in 
the original conception. The date 1511-13 is, in 
that case, certain, and I would choose, with Sir 
Martin Conway and Professor Heidrich, 1512-13 
rather than the earlier limit. But I part company 
with my Basel correspondent when he attributes 




the drawing lo Kulmbach himself. Granted that 
the head is of a soft and girlish type which seems 
a little feeble for Di'irer, that seems to me to count 
for little in comparison with the whole rendering 
of the draper}', the drawing of the sword and the 
ornamentation of the crown, which are thoroughly 
in Diirer's manner and unlike Kulmbach's pen 
drawings. Even the clumsy right hand, as I have 
remarked before, is characteristic. Lastly, the 
monogram appears to be of unexceptionable 
genuineness, though I must confess that I have not 
seen the original, and I am told that it is not 
made with the same ink as the drawing. When 
we compare the painting with the sketch, 
how hea\y is Kulmbach's final version, how 
sheepish the expression of the saint, in com- 
parison with the daintiness and naivete of the 
crowned maiden, with her widely opened eyes and 
little, pouting mouth, in the drawing that I still 
believe to be the master's. 

I am indebted to Professor Heidrich for a second 
interesting observation which he kindly permits me 
to make public. In 15 lo, when Durer was pre- 
paring three woodcuts — Christ on the Cross, Death 

OF 1493 

CROSS", OF 15 10 

and the Soldier, and The Schoolmaster — to illustrate 
sets of verses by himself which he published as 
broadsides with his monogram at the end of the 

Some Notes on Durer 

text, he bethought himself, in his design for the 
first-mentioned cut, of an illustration of the same 
subject which had appeared so long ago as 1493 
in the Canon of a Missale Speciale printed by 
J. GrUninger at Strassburg.^ Comparison of the 
details here reproduced [Figs, i and 2] makes it, I 
think, abundantly clear that the later S. John is' a 
reminiscence of the earlier, modernized and trans- 
lated into the styleof 1510, with drapery simplified, 
but with the essentials of the somewhat unusual pose 
preserved. The head and hands are in just the 
same attitude, the back is still turned on the 
spectator to precisely the same extent. The 
expression is tamer, less intense, than in the rugged 
fifteenth-century woodcut which was published by 
Mr. Peartree and myself in 1906 as a work of 
Durer's Wanderjahre. I wrote on that occasion: 
"The design betrays, especially in the figure of 
S. John, not only artistic skill, but mental force of 
no common order. In seriousness and dignity it 
far transcends the conventional Crucifixion groups 
of fifteenth-century missals. If the average quality 
of such productions, even for ten or twenty years 
after this, be borne in mind, the appearance of 
such a woodcut in 1493 marks an innovation 
nothing short of revolutionary. All that is new 
and great in it is reconcilable with what we know 
of Diirer's youth. It can be accepted as his work 
on stylistic grounds — it is so accepted already, I 
may now add, at Berlin — with far less difficulty 
than the well-authenticated and generally acknow- 
ledged S. Jerome of 1492 ". The woodcut is also 
praised by Schreiber, though in more guarded 
language and with no attribution to a definite 
artist, as being quite unlike the other Strassburg 
woodcuts of its date. The new fact discovered by 
Dr. Heidrich appears to me to supplement my 
own somewhat subjective arguments and the 
more matter-of-fact reasoning of Mr. Peartree as a 
fresh support for the attribution to Diirer ; for he 
would be unlikely, so late as 1510, when his style 
was fully formed, to copy anyone but himself. 
And why, if it were not his own, should he 
remember in 15 10 an unsigned woodcut published 
seventeen years before at Strassburg ? It is 
unlikely that at Nuremberg he would be able 
even to see the book, unless he had had some 
special reason, such as the presence of a contri- 
bution by his own hand would afford, for bringing 
it home trom his travels. If it were his own work, 
he might have kept a proof of it, or might even 
have been capable of repeating tlie same design 
from memory. I hardly think that mere admira- 
tion for its merits, however eminent, would have 

2 Hain, 11,250; Vouillieme, 2,287; Weale, Catalo^us 
Missalium, p. igi. See Diirer Society, ix, 31 (text, p. 21), and 
Schreiber, Christits am Knuz, Taf. 37. The woodcut was used 
again in a missal of 1498, Hain 11.252. An impression on 
paper, probably from the latter, since the height of the block 
has been slightly reduced, was acquired by the British Museum 
this year at the Elischer sale (Boerner, Leipzig), No. 470. 


Some Notes on Durer 

led him otherwise to offer it the sincerest flattery 
of imitation. 

I now take leave of my advisers and proceed to 
discuss on my own responsibility two works by 
Durer in the British Museum, which, in my 
opinion, have served too long a term of probation 
in the " doubtful " portfolios. The first is a 
Madonna "auf der Rasenbank", dated 1501, 
with the small "o" and the caligraphic flourishes 
before and after the date which we find in several 
dates of this period from Diirer's pen.' It is a 
drawing made with a fine pen in Indian ink on 
paper slightly browned with age, having as water- 
mark the large "Ochsenkopf mit Schlangenstab". 
The sheet measures 150 by 117 mm. It comes 
from the Sloane Collection, and has only recently 
been removed from the old black leather volume, 
long ago stripped of all drawings generally recog- 
nized as Diirer's. The monogram is not very 
convincing ; it is a later addition, probably not 
made by Diirer, but it affirms a fact. For a 
genuine drawing of this date could hardly 
approach Diirer so nearly and yet be the work 
of another hand. The strong shadow thrown by 
the Virgin's head under brilliant sunlight falling 
from the left is rendered by oblique lines crossing 
all the other lines of her shoulder and arm down 
to the point where the sleeve, concealing the fore- 
arm, emerges into full light. The shadow of the 
Child's head, again, falls upon His own body, arm, 
and left leg, and upon His mother's left hand, 
which holds an apple. This is all observed with 
the most meticulous care, and the shaded part of 
the drapery has received an elaborate finish in the 
manner of the fifteenth-century engravers. All 
the folds of the hea\-y gown are carefully thought 
out and clearly represented, but the result is 
somewhat laboured and unpleasing to the eye. 
The plank and post are more freely drawn with a 
broader line in the familiar style of Diirer. The 
drawing is briefly mentioned by Ephrussi (p. 54), 
who accepts it as genuine. 

Another work, also from the Sloane Collection 
[Plate 11], which is called in the British Museum 
simply "Diirer", has remained under suspicion 
since Lippmann, many years ago, made his selec- 
tion of the London drawings for publication in 
his third volume. It is not mentioned by Ephrussi 
or any other writer, so far as I am aware, and has 

'The closest parallel is the date on the Reclining Nymph in 
the Albertina, L 466. For the small "o " see also L 464-5 and 
the standing Virgin and Child of 1502 at Oxford. On other 
drawings of 1502 the "o" is of normal size. The flourishes 
before and after the date occur later, as on L 229 (1503), 237 
(1505), and 408 (1505). 

never been reproduced. It is a highly finished 
miniature painting in oils on vellum of an old 
man's head, probably a study for an apostle 
(158 by 94 mm.). The model is of a ruddy com- 
plexion ; his thin hair is grey, mixed with white ; 
his ample beard, except at the sides, where there 
are many white hairs, is darker. The eyes are hazel 
brown, the lips crimson. The body, indicated in 
outline, is painted in light brown, quite flat, without 
modelling, and serves merely as a foil to the beard, 
in which many of the hairs are separately drawn, 
either in dark grey or in white, upon the stone- 
coloured tint which ser\'es as a general base for both 
hair and beard. The background behind the head 
is black, relieved only by the date 1516 over the 
head and the monogram to the right, which are 
drawn with a very fine brush in white. The figures 
and the shape of the monogram, have a very 
genuine appearance. The wrinkles and veins upon 
the aged face are portraj'ed with extreme care, 
indeed with some exaggeration, and the eyes are 
highly finished and vivacious. The work appears 
to me much too good to be that of an imitator or 
forger, and its fine quality, combined with the 
trustworthy signature, encourages me to reclaim it 
positively for Durer. In looking for analogous 
performances, the first, in point of date, which occurs 
is the aged head on the right in the picture of Christ 
among the Doctors, of 1506, at Rome ; the treat- 
ment of the ear, the wrinkled brow, and the long 
straight moustache are very like those of the 
British Museum painting. But a much closer and 
more valuable standard of comparison is afforded 
by the pair of Apostles' heads, SS. Philip and 
James, dated 15x6, in the Uffizi. One cannot 
say that either is painted fiom the same model. 
S. Philip's hair and the beard and moustache of 
both Apostles are exuberantly curly, and, as 
Thausing remarks, neither of them can be regarded 
as studied directly from a model at all. It is 
merely in drawing — observe, especially, the nostrils 
and deep-set eyes of S. Philip-that they resemble 
the London head so closely [Plate II]. In tech- 
nique they are utterly different, for the heads at 
Florence, like those in the Biblioth^que Nationale 
and the Louvre, of both earlier and later date, are 
much larger and are painted in water-colour upon 
fine canvas, with a black background. I know no 
parallel m Durer's work for such a sinall and 
minutely finished painting in oil, but the attribution 
need not be distrusted on that account. The 
somewhat tame performance, conscientious but 
uninspired, fits very well into this stage of Diirer's 



IX a former number of this 
)an account was given of Thomas 
Howard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, 
. ^the " Father of Vertu in England ", as 
■i> O he has been styled, or 'the great 
Maecenas of all politer arts", as John Evelyn 
describes him. Arundel's biographers hitherto 
have done but scant justice to the memory of 
Arundel's wife, Alethea Talbot, to whose wealth 
and energy the formation of the great Arundel 
collection must, to some extent, be attributed. 
Alethea Talbot was the third and youngest 
daughter of Gilbert Talbot, seventh Earl of Shrews- 
bury, and Mary Cavendish, his wife, youngest 
daughter of Sir WilHam Cavendish and Elizabeth 
Hardwick, the famous " Bess of Hard wick ", 
herself afterwards wife of George Talbot, sixth 
Earl of Shrewsbury. Alethea Talbot was therefore 
both granddaughter and step-granddaughter of the 
renowned Bess, many of whose remarkable qualities 
and peculiarities she inherited. Alethea Talbot 
was married to Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel 
and Surrey, in September, 1606. Her elder sisters, 
Mary, wife of William Herbert, third Earl of 
Pembroke (Shakespeare's patron), and Elizabeth, 
wife of Henry Grey, Earl of Kent, died childless, 
so that the Countess of Arundel eventually became 
sole heiress of her father, the Earl of Shrewsbury', 
who died in 16 16. Through her mother she was 
first cousin to the ill-fated Lady Arabella Stuart ; 
and for her godmother she had no less a sponsor 
than Queen Elizabeth herself. By birth, family, 
wealth, and character, the Countess of Arundel 
was perhaps the greatest lady at court, which 
accounts for her frequent selection to attend upon 
royal guests. 

Seeing that the Earl and Countess of Arundel 
possessed a fine house in London itself, on the 
river, called Arundel House, it is not obviously 
clear why the countess should have acquired and 
enlarged another considerable house, called Tart 
Hall. This house stood at the western end of 
S. James's Park, on the site now occupied by 
Buckingham Gate and the end of Buckingharn 
Palace Road, just outside the gate of S. James's 
Park. The origin of the name is uncertain. It 
was close to, and may have formed part of, the 
Mulberry Garden — a place of public resort, the site 
of which is now occupied by Buckingham Palace. 
In 1638 it was rebuilt or enlarged for the 
Countess of Arundel by Nicholas Stone, the 
sculptor, and was furnished with a number of the 
countess's pictures and works of art. The house 
lay on the actual boundar}--line between the 
parishes of S. Martin-in-the-Fields and S. Margaret, 
Westminster, and may have been regarded by the 

'Vol. XIX, No. loi, pp. 278-286. 

countess as a country residence. The site of the 
house is indicated in the map of London engraved 
by William Faithorne in 1658. The house cannot 
have been occupied by the countess for long, as in 
1640 she started on that journey to the Continent 
from which she and her husband were destined 
never to return. It was perhaps in view of such a 
possibility that the countess had an inventory taken 
of the contents of Tart Hall, which has fortunately 
been preserved and has been transcribed for TAe 
Builington Magazine from the original manuscript.' 
Unfortunately, the inventory is, as in so many 
other cases, the perfunctory work of a mere 
clerk ; but in itself it is an important contribution 
to the life-history of the Earl and Countess of 

Among other items of interest it may be noted 
that the room " Mr. Arden's room " is described 
as " hanged with Scotch plad ". During the absence 
of the Earl and Countess of Arundel on the Con- 
tinent, their houses and property were sequestrated 
by the Parliament but eventually restored. The 
lawsuit, after the countess's death at Amsterdam 
in 1654, between her second son, Viscount Stafford, 
and the representatives of his elder brother and his 
nephew, the Earls of Arundel, resulted in Tart 
Hall and its contents being handed over to Lord 
Stafford ; and it was from papers found in con- 
cealment at Tart Hall that evidence was procured 
which brought Lord Stafford to the scaffold in 
1680 as a martyr for his religion. Tart Hall, and 
the portion of the Arundel collection preserved 
there, remained until 1720, shortly after which it 
was demolished, its contents having been disposed 
of in two successive sales. Stafford Row for long 
preserved a memory of the house and the executed 
Lord Stafford. 

The inventory which follows shows that Tart Hall 
consisted of two houses— the " Old House" and 
the " New House ". The inventory of the furni- 
ture, which is laboriously exact, gives a good 
idea of the furnishing of a great nobleman's house 
at the date in question. The pictures, unfortu- 
nately, are described only as pieces of furniture, 
the name of the artist being seldom given. In 
the few cases where a name is given, such as " An 
Angel ", by Lucas Cranach, and the landscapes by 
Momper, it is possible to discover that the 
Countess of Arundel must have had the pictures 
sent from Tart Hall to Germany or Holland, 
since these particular pictures occur in the Inven- 
tory of the Countess of Arundel's pictures at 
Amsterdam after her death in 1654.' 

^Harleian ilSS., 6272, ff. 176-205. The MS. is neatly written 
on both sides of the page within a rubricated margin, the first 
line of each heading being also in red. 

^Burlington Magazine, Vol. XIX, No. loi, pp. 282, etc. 


Notes on the Arundel Collections 

8th SEPTEMBER, 1641. 

A Memoriall of all the Roomes at Tart=Hall : And 
an Inucntory. of all the Household stuffe & goods 
there, Except of Six Roomes at the Northend of 
the ould Building (\\"^ the Right Honorable the 
Countesse of Arundell hath reserued unto her 
peculiar use) & M^ Thomas Howard. Closett. &c; 
8° September. 1641. ' 

In the first Hall Called the. Footemens Hall 
are these parcells of Household stuffe : vidclt : 

A long Table of Bo.ardcs sett upon Tressells. 
thereon a long leather Couer : 
On the other side of Hall a side Cubbard. 
with Plates, of Iron (but nothing therein) 
thereon a foulding Table inlayde. 

Four longe wooden fourmes. 
Six wooden stooles. 

Foure pictures hanging on the walles thereof. 

i" aGundelowe: 2*! a Mountebanke : 3"? a Braue. 

4';" King H: 7. & his wife & children : 

Foure wooden Guilt Candlestickes fatned on the sides of the 

In the Chimney, A paire of Iron Andirons with two brasses on 
the Midle, but without toppes. 
The Outward doore of the said Hall, hath, a double plate locke. 

In the next Roome ioyning to that Hall : 

A greate settle Bedsted of Wood put up in Fashion of a Fourme. 

Two great wood Chayers with Annes & Backs 

Another of the lii<e fashion but lesser. 

Another Chayre of the same wood without Armes 

Two Pictures, the one a yong Man at large, leaning upon his 

sword, the other of a Girle. 

In a little Roome under the back Staire.Case. 

Foure little Ale Barrells with a stocke. locke and key to the said 


Vnder the Staire Case next unto 

the kitchen of the new house. 
One greate Barrell, 3 lesser Harrells, &. i. little Barrell : 
A Stocke locke and Key of that doore. 

In the Kitchen of. this new House : 

A great Wooden Cubbard with. 5. shelues to putt sweetemeates 

in, with a lock & key thereto 

A safe to putt could Me.ite in, with locke & key thereunto. 

A Greate leaden Ci>terne. 

One great Brasse kettle with an Iron Trawse to sett thereon. 

A long hanging Cubbard with a ahelfe therein, the doores all 

broken of, Except one yet thereon. 

An Oyster Table. 

Three little Table wayters standing vpon Iron feete. 

Three hogsheades with open Covers to put Malt or lade woort in. 
A little Mashing fatt : 
Fonre Ale B.irrells. 

Foure little Trinelk's to Coole woort in. 
A Table Fatt to ripen Beare in. 

Memorandum the snicke in this Kitchen lyeth Broken up, 
& is very noisome, fitt to be mended which as sayd will 
Cost at least. 40! the doeing, yett the flore stones of that 
broken parte lyeth thereby, w"." M^ Marshe hath undertaken 
to se repayred forthwith. 

The two dores of this kitchen haue thereon double plate lockes. 

In the Seller of this Kitchen is 
noething. but two stowtlles to 
sett beare on & two Shelues. 

In the Pantry ouer that Seller. 

A Cubberd ouer the windowe with a blankett to couer woort. 

A Bing to Put bread in 

A Shelfe round about that Roome. 

And the Doore leading into that Roome hath thereon a Stock 

locke & a Key : 

ch '"• 

In My Ardens Roome w' halh on the Doore 

a single plate lock & a key. 

First a Close wooden Bedsted. 

A little Table with a leather Couer thereon, 

and ouer that, a little presse of shelues without doores. 

In the Chimney 2 stones cutt fitt to keepe up the fire, & ouer the 

Jambe thereof two shelues. 

A large Cubbard & a locke thereunto with. Shealues, & an 

old Case for Kniues therein. 
Memorandum some parcells of Earthern Dishes which 
were here were deliuered to M' Baldwin & one salt of 
Purselin : And divers glasses which were here are sett in 
the two Cubbards o( the greate Roome : 

Alsoe two shelues ouer the Cubbard 

And 4 shelues ouer Mr Ardens Deske (But nothing now 

thereon) which was not Opened, because he hath the Key : 

In the next Little Roome under the. Backe 
little Stayers there is nothing at this time 

In the. 
In the Crosse Entry of the House. 

Six red Leather foulding Chayres &. 8. red Leather folding 


A Picture of a Lands-kipe w"' men on Horsebacke at the 

bottome, hanging on one side. 

A Pedegree of the kings, hanging on y« other side. 

The twoo doores thereof haue double plate lockes. and Boltes as 

the other doores haue. 

In the wayters Roome next, 
to the Little Parler : 
A greate Cisterne to putt bottles in 
An Ouall Table of Wanscote wV falling sides. 
Twoo Carued wood Chayers. 
Three smaller Italian Chayres of Wood Carved : 
Two wayters Tables of VVanscote with, turned Scrues 
Ouer the Chimney Jambe a Dutch long Picture of a Banquet of 
Fruterie and. People thereat. 
In the Chimney a long payer of brass Andirons. 
An Iron fire shouell cS: Tongues with brass Toppes. 
On the outward Doore of this Roome a double plate locke. 


The next Roome is the Little dining Parler, 

next to the great Roome wherein are 

First a French drawing Table of Walnutt.Tree w'.'' a Leather 

Carpett thereon, 

An other round Table of Wanscote with falling Leaues, thereon 

being a greene Clothe Carpett, foure yardes long, & seauen 

quarters broade. 

A Couch bed, couered with Scotch Plad, thereon 4 little 

Cushions of the same. 

Sixe Italian Chayres of wood Carued. 

A round Skreene of Wickar. 

In the Chimey a paire of greate brass Andirons. 

A paire of Iron tongues & fire shouell with brass tops. 

A paire of Ordinarie Bellowes. 

A Curtaine of red Tafala, 3 yarHes & a halfe long, (as it is 

doubled belowe) & foure yardes & halfe broade. 

A greate Picture of a Theatre ouer y' Chimney 

Two other Narrow Pictures, the one of Judas betraying Christ, 

the other of the Ascension 

On two doores of this Roome double plate lockes 


The greate Roome or Hall next 

to the Pranketing House. 

A greate Ouall Table of Wanscote with folding sides, thereon 
a Couer of red Leather bordured with blew guilt Leather : 
Nyne greate Italian Chayres of Walnutt tree with Armes: the 
States & Backes covered w"' red leather, sett with brasse Nailes 
gilt & Tops aboue of brasse gilt : 
Two little Italian Chayres of Wood Carued 


Notes on the Arundel Collections 

A Steele glasse with a frame done about with brasse. with a 

Cord of Silke & golde hanging on the wall next the Court yard 

on the Kitchen side of the old House. 

Eight bowing Candlestickes o( wood gilt fixt on the Walles. 

Whereon al-o hangeth 9 pictures, the first on the right hand of 

a Man in Armo= hauing the Order of the golden fleece about his 

neck with a white Plume of Kethers by him. 

The 2? of a Curtisan receyving a letter from an old Woeman. 

The 3J a Picture at large of a young Germaine some tyme 

Ambassador at Roome. 

The 4'^ 
The 4'> of King Edward the sixth. 
The s'"" a long narrow one of St John Baptist. 
The 6* a Dutch woeman Cooke. 
The 7* a Dutch Marchant in blacke. 
The 8"^ Queene Elizabeth : 

The g!" of a young Man in blacke, with a Gorgett of Armour 
about his necke. 

A long shouel Board Table with a Cou' of old yellow Buckram. 
In the two Chimneys two Iron Grates, each of them with figures 
of two men at the Corners, two long Iron Korkes, and two Iron 
Crookes with Figures of brasse men at their Vpper Endes. 

In a Cubbard in the Wall of this Roome 
(next to the Street side) with three 
lockes, wherein are 5 shelues. 

On the uppermost, Six dozen and Eight of white Earthern 
Trencher plates. 

On the second shelfe, Eleauen Salters of y' same Earthern 
Mettle, & three dozen of Earthern dishes of Seuerall Series. 

On the third Shelfe, Eleauen ouall Dishes of white Earth, 9 
fruite Dishes carued of Earth, & 2 Bason and Eures of White 
Earth, & three Earthern Dishes more &.4 Poringers of earth 

On the 4'.'' Shelfe, two Cisterns to sett bottles in of white Earth, 
& two Earthern bottles w''' long neckes & Couers. 
On the 5'> shelfe about two dozen of glasses, whereof some with 
Couers & some of them broken, pte of theise Came out of 
M' Ardens Chamber. 

In an other Cubbard in the wall of this Roome (ne.xt the 
Pranketing Roome) are six shelues, with three lockes thereunto, 
therein now remayneth ten dozen & 7 glasses great & little, all 
whole, parte of theise were brought out of M' Ardens roome. 

Memorandum the other Cubbard in this 
Roome next y« Streete side, hath not 
now any thing therein. 

On the Outward Doore of this great Roome a double plate 

In the 

In the Little Lobby by the Stayres. 

next the great Hall there remayneth 
Eight little peeces of Soader. 
A little Iron Anker. 
Two Rods of Iron. 
Two leaden Flower potts gilded. 
A greate Wooden Indian Voyder of blacke. 
And a greate Spout pot of Speckled Earth 

And soe here Endeth the Inventorie 
of such Goodes as are in the Lower 
Storie of the new great House. 

At the Top of the Back Stayers which cometh from 
the withdrawing Roome to the Footemans Hall, 
is a little Roome called Robbins, where a Bed for a. 
S;ruant may be placed, but nothing now remayneth 

Ouer a Dore stall of the said Slayre Case hangeth a Print of the 
Exchange at Amsterdam. 

The Second Storie of the new House 
Begining at the North End thereof 
are these goods following. 

First the greate Chamber, hanged with payned red and yellow 
Damaske hangings being .26. breadthes. Alsoe for this Roome 
there is a suite ot Freeze hangings in the Wardrobe. 
Now in the said Roome remayneth a long drawing Table of 
Wanscote with a psian Carpett thereon, almost foure yardes 

long & three yardes broad thereon lying a payer of Tables' 

inlayde. with bone, with Ivery white Men & wooden blacke men. 

Twelue blacke wooden Chayres, the seates & Backes Couered 

with Rushia Leather. 

In the Chimney a Paire of brasse Andirons 

A Paire of Creeps with brass tops, & Iron fire shouell Si. tongues 

with brass tops, a paire of plaine wooden Bellows. 

On the Walls seauen Pictures, whereof y first ouer the of 


A Woeman selling fruite 

the n;xt ouer tne Table (being a large one) is of an Italian Mase 

& Landscape, 

The. 3* a little Landscape with an Angell appearing aboue. 

The 4'.'' alsae a little Landscape shewing Hills & Trees &r. 

The. s'."* of Europa on a Bulls backe. 6'^ 

6'. a Landscape, & a woeman holding a Childe under a Tree, 
The 7'?" of Dutch bores Reauelling. 

The next Roome is the 
Drawing Chamber, therein 

An old Fashioned Foulding Picture ouer the Jambe of the 

In the twj Windowes there, hangeth. 2 . square Pictures of 
Landscapes the one hauing Castles, 
the other a Lady A Sword lying by her. 
2 other Little Landskips on Brass, 

6 other very little Pictures, 4 of heads and two of Landscips 
A large Glasse hanginge on the side of the wall with a plaine 
Ebony frame. 

In the windowes hang two little bird Cages adorned with 
Bone, therein 2 Canarie Birds 

In the Chimney a Paire of Old Fashioned Brasse Engrauen 

A paire of Iron Creepers with Brasse tops a shouell & tongues, 
of the like. & a piire of Bellowes with a Brasse Spoute 
A Couch of painted wood on some partes thereof, thereon a 
Couch Bed of red Damaske & two Long Cushions & Basis of 
y same, the last fringed with Crimson silke & gold, the Couch 

and Cushions Couered & a foote Carpett of read Leather. 
Six Chayers of the same Stuffe with Couers of Buckram. 
A little Ebony Square Table inlayde with Torteaux shels. 

Memorandum there are now noe hangings in 
this Roome, but there are in the Wardrobe a 
suite of Freeze Hangings Couch & Chayres 
hereunto belonginge. 

In the Little Clossett on the West side 
of y sayd Drawing Roome, wherein 

First in the Chimney a very large paire of Brass, black And- 
irons cast with Figures on the top of a Man and a Woeman. 
A long paire of tongues shouell & Forke of Iron with Brass tops 
suteable with Figures thereon. 

Ouer the Jambe of the Chimney a picture of a woaman lying 
Dead in a Beere. 

On the other side of the Wall, a picture of a Man shot to death 
A Little lowe Table siluered, under that a 

perfuming Pan couered on the out side w* plate. 
An Indian Matt for a Foote Carpet. 

Memorandum in the Wardrobe there, are 
hangings & Chayers of Freeze, for this Roome. 

Vnder the slayers next to the last sayd 
Roome is a little lobby, but nothing in it. 

In the En trie by the Stayers are 
17. Pictures made fitt for the Freeze 
Hangings of the next Roome. 

The next Roome is called the Parlher Chamber 
wherein are now noe Hangings but there belongeth 
thereunto. Hangings & Chayers of Freeze in the 
Wardrobe. & Furnitures for a Bed 01 Freeze (Except 
Fringes to goe round about the top & stringes to 
tye up the Curtaines) 
In this Roome a Foulding Bedited of Wood Standing vpon a 
leather Carpett, thereon two large Course flocke Twilts. 


Notes on the Arundel (Collections 

A large Cubbard fashioned Indian Cabinett. 

A large 1 runke of Mother of Pearle with two drawers 

An Indian Chest. 

A lowe Indian Table wilh a little Indian Chest, thereupon. 

A little Klacke Indian Table, thereon a paire of Tables of 

Indian, with men therein of Indian stuffe 

An Indian standish. 

Two Indian looking glasses hanging by the wallcs. 

One large looking glasse hanging on the wall, in an Ebony 


One paire of Virginalls with two folding leaues like a Table 

Inlayd with bone. 

Three Chayres suteable to those in y" drawing Roome. 

In the Chimney a paire of Andirons with a payer of Iron 

Creepers with brass tops, Iron Shouell & tongues & a paire of 

wooden Bellowes with a brass spoute. 

In the Windowes hangeth : 4: Pictures: the i" of a Woeman & 

a Childe with flowers about her : 

the next Hercules griping a man to death : 

The 3? of a Man cutting of an others head. 

The 4'.'' a round picture of Philip E: of Arundell : 

The next. 
The next Chamber (called M' Thomas Howards 
Bfdchamber) now hanged w*'' yellow Damaskc ; 
A Bordure round about of Red Damaske with a 
Deepe Fringe of silke & siluer. two Window 
Curleines of Red: and yellowe Damaske. 

A Bedstead standing on yellow Leather, thereon 
2 Twilt Carpetts (whereof one very (yne) and. 
a Fetherbed and a Boulster, a great Pillowe and 
a littel Pillowe : A Paire of Fustian Bianketts. 
and a Paire of tine wollen Bianketts 

an Indian Crimson silke Twilt lyned with yellow Sarcenett, 
with Curtaines & double valence suteahle to the Same, 
And the top of the Bed & the Pillowcs couered over with 
yellow Ta'ata. 

A greate Sparver round about over the Bed of the like stuffe, 
tyed up with yellow silke. Strings, And at the Beds head a 
Backe of the same Stuffe belonging to the sparver, And at the 
top of the Bed 4 Balls of Crimson suitable. 
On the further side of the Bed a little square Table couered with 
yellow leather and Basis, about it of the foresaid Indian Twilt : 

On the other side of the Bed, a little Narrow Table couered with 
the like Indian Twilt. 

Vnder the Bed a little wooden Trundle Bed. with a Flock 
Twilt thereon and a little Fether pillow. 

One Indian Armed Chayre & 3 other India Chayres. 
a \o\v stoole couered with Crimsin veluett. 

An ouall Table with a Drawer therein, thereon standing a 
Cabinett of Artificial stone with Drawers 
In the Chimney a paire of Iron Creepers 
a.bhouell & Tongues with Brafs tops. 

And on the Walls of this Roome six Pictures, whereof one 
greate Landskip ouer the Chimney 
One lefser Landskip with Trees 
2 other little ones of ships on the Sea. 
the sH" of a Musician playing under a Tree, 
the 6'.'' a little head of a Woaman. 

To this Roome also belongeth Hangings and 
Chayres of Freeze now in the Wardrobe. 

The next Roome on the West side of the last, is 
called my Lordts Roome. and is hanged with 

yellow & green Tafata consisting of 49. Breadthes 
A suite of Freeze Hangings alsoe bjlongeth to this 

Memorandum a Bedsted is in ye Wardrobe 
with Tester, Valence, Curtaines & 
Counterpoint sutable to the s"* Hangings. 
In this Roome a Wooden Couch the seate Couered with Freeze 
and there ouer a greate Tafata Couer. 
A square Table of Wanscote therein a Drawer 
A Pewter Chamberpott standing beneath y same 
'J'he Table Couered wilh a greene Damaske Carpett. fringed 
about with silke & gold & fewer Tassells at each Corner one. 
A Wanscote Table Couered with Letaine and a Drawer in it. 
A little round lulayde Table. 
Two red wooden standards to sett Candles on 
One Armed Chayre Couered w'!' red Leather 
In the Chimney hanging on a Rod with Iron feete a little 
wickar screene, & paire of little 

brass And Irons, a little paire of Brass Tongues. & fireshouell, 
A payer of Creepers with Brass taps, a paire of Ordinarie 

On the Walles two Pictures the First a woaman holding a 
Childe, The. 2d. of sheppards &r. 

In a little Clossett hereunto, a close stoole covered with veluett, 
therein a Pewter panne. 

Next unto M' Thomas his Roome southward, a 
little wayters Roome Hanged w* three Peeces of 
Tapistreyol one suite, and a little peeceof Tapistry 
of Forrest worke next the outward Doore. 

A Presse with three Shelues Couered with a Turky Carpett. 2 

yards long cS: i yard broad. 

A settle for a Bed to be put in, thereon an old Turky Carpett 

about two yardes long, and a yard & a quarter broade. 

In this Roome 3 Turky stooles. 

On the Walles hereof a peece of Frostworke with People. 

thereon, & an other Picture of a Woeman with a vayle ouer 

her head. 

On the East side of this Roome is M' Tho: Clossett which is 

reserued to himself with two keys thereunto. 

In the. 
In the Wayters Roome next 
the Roome called my lordes. 

First the same is hanged with three peeces of old Tapistry. 

A little round Table with a Drawer, thereon. 

an old Turky Carpett a yard & 3 quarters long & a yard & a 

quarter broad. 

In this Roome are . 3 . Turkey Stooles. 

A Pewter Chamberpott. 

A Hanging Brasse. Scounce 

On the walls hangeth 3 old Drawings, two vpon Board & one 

vpon Cloth: The First of two old men, the second of a man 

with a long beard Thirdly a Man boyled in Oyle. 

Behind theise Hangings is a Bedsted, tliereon an old Flock 

bed, a broad Fether Boulster, Two old Bianketts & an old 


At the foote of the said Bed a wooden Chest Lockt up with 

Joyners Tooles & a little Box therein with some other Tooles 

of Joyners. 

And here is an End of tho second Story 
of the New House, wherein are six double 
plate Lockes. 

{To he continued.) 


'N tlie whole the most important picture 
Ihy Michele Giambono which has come 
Idowii to us is tlie ancona with five 
'saints, now in the first room of the 
J Accademia at Venice (No. 3) [Plate I]. 
Not only is it signed — a distinction which it shares 

wilh Miss Hertz's Madonna, recently illustrated by 
Dr. Richter in his Catalogue of the Mond Collection'; 
but it is also the most complete of his existing 
works, most of which are small single figures or 
fragments of anconas. When we add to this its 

1 Vol, I, p. 60, and PI. A, 2. 





INK AKlMAM.1 1. Mll-MAKI., liY ( .1 AM lloNC i. MU. lihUHNSoN -. C( U.l.l- CI lll.N 


high quality, it will be seen that the picture is a 
standard or test piece of Giambono's work. In 
spite of its importance, the meaning and intention 
of the composition, and consequently its history, 
have apparently escaped the notice of writers on 
the Old Venetian School. 

The ancona or polyptych is of that somewhat 
unusual form in which a saint occupies the central 
panel instead of the usual Madonna. The 
interesting picture ascribed to Carpaccio, also in 
the Accademia (No. 91), representing the interior 
of Sant' Antonio di Castello before the alterations 
of the sixteenth century, shows, above the altar 
nearest to the door, an ancona of similar form, 
which may perhaps give us an idea of what 
Giambono's altar-piece was like in its original state. 
As we have it, any upper portion or predella which 
it may once have possessed has disappeared, and 
the panels have been enlarged in order to fit them 
into their modern frame, with some detriment to 
the effect of the figures, which are now rather 
dwarfed in spaces too large for them. We note 
that here, as in the ancona depicted in Sant' 
Antonio, the central figure is on a larger scale than 
his companions. 

Who is this central figure ? Though a very 
slight acquaintance with Christian iconography 
suffices to tell one that it is S. James the Great, 
yet official catalogues and modern writers, from 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle down to Lionello Venturi, 
have regularly described it as "the Redeemer". 
The other day. Professor Venturi, in the new 
volume of his encyclopaedic " History of Italian 
Art", at last recognized S. James.- He is pre- 
sented in the familiar guise of a pilgrim : not, 
indeed, in the palmer's hat and cloak with which 
northern fifteenth-century art was wont to clothe 
him, but in the conventional garb of an Apostle, 
only with a gold scallop-shell suspended round 
his neck, and the pilgrim's staff in his left hand. 
The right holds an open book with the words 
from his namesake's Epistle (i, 22): ESTOTE 
One reason why the Apostle has been so generally 
mistaken for the Redeemer is that he actually 
bears a considerable resemblance to the traditional 
type of Jesus, so that a superficial glance might 
easily suppose that the figure was that of the 
Saviour. Probably this resemblance was inten- 
tional on the part of the artist. We know that 
James "the Lord's brother", i.e. James the Less, 
was traditionally represented in this way ; and 
Molanus, in condemning the practice, refers to a 
confusion by which the likeness was occasionally 
transferred to the other James, the son of Zebedee, 
who is represented in our picture.^ The fact that 
the latter appears here with a text taken from the 

'StoriadeW Arte lialiana. Vol. VII, part I {Milan, 191:). 
La Pittura del Quattrocento, p. 301. 

Two Putt/res by Giamhono 

Epistle of James the Less, suggests that possibly 
Giambono has confused the two Apostles. How- 
ever this may be, the central position of the 
Apostle in the ancona makes it clear that it must 
have been painted originally for some church or 
altar specially connected with S. James the Great. 

The saints to the right present no difficulty : 
they are clearly Michael the Archangel and Louis 
of Toulouse. On the extreme left is John the 
Evangelist, represented, as is usual with the Old 
Venetian painters, after the Byzantine type of an 
old man. He holds an open book, on the pages 
of which are inscribed the words from his First 
Epistle (ii, 4) : QVI DIGIT SE NOSSE DEVM, 
MENDAX EST. Between him and S. James is 
a monastic figure in a black habit, also holding an 
open book. It is obvious that these two panels on 
the left have been transposed when the ancona 
was put together in its present setting. John, as 
an Apostle, ought to occupy the place of honour 
next to the centre, while the monk should be on 
the outside corresponding to the Franciscan 
S. Louis on the extreme right. The attitudes, at 
present meaningless, then become intelligible. 
John, instead of turning his back on everyone, was 
looking at the monk, and inculcating with an 
expressive gesture of the left hand, still holding his 
pen, the solemn warning contained in the words 
inscribed on his book. The monk, as it were, 
receives the message with all humility, and his 
answer is exhibited on the open pages which he 
holds before him. Evidently it is in the identifi- 
cation of this black-robed monastic figure that we 
must hope to find the clue to the meaning and 
history of the ancona. 

We observe in the first place that, unlike the 
other saints, his head is not surrounded by a 
nimbus, but stands out against the original pat- 
terned gold background, showing that this is no 
result of modern alteration. The fact ought to 
have warned those writers (including Professor 
Venturi) who describe the figure as S. Benedict, 
that this must be some person of eminent sanctity 
who has not yet, in Catholic phraseology', been 
raised to the altars of the Church. It is incon- 
ceivable that the great S. Benedict should appear 
un-nimbed beside a nimbed S. Louis, who had 
been canonized not much more than a century 
when this picture was painted. This difficulty 
was felt by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, who suggested 
the name of Bernardino of Siena, not canonized 
till 1458.* But everything is against this identifi- 
cation. Bernardino is always represented after 
the familiar portrait type, very different from the 
characteristic Giambonesque head before us ; his 

^Dc Historia SS. Imaginiim (Louvain, 1771), p. 283, It may be 
interesting to note that the resemblance has been given as a 
reason for the necessity of Judas distinguishing Jesus from 
James by kissing Him. 

^History Painting in North Italy, Vol. II, p. 14. 



Two Pictures by Giamhono 

constant emblem, the medallion with the Name 
of Jesus, is absent ; and the black habit, which 
might have suited Benedict, is fatal to the idea 
that we have to deal with a Franciscan. 

Apart from the black habit, the text on the open 
book which he holds seems to offer the only 
means of arriving at the identity of this mysterious 
personage. The words are taken from the Psalms 
(cxv, 6 ; English Book of Common Prayer version, 
FILIVS AXCILE TVE {Serous liiiis sum ego el 
filitis aiicilhv huT).^ The thought at once occurs 
"that he is a Servite. What more appropriate 
words could be found as a motto for " the ser- 
vants of Mary" ? Moreover, the Servite habit is 
black, and no member of the Order had been 
canonized by the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Only one more step remains to be taken. We 
said that the central figure of S. James indicated 
that he was the patron of the church or chapel to 
which the picture originally belonged. When we 
discover that the Servite church in Venice was 
San Giacomo alia Giudecca, the inference is 
irresistible that the ancona was painted for the 
altar of the patron saint. 

We have still to decide which Servite saint is 
intended here, for to suppose that the figure is a 
sort of abstract representative of the Order would 
be too fanciful. The Servites traced their origin to 
no single saint of the eminence of a Benedict or 
a Francis. Of the Seven Founders no one was 
more conspicuous than the rest, and their general 
importance may be gauged from the fact that their 
beatification was postponed till the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and their canonization till 
the end of the nineteenth. But if there is one of 
the early Servites whose eminence and services to 
the Order would justify his appearing alone as its 
representative, it is Philip Benizi. Regarded as a 
saint by the popular verdict from the moment of 
his death in 1285, though not formally canonized 
till four centuries later, he exactly fulfils the 
conditions required by Giambono's figure, and we 
may safely assume that he is the personage 

The company of saints assembled in the ancona 
now assumes a certain consistency and significance. 
S. James, the patron of the church, reminds the 
Order, to which it belongs, of their profession. 
" Be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, 
deceiving your own selves " : a passage familiar as 
the beginning of the Epistle for the Fifth Sunday 
after Easter, and therefore suggesting the closing 
words which form an epitome of the " religious " 
life, and are peculiarly appropriate to those who, 
like the Servites, combined works of mercy with 
contemplation and devotion : " Pure religion, and 
undefiled before God and the Father, is this, To 

» The form of tfie first word is apparently an original mistake 
of the artist, and not the result of unintelligent restoration. 


visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, 
and to keep himself unspotted from the world ". 
Beside him stands his brother John, repeating the 
same lesson in his own way : " He that saith, I 
know him, and keepeth not his commandments, 
is a liar". And he specially addresses it to the 
most eminent saint of the Order, who replies 
in words expressive of his complete submission 
to the divine call and of his filial devotion 
to the Virgin Mother : " I am thy servant and the 
son of thine handmaid ". On the other side of 
James, Michael may stand as the personification 
of the victory over the flesh and the devil, while 
Philip is balanced by his contemporary, Louis of 
Toulouse, as representing the greatest of the 
Mendicant Orders, for the Servites were also 

San Giacomo alia Giudecca was founded by 
Marsilio da Carrara, Lord of Padua," who died in 
1338; but the church was not consecrated till 
1371. About the middle of the next century this 
ancona must have been ordered. It is not 
impossible that some documentary evidence con- 
nected with it may still be in existence, though 
the silence of researchers like Ludwig and Paoletti 
is rather discouraging. The church was rebuilt 
in the seventeenth century, but Giambono's ancona 
had, no doubt, been already discarded as out of 
date for the altar-piece by the sixteenth-century 
painter, Girolamo Pilotto, which Boschini de- 
scribes as adorning the altar of San Giacomo.' The 
church itself was demolished early in the nine- 
teenth century. Perhaps then, possibly earlier, 
the picture found a home in an obscure " Scuola 
del Cristo " on the Giudecca, whence it seems to 
have passed to the Accademia.' 

The splendid Catalogue of " The Mond Collec- 
tion " has lately recalled to us another picture by 
Giambono— the seated angel [PLATE II], brought 
to light by Dr. Richter, and truly described by Mr. 
Berenson (its present owner) as "glowing ".'■' We 
will not dwell on its merits, for our concern here 
is only with its subject. It is described as 
S. Michael. Now mediieval iconography in its 
developed form (and we are dealing with the 
fifteenth century) was no haphazard or erratic 
accessory of art. On the contrary, it was intended 
to make sacred personages recognizable by means 

' Giacomo or Jacopo was such a common name in the Carrara 
family that we may almost assume that S. James was its patron 
saint. We may note that the Strvite church in Padua was also 
founded by a Carrara, and that Pliilip Benizi was a Doctor of 
the University, though his cclcbiity is a suflkicnt explanation of 
his presence in the picture. 

' Ricchc Miiicrc (Venice, 1674). Scsticr di Dorso Diiro, p. 6g, 
In support of our identification of Filippo Benizi we note that 
Boscliini continues: "In Sacrestia una Tavola di Domenico 
Tintoretto, con la B. Vers,'ine,' Agostino, B. Fihppo, e 
Marsilio di Carrara". In the Forcsticrc illiiminato (Venice, 
1772) the name is given in full. 

" Tlie records of the Regie Gallcric contain no further infor- 

" VauiiiVt I'uiiiting at the Sew Gallco', i895i ?■ 6- 

of a rational, consistent, and (within certain limits) 
invariable system of symbolism. How the Arch- 
angel Michael was represented by Giambono, and 
indeed by practically every mediaeval artist, we 
may see from the ancona of San Giacomo. In 
full armour he spears the demon beneath his feet, 
while his left hand holds the scales in which 
souls are weighed. Now what do we find 
of this in Giambono's panel ? The angel indeed 
tramples a demon beneath his feet, and two tiny 
attendant angels float above his head with the 
sword and scales of justice. But, apart from these 
comparatively unimportant details, how different 
is the general effect of the presentation ! Seated 
in majestic repose, the figure is robed in a 
gorgeous dalmatic ; his right hand holds the orb 
of sovereignty, and the left is raised with the 
gesture of instruction or authority. Other angels 
and archangels sometimes wear the vestments of 
divine service, but never Michael in Italian art of 
this period. Still more remarkable is the fact 
that the figure is seated — a most unusual posture 
for an angel. It is difficult to believe that it is 
not significant, and we are led to the conjecture 
that this is a far more exalted being than an Arch- 
angel, and the representative of the angelic order 
which, with the Cherubim and Seraphim, forms, 
in the system of Dionysius, the highest of the 
celestial Hierarchies — the Thrones. The icono- 
graphy of the Nine Orders of Angels is a subject 
which has been litde studied and, apparently, 
admits of considerable variation ; but with regard 
to the Thrones we may start with the description of 
the mediaeval encyclopaedist, Vincent of Beauvais : 
" Sedent throni et iudicant ". Often, in a complete 
series of the Orders, the Thrones, from obvious 
reasons of uniformity, are represented standing, in 
which case they generally hold models of thrones. 

Two Pictures hy Giamhotjo 

But there are instances in which they appear 
seated; while, as exercising the divine jurisdiction, 
the scales, accompanied by the sword of justice or 
the sceptre of sovereignty, are their constant 
emblems.'" We have thus three distinctive indica- 
tions which point to the figure being intended 
for a Throne : the sitting posture, the sword, 
and the scales. The trampled demon is easy of 
explanation, for justice implies the evil which 
it controls. But we may go further. The 
Nine Orders were well known in the North cf 
Italy, and not least at Venice. Nowhere are they 
represented with more definiteness and complete- 
ness, though on a small scale, than in that master- 
piece of Antonio and Giovanni da Murano, The 
Coronation of the Virgin, which still hangs in the 
church of San Pantaleone. Within the throne of 
the Almighty, on either side of His head, are 
ranged the Seraphim and Cherubim : the central 
space above is occupied by the Thrones, and the 
emblem which they hold is the orb. Now we 
know that in 1447 Giambono undertook to make 
a copy of this picture for the church of Sant' 
Agnese, a copy which may be seen to-day in the 
Accademia (No. 33), though in a ruined condi- 
tion.'' And as the orb is the most prominent 
emblem in Giambono's presentation of his angel, 
we may feel some confidence in thinking that he 
intended to portray a Throne. As it does not 
seem likely that one of the angelic orders should 
be selected as a subject by itself, we may, perhaps, 
imagine that the panel formed, or was intended 
to form, one of a series embracing the Nine 

"£.1., in the isth-centurj- glass in S. Michael Spurriergate, 
York, the Thrones are seated and hold sceptre and scales. 

'' The contract was published by Paoletti in his RaccoUa di 
documenti inediti, etc. (Padova, 1895), Fasc. II, p. 13. 


'HE statue which is figured on page 64, 

and in three differentviewson page 109, 

is the property of H.R.H. the Duchess 

I of Connaught, to whose gracious per- 

mission 1 owe the privilege of 

publishing it here. Of its history very little is 
known : it stood for many years, I understand, in 
a garden at Potsdam, and was sent to England two 
years ago : it is now set up in the garden of 
Bagshot House. 

It represents a woman about life-size, slightly 
girlish in form, carved in fine red porphyry, 
standing on a square plinth (partly restored), of 
grey spotted granite. The Corinthian helmet, 
tilted back from the forehead, and the broad 

shoulders which contrast with the otherwise 
slender figure characterize her as Athena, When 
I first saw the figure on its arrival at Bagshot, it 
was in three pieces, the head being detached at 
the base of the neck, and the body broken across 
obliquely in a line from the left hip to the top of 
the right thigh. In addition to the arms, pieces 
are wanting of the hair, of the right shoulder and 
of the upper folds of the mantle at the back, as 
well as a small piece of the lower edge of the 
drapery at the back on the right side : but thanks, 
no doubt, to the extreme hardness of the material, 
the surface generally is in excellent condition. 
The arms appear to have been a long time missing : 
of the left arm probably a short stump only was 



Porphyry Statue of Athena 

preserved, which has been worked down at 
a comparatively recent date to a smootli surface 
nearly flush with the shoulder : the right arm in 
breaking off carried with it a portion of the side, 
and a triangular flake of the surface of the back 
across the shoulder-blade. Here again the stump 
has been worked down. Some attempt seems to 
have been made to work over the back of the 
helmet and hair with a view to minimise the 
eflect of the damage at this point. 

The goddess stands in an attitude of rest, the 
weight of her body on the left leg, the right 
slightly drawn back but with the foot flat on the 
ground and pointing outwards. Her youthful face 
looks with a pensive, almost wistful, expression 
out into space. She wears a long clinging chiton 
which allows the forms of the body to be clearly 
seen, and a mantle which, draping the lower 
limbs, seems to have been supported by the left arm 
(but not on the shoulder), the ends hanging down 
the left side ; on the feet are sandals. The hair is 
drawn back in a wavy mass on each side of the 
face, and hung in a club below, over the nape of 
the neck. 

It is difficult in the absence of direct evidence 
to decide what was the position of the arms ; 
judging, however, from the set of the muscles and 
the lines of the drapery it is probable that the 
right hand was raised and rested on a spear. The 
left arm appears, from similar indications, to have 
been depressed : there is no trace of any attach- 
ment at this side such as might be looked for if 
this hand had rested on the rim of a shield set on 
edge, as in the Pheidian Parthenos type. On the 
other hand, the character of the fracture of the 
hea\7 roll of drapery on the left hip suggests that 
the forearm was attached here ; such a position 
would be consistent with the suggestion that this 
hand held some comparatively small and light 
object. Among the attributes appropriate to 
Athena, the owl comes naturally first to mind. The 
type, however, to which our statue belongs is 
hardly analogous to that which usually holds the 
owl, and which represents generally a more 
matronly and warlike personality, suitable for the 
Polias, the guardian of the Athenian Acropolis : 
she usually, moreover, holds the owl on her right 
hand. There is a well-known peaceful type of 
Athena who holds sometimes in right hand, some- 
times in left a sacrificial libation bowl or pliiali, 
such as would be appropriate to a cult-statue, and 
this, I believe, must have been the case in the 
present instance. 

The absence of the warlike element in the type is 
very marked : this is no Joan of Arc like, for 
instance, the well-known Skopasian figure of the 
Casino Kospigliosi.' Here the helmet and spear 
(if spear there were) are merely attributes of 
identification. This gracious figure of a woman, 

' Kuitwangler-Sellers, Maslerpiccei, fig. 130. 


barely emerging from girlhood, with the pensive, 
almost romantically sensitive features, is the 
essence of the Parthenos, the type of that stage of 
woman's life. 

And the treatment of the drapery is in harmony 
with that ideal ; the goddess wears here no aegis : 
the clinging folds of the thin chiton — admirably 
rendered in the hard porphyry — allow the forms 
of the body to be seen in a manner which at first 
sight one hardly expects to find in an Athena 
statue, but which in this girlish type do not seem 
out of place. Nor is it for any self-conscious 
studied effect that the heavier drapery has been 
allowed to fall away, revealing the soft lines of the 
torso : this is one more subtle indication of the 
mood which the artist wishes to suggest. 

The type of this "Minerva Pacifique" is rare, 
but not altogether unknown : similar figures are 
shown for instance in ^tm' Sculp. l,p. 232 
and p. 236 : and it is possible that others might be 
identified among certain statues from North 
Africa, which, having lost head and arms, are 
for want of identification, classed merely as 
"draped women." From a general analysis of 
the style I should suppose it to derive originally 
from some famous type of the early part of the 
fourth century B.C. It recalls the age when, as in 
the Mourning Ailicua, Greek sculptors were begin- 
ning to attach a certain benign humanity to their 
conception of Athena. She is the palron-goddess 
of maidens, and capable of sympathy with their 
sorrows as well as their innocent delights. 

One cannot but admire the masterly skill with 
which the sculptor has handled his material : 
studying the delicate restraint of the thin drapery 
as contrasted with the broad, firm folds of the 
mantle, and the minute refinement of the details 
of face and feet, one forgets that porphyry was 
one of the hardest as well as one of the most 
precious of the materials used by the ancient artist. 
Owing to its weight and the inaccessibility of the 
Egyptian quarries, it was difficult to procure, 
especially in large blocks. Hence it happens that 
very few sculptures, and these usually of only 
small scale, have come down to us in this material. 
During the Roman period, when labour and 
money were of little account, and the remotest 
parts of Egypt were within reach of Rome, it was 
in demand for columns and — with the idea doubt- 
less of insuring against the ravages of time and 
iconoclasm — for the busts of emperors ; but after 
the Byzantine epoch it is rarely found. Mediaeval 
Europe did not know, or at least did not work, 
the quarries, and if occasionally sculpture in por- 
phyry has come down to us from the Renaissance, 
it is probable that the material was supplied from 
the broken relics of antiquity. It seems to have 
been highly prized by the virtuosi : there is a 
relief at Wilton which belonged to Cardinal 
Mazarin of which James Kennedy says, writing 














o J 
c 0. 

in 1758, "The face is porphyry, which the Cardinal 
Mazarine so much admired as to finish his Dress 
with a Helmet of different coloured marble ". 

Mr. Brindley tells me that the site of the ancient 
porphyr^i- quarries, which has been lost for many 
hundreds of years, has only just been rediscovered : 
so that the material in this case furnishes prima 

Porphyry Statue of Athena 

facie evidence, or at least a strong probability in 
the case of a life-sized figure, of antiquity. 

Taking all the facts into consideration, I think 
we shall not be far wrong if we regard the Bagshot 
statue as an echo of an Attic fourth-century type, 
executed somewhere towards the close of the first 
century of our era. 


BY D. S. MacColl 

GAVE some account in these pages, 
between two and three years ago,' of 
portraits by Alfred Stevens, including 
some that had been recently acquired 
for the Tate Gallery. I prefaced the notes 
in question with a brief review of the Stevens collec- 
tions in the three London museums. Since then 
the Print Room has acquired, through the National 
Art-Collections Fund, a fine set of drawings for 
vases, the Victoria and Albert Museum has made 
a further purchase of drawings, and has displayed 
its collection to great advantage — drawings in an 
upper gallery, sculpture round about the main 
entrance. The Tate Gallery has had the gift of 
the drawing of a dead child reproduced in Mr. 
Stannus's book, and since the Turner wing was 
opened, the old Turner room (No. XVIII) has 
become a Stevens Room. In about a fortnight's 
time it will be opened to the public with the fresh 
gifts from the Ste%'ens Memorial Committee and 
the loan exhibition which are the subject of the 
present article. 

The Memorial Committee was formed in 
June, 1910, to carry out the project, long cher- 
ished by Prof. Legros, of setting up some kind 
of monument to Stevens at the Tate Gallery. 
His first idea was that the caryatid figures of the 
Dorchester House chimnejpiece should be worked 
into the base of a design to be crowned by a bust 
of the artist. On further consideration it was 
agreed that it was a pity to modify Stevens's design 
and to lose the lovely upper part of the chimney- 
piece. It was decided, therefore, to apply for 
leave to reproduce the chimneypiece in wood and 
plaster and set this up in the Stevens Room, the 
bust to be carried out separately. This has been 
done. Prof. Lanteri has generously given his 
services as an admirer of Stevens, and has carried 
out the bust with the aid of the death mask at the 
National Portrait Gallery, various photographs 
and drawings, and the recollection of Mr. James 
Gamble. The bust will be put up at the entrance 
of the room, just as Mr. Gilbert's bust of Watts 
stands at the entrance of the Walts room opposite. 
It may be objected to this scheme that the 

I BurUng>on Mng.izine, V I. XIV, p. 266, etc., Feb., 1909. 

plaster model of the chimneypiece was already 
at South Kensington, but it is there in a collec- 
tion of the art of all the world ; at the Tate it 
is needed to place, in the line of English art, one of 
the chief works of our greatest sculptor. In a 
gallery so overweighted with ephemeral things 
as is the Tate, it is essential that the few really 
great men should be present in force, Stevens 
beside Turner. It has been a pleasant part of this 
business that several of Professor Legros's old 
pupils have been members of the committee, among 
them Sir Charles Holroyd as chairman. Countess 
Feodora Gleichen and Miss. S. C. Harrison as 
secretaries. It is probable that the labours of the 
committee will not end with this presentation ; 
there is still work to be done in collecting or 
preserving the productions of Stevens, and it may 
be hoped that the committee will not dissolve till 
this has been accomplished. 

It is twenty-one years since an exhibition 
of Stevens's work, chiefly drawings, was held at 
Burlington House, and a good many things will 
be shown at the Tate Gallery for the first time. 
Among these is a number of portraits. In my 
previous article I mentioned two portraits which 
I had not then seen. One of them, the 
portrait of Stevens's friend Tobin, I knew only 
through a copy. I was able to trace it a year 
ago and hope to reproduce it in a later number 
of Tht; Burlington Magazine. The other portrait 
was the Mother and Child, now reproduced. 
This and the delightful portrait of a baby are lent 
by Miss Jessie Mitchell of Sheffield, and it is her 
generous intention that both should ultimately 
be added to the Tate Gallery collection. These 
portraits date from the time that Stevens spent 
in Sheffield as designer to Messrs. Hoole. His 
going there at all was the work of Mr. Young 
Mitchell (b. 1815, d. 1865), a remarkable man 
who had been a pupil of Ingres and had after- 
wards studied under Stevens at the School of 
Design with a view to getting a place as art- 
master. This he obtained at Sheffield and his 
energy quickly transformed the school. He not 
only introduced Stevens to the Hooles, but fought 
his battles for him. Stevens, it seems, did not 

I I J 

The Stevens Memorial and Exhibition at the Tate Gallery 

appear at the works, after his engagement, for three 
months,- and Mr. Hoole was naturally indignant. 
Stevens quietly explained that he had been "prepar- 
ing " ; high words followed, and Mr. Mitchell had to 
rush down and compose the quarrel. The result was 
that the key of the designer's room was given to 
Stevens, with full liberty to come and go as he 
pleased. Every evening in frock coat and top hat 
he would turn up at the school and disappear into 
the head-master's room, unless he looked into the 
library, where he was particularly fond of turning 
over Piranesi's etchings. At going-home time 
the students waited for him to cross the passage, 
and he was always ready to criticize their 
work. Thus on a design of Mr. Archer's for a 
beer-flagon he sketched a circle with verticals 
below it saying " circle for action, straight lines for 
repose". After the visit to the students he would 
go off with Mitchell to the latter's house at Meers- 
brook. Here he really lived, sleeping in a little 
cottage not far away. He would work with 
Mitchell far into the night. Occasionally a few 
students were invited for the evening, when draw- 
ings by the Old Masters and prints after Michael 
Angelo, Raphael, Del Sarto were passed round 
and discussed. 

It was at this house he painted the Molhci and 
Child [Plate I], portraits of the first Mrs. 
Mitchell (born Elizabeth Wanestrocht) and her 
little girl. May Margaret. Mother and child were 
both ill, and the mother died in 1850 before the 
picture was finished. It has probably lost 
something of its colour as well, but the fine 
general design and drawing of details such as the 
mother's hand, make this a precious addition to 
the list of Stevens's work. The little picture of a 
dog and the painted mantelpiece reproduced by 
Stannus were also done for Mrs. Mitchell. The 
Portrait oj a Baby [Plate I] Rubens-like in its 
directness and freshness of colour, is of rather 
later date. It represents the eldest boy of the 
second Mrs. Mitchell (born Mary Elizabeth 
Smith) and was painted in 1854. The boy, called 
Young after his father, died and was buried at sea. 

Before I pass from this Sheffield period of 
Stevens's activity, some illustrations of which on 
the decorative side will be given in the exhibition, 
I should like to delay for a moment on the out- 
come of the Sheffield School under these two 
masters, Mitchell and Stevens. That it was a real 
"school" in the Italian sense is shown by the 
after-work of its pupils at Kensington, especially 
of three, Godfrey Sykes, Reuben Townroe and 
James Gamble. Sykes, most familiar to the 
public as the designer of the cover of the 
" Cornhill Magazine", died in 1866, the other two 

2 For this and some following particulars I am indebted to the 
recollections of Mr. Hunry Archer, a pupil of the school and 
assistant of Stevens : they have been kindly noted for me by Mr. 
\V. W. Bagshawe. 

within the past year ; Gamble, indeed, since the 
Memorial Committee was formed. Their work on 
the South Kensington buildings has never received 
due credit and was carried out under a system 
more nearly corresponding to what we guess to 
have been mediaeval than any other modern 
architectural effort. The word " committee " has 
such unlucky association with the arts in the 
matter of purchase and administration, that it 
might be thought impossible that any body so 
describable could successfully carry out a group 
of public buildings ; but the organizing faculty of 
Sir Henry Cole, the inventive mind of his 
engineer-architect, Captain Fowke, and the 
decorative gift of the three Sheffield men, saturated 
as they were with the ideas of a common 
master, did so work together that the buildings 
are full of interest, are in some parts bold 
and striking in design, and are rich and 
characteristic in their detail. The least happy 
feature was the choice of material and colour, 
based on Italian brick and terra-cotta construc- 
tion ; but this was very likely due to want of 
money. The subject calls for longer treatment 
with illustrations, but I may briefly indicate here 
the authorship of the main parts of the scheme.' 
A beginning wasmade with the arcades surrounding 
the garden of the Royal Horticultural Society, 
begun in 1858 and now practically destroyed. A 
draughtsman's office had been set up and one or 
two wooden sheds for decorative work, where the 
crafts of terra-cotta moulding, mosaic, glass paint- 
ing, sgraffito, wall painting and so on were revived. 
Fowke was constructor, Sykes his co-operating 
decorative designer, with Townroe and Gamble as 
assistants. Then came the Museum, beginning 
with the western side of the Inner Quadrangle, 
set out by Fowke with details designed by Sykes 
and carried out with the help of the two others. 
An amusing mosaic panel in the quadrangle 
commemorates this association of workers. An 
emblematic figure is seated in the centre and 
approached from the left by the Lords President 
of the Council of Education. From the right 
come first Cole and Redgrave, then Sykes and 
Fowke, followed by Townroe, Gamble and others 
of the staff. Fowke died in 1865 and Sykes 
soon after. General Scott succeeded Fowke, and 
Townroe and Gamble took charge of the decorative 
studios. They got to work on Fowkes's design for 
the Albert Hall. The terra-cotta work on this 
was Townroe's and he set out the frieze of figures, 
suggested by Beccafumi's mosaics at Siena. It 
was designed in detail by Sir Edward Poynter, 
Pickersgill, Marks, Armstead, Horsley and others. 
In i860 the Royal College of Science in the 
Exhibition Road was taken in hand. This, the 

'My authorities are notes kindly given me by Mr. Allan Cole, 
a memorandum by James Gamble, and conversations with 
Reuben Townroe. 

1 12 







jj^ i"^ 








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&L "^^^1 

1^ _- 







The Stevens Memorial and Exhibition at the Tate Gallery 

finest part of the vvln)le gioup, was chiefly 
Gamble's work. The idea of an open balcony at 
the top, of which he made so hne a feature, was 
Sir Henry Cole's ; he thought that professors 
ought to have an open-air walk in which to expatiate 
and cool themselves between lectures ; some of the 
detail, such as the decorative columns, was 
borrowed from Sykes's previous work in the quad- 
rangle. Gamble was the designer of the central 
refreshment room also ; there again he used 
Sykes's alphabet, intertwined with putti, and con- 
tinued the idea in the rings of little figures round 
the majolica columns ; he also had some help 
from Tovvnroe in the design of two of the very 
successful painted windows. This interior, in its gay 
use of the materials, is the best piece of colour design 
in the work of this group. Townroe designed the 
Hbrary and the details of the lecture theatre, where 
there is a lovely bit of proportion and ornament in 
the tablets with acanthus ends under the arcades. 
He also made the model for the exterior of the 
buildings which were set aside when the Office of 
Works took over the Museum after Sir Henry 
Cole's resignation in 1873. The decorative 
studios and the system were abolished, and the 
new buildings, with their lamentable facade, are 
the work of Sir Aston Webb. 

From this digression on the followers I return 
to Stevens's own work in portraiture. The exhibi- 
tion will illustrate for the first time his early painting 
as a boy at Blandford up to the age of fifteen. 
These portraits belong to the family of his faithful 
friend and executor Alfred Pegler. They include 
a portrait of Stevens himself at the age of ten, 
portraits of Samuel Pegler, father of Alfred, and of 
Emma his aunt, who kept a school and was 
probably Stevens's first teacher in drawing. The 
precocious gift shown in these portraits and the 
completeness of some of them is extraordinary. 
Mr. C. H. Curtis, ex-Mayor of Blandford, and a mem- 
ber of our Committee, has obtained the loan of them 
for us, and also of some early copies of sea-pieces 
and animal-paintings, and scraps of drawing such 
as the child, his pinafore full of them, used to run 
round with, to show to old Mrs. Pegler. Of 
later date, after his return from Italy, in 1843, is a 
highly-finished miniature of Alfred Pegler. The 
portrait of Mr. Collmann will also be lent for this 
occasion by his daughter, to put beside that of his 
wife, and the beginning of another version in Mrs. 
Gamble's possession ; so that, with the possible 
exception of the lately-exhibited portrait of 
Mr. W. B. Spence in the possession of Mr. de Pass, 


To the Editors 0/ Thk Burlington Magazine. 
Gentlemen, — I have had many inquiries 

recently, with cuttings of various newspapers 

all the known portrait-work will be brought 

On the side of sculpture there will be a cast from 
the full-sized model for the equestrian statue of the 
Duke of Wellington at S. Paul's. This is the 
model as Stevens left it, with the addition of the 
missing hoof and the tail enlarged from the small 
model by Mr. Tweed. Besides this are a model 
for a second chimneypiece at Dorchester House, 
wax models for work at Messrs. Hoole's.and several 
small pieces of which reproductions are given in 
Plate II. No. i is a charming figure for a fountain. 
The drawing shows jets of waters pouting 
from the little dolphins held in the two hands. 
This was possibly one of the designs for a fountain 
in Stevens's garden at Haverstock Hill, which un- 
fortunately no longer exists. No. 2 is a vigorous 
sketch of struggling figures, the subject of which 
is doubtful. It appears at the sale after Stevens's 
death as Cain and Abel, a very rough shot, for 
the figures are three, and two of them are women. 
These were purchased from Mr. Gamble by Sir 
Charles Holroyd, He also purchased the three re- 
maining little figures, which Mr. Stannus brought to 
me shortly before his death, along with a lay figure 
in boxwood that Stevens had amused himself by 
carving. These three figures, Jael, David and 
Judith, belong to the scheme of decoration for the 
dome of S. Paul's for which Stevens executed a 
section-model that will probably be lent by the 
Chapter, The figures, eight in all, were to 
stand in niches round the drum of the dome 
with windows between. Over each figure a 
rib, supporting figures and medallions, was 
to be painted on the dome. Between each 
two ribs a throned figure (Moses, etc.) was to 
be seated, and above this a double row of greater 
and lesser circles was to contain Scripture- 
histories, Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, the 
Brazen Serpent, the Stricken Rock, etc., for which 
many drawings exist. But our English Sistine 
roof was destined never to be carried out, and 
Leighton's Sfa giving up tlic Dead, repeated in the 
Tate Gallery picture, and some angels by Sir 
Edward Poynter are all that was executed of a later 
modification of the scheme. 

Besides all this we shall have many drawings 
from the fine collections of Mr. Singer, Mr. Alfred 
Drury, Mrs. Gamble and others. The student who 
combines a visit to this exhibition with knowledge of 
the other two collections will have within his grasp 
the entire productions of Stevens, excepting those 
decorative works which can be studied only in situ 

enclosed, respecting a sword at Dijon, which is 
considered by the Curator of the Museum in that 
city to have belonged to Joan of Arc, I may say 
at once that I have not seen the sword or even a 


Letter to the Editors 

photograph of it, but the newspaper accounts are 
all so alike in detail, that their information must 
have been derived from the Museum authorities. 

The facts as given are as follows : — On the blade 
is engraved the figure of " the Maid " kneeling 
before a cross with the name " Charles VII ". On 
the other side is the word " Vaucouleurs ". The 
date 1419 is found in five places on blade and 
hilt, and, finally, the museum authorities are said 
to have documentary evidence that the sword was 
made and signed by Lupus Aguado of Toledo and 
that it was specially made as a present to Joan 
from Charles VII. 

If we examine these statements we find the 
following discrepancies : — The sword is dated 74/9 
and Joan of Arc did not go to Vaucouleurs till 
February 21,142c); Charles VII did not succeed 


HEURES DE Milan : Troisieme Partie des Tres-Belles 
Heures de Notre-Dame enluminfee par les peintres de Jean 
de France, Due de Berry et par ceux du Due Guillaume de 
Baviere, Comte du Hainaut et de HoUande:— Vingt-huit 
Feuillets Histoires reproduils d'apres les originaux de la 
Biblioteca Trivulziana ;i Milan: avec une Introduction 
Historique par Georges H. de Loo. Brussels : Van Oest. 

The year 1902 is memorable in the history of the 
Fine Arts for two events. One of these was the 
exhibition at Bruges of works by the primitive 
painters of the early Netherlandish Schools. 
Among the important results of this exhibition, 
which are still bearing fruit, was the introduction to 
public notice of Prof. Georges Hulin de Loo, of 
Ghent, whose supplementary notes and comments 
on the pictures in the exhibition were published in 
the Catalogue, and have remained, as it were, a 
locus classiciis on the subject ever since. M. Hulin 
de Loo has not been a prolific writer since that 
date, but it has been understood that he was 
engaged on a patient and exhaustive inquiry into 
the history of the famous brothers, Hubert and 
Johannes Van Eyck. The second great event, 
which occurred in 1902, was the first publication 
by the Comte Paul Durrieu of the forty-eight 
miniature-paintings in the "Tres-Belles Heures 
de Jean de France, Due de Berry" in the 
University Library at Turin, followed by his 
article " Les Debuts des Van Eyck " in the " Gazette 
des Beaux Arts" 1903, p. 5, in which the great 
painters were introduced to the world as partici- 
pators in an important work of miniature-painting.' 
The disastrous sequel is too well known: how this 
all-important manuscript was no sooner revealed 
to the world than it perished in the flames. 
Fortunately, however, not only had the Comte 
Durrieu secured photographs of the illuminations, 
but M. Hulin, who had also independently in 
November, 1902, asserted the share of the Van 

> First communicated by Comte Durrieu to the Societe 
Nationalc des Antiquaires de France in June, 1501. 


to the throne till 1422, and was not crowned till 
July 17, 1./29 ; and lastly Lupus Aguado flourished 
about 1560, for the blades by him at Madrid, 
Dresden and elsewhere are all of this period — that 
is, late sixteenth century. It would be interesting 
to know what the "signature" on the sword is, for 
Aguado blades are always marked with a "G" 
under a crown besides the maker's name. I shall 
be only too glad to stand corrected if this curious 
combination of anachronisms turns out to be 
actually a relic of Joan of Arc, but till then I must 
adhere to the opinion which I gave in The 
Burlington Magazine, of November, 1909, that no 
relics of her military equipment or weapons 
exist at the present day. — Yours faithfully, 

Charles ffoulkes. 
20 October. 

Eycks in the Turin miniatures, had also taken the 
opportunity of making a minute study of the 
manuscript, so far as the brothers Van Eyck were 
concerned. Unluckily, the photographs taken for 
Count Durrieu arc feefjle in comparison to those 
taken for M. Hulin from the portion of the same 
"Tres-Belles Heures" in the rich Biblioteca 
Trivulziana at Milan, which are reproduced in the 
handsome volume now before us. Second only 
in importance to the exhibition of Early Flemish 
Primitives at Bruges was that of the French 
Primitives held in Paris a few years later. With 
the help of these exhibitions serious students, like 
Comte Durrieu, M. Hulin, and others have been 
able to raise the art of the miniaturist or illuminator of 
manuscripts to one of the front ranks in the domain 
of the Fine Arts, and to show the important part 
which this art played in the progress and develop- 
ment of the art of painting. In his luminous and 
carefully constructed historical introduction 
M. Hulin de Loo sets out the history of the 
famous manuscript known as the "Tres-Belles 
Heures de Jean, Due de Berry". This history 
may be summarized as follows : The complete 
manuscript appears to have been in the hands of 
the illuminators as early as 1380, when the Duo 
de Berry was forty years old. It came into his 
library some time between 1402 and 1404, and 
was exchanged some time during the year 1412 
by the duke with his librarian and keeper of his 
jewels, one Robinet d'Estampes, the illuminations 
being still incomplete. While in Robinet's hands 
the manuscript was divided into two parts ; the 
first part, the more complete, was retained by 
Robinet, and descended from him through the 
families of Beauvilliers and Du Plessis-Chatillon, 
until it reached the hands of the late Baron 
Adolphe de Rothschild, being now the property 
of Baron Maurice de Rothschild, in Paris. The 
second part of the "Tres-Belles Heures", in which 

Reviews and Notices 

the illuminations were far from complete, was 
sold in 1414 or 1415 by Robinet d'Estampes to 
William, Duke of Bavaria, Count of Hainault and 
Holland, whose wife, Margaret of Burgundy, was 
niece to Jean, Due de Berry, the first owner of the 
manuscript. William of Bavaria died in 14 17, 
when the manuscript remained in the possession 
of his widow, the Duchess Margaret, for whom the 
illuminations were completed. At some later date, 
perhaps through the marriage of Margaret of 
Austria with Philibert of Savoy, this portion of the 
"Tres-Belles Heures" came into the possession of 
the House of Savoy, and in 1720 was given by 
Victor Amadeus, King of Sardinia, to the University 
Library at Turin. By this time it would appear 
that the manuscript had been again divided into 
two volumes. One of these remained in the 
Library at Turin until its destruction by fire, the 
other was removed and came into the collection 
of the Comte d'Aglie, from whose library it was 
acquired by the Marchese Trivulzio at Milan. It 
is this portion which has now been reproduced 
and edited by Prof. H. de Loo. The actual history 
of the manuscript is, however, of minor importance 
compared to that of the identity of the artists to 
whom the illuminations were entrusted. It is in 
such studies as this that the value of patient 
research and unflagging interest, coupled with a 
natural y/^n> or acumen is best illustrated by such 
students as Prof. Hulin de Loo. It is easy to sum 
up the results of his investigations, but for his 
methods and the evidence upon which his conclu- 
sions are based the reader must be referred to 
the book itself. 

It has been known for some time that the task 
of illuminating manuscripts was in many cases 
entrusted to regular schools of artists, and that they 
were the work of many hands, covering a consider- 
able period of time. Of such are the famous Grimani 
Breviary at Venice and the "Tres-Belles Heures" 
with other manuscripts completed or begun for 
Jean, Due de Berry. According to M. H. de Loo, 
the artists employed on the " Tres-Belles Heures " 
may be classified as follows : The manuscript was 
at first entrusted to a French painter of first-class 
importanceabout 1370-80, clearly thesamepainteras 
that of the Par(;we;!^rfejVrtr6cin«5, which was shown at 
the Exhibition of the French Primitives in Paris. 
The work was then broken off, perhaps through the 
death of the artist, and was not resumed for about 
twenty years, when, perhaps under the direction of 
Kobinet d'Estampes, the completion was entrusted 
to one or more artists of the Franco-Flemish 
school, that of the brothers Pol de Limborg.* 
During this period the manuscript became the 
property of Robinet, who had the first part, now 
in the Rothschild collection at Paris, completed. 
The second part, which was sold by Robinet to 

^The artist i of Lcs Tres-Richcs Heures du Dnc do Berry at 

William of Bavaria, was entrusted to artists of a 
quite different school, and the influence of a strong 
individuality is at once apparent. This individu- 
ality is none other than that of Hubert van Eyck, 
and it is shown by M. Hulin de Loo, as had already 
been expounded by Comte Durrieu, that an im- 
portant share in the illumination of this manuscript 
must be allotted to Hubert Van Eyck's own hand, 
followed by the more tentative work of his brother, 
Johannes. After the death of William of Bavaria 
the manuscript was entrusted, evidently by the 
Duchess Margaret, to painters of the school of 
Hainault, whose work is not up to the level reached 
by that of Hubert and Johannes Van Eyck. Since 
the completion of M. H. de Loo's researches the 
subject has been again reviewed by Comte Durrieu 
in the "Revue Arch6ologique" for 1910. The 
general acceptance of the discoveries made by 
Comte Durrieu and M. Hulin de Loo as to the 
participation of the Van Eycks and their school 
in this great manuscript is obviously of capital 
importance in the history of the fine arts. It 
throws light on the early careers of the two 
brothers, and it establishes beyond all doubt the 
priority and pre-eminence of Hubert Van Eyck as 
the pioneer of the new school of painting It 
shows, moreover, that Hubert was no sudden or 
isolated phenomenon, but, like all other great 
artists, the culminating point of a progressive series 
of artists, reaching a height, from which the next 
step must inevitably be a sensible decline. This 
had already been set forth by Mr. Weale and other 
writers. Mr. Weale had indeed already advanced 
a theory that The Adoration of the Lamb was 
originally a commission from William, Duke of 
Bavaria, interrupted either by the Duke's death in 
1417 or the painter's in 1426, andihatthecompletion 
was taken up by Jodocus Vydt and his wife, as a 
good stroke of business. This suggestion would 
be borne out by the fact of Hubert Van Eyck 
being already employed by the Duke of Bavaria on 
the completion of the Tres-Belles Heures du Due de 
Berry. It is not possible within the restrictions of 
a review to do justice to the importance of M. H. 
de Loo's work, or to the excellence of the printing 
both of text and plates. Any further instalment 
of Prof. Hulin's researches into the history of the 
Van Eycks will be eagerly awaited. L. C. 

L'Art au Nord et au Sud des Alpes a 
l'Epoque de la Renaissance : Etudes 

Comparatives. Brussels : van Oest 15 Kr. 
The exhibition of French Primitives in 1904 
marked an epoch in the history of the criticism of 
European painting. It is true that the results 
were not exactly what the promoters of the 
exhibition had expected. It would have been 
pleasing to a certain kind of national pride to 
prove that, if the hegemony which French art had 
enjoyed in the thirteenth century was not actually 


Reviews and Notices 

maintained in the fifteenth, yet there remained at 
least an independent school of French Primitives, 
plainly distinct from the schools of painting in the 
Low Countries and in Italy. When, however, the 
exhibition opened, says M. Mesnil in his admirable 
volume of essays, it brought disillusion to all 
whose heads were not turned to the degree of 
seriously disturbing their vision. It was seen to 
be impossible to define the "French style" in 
fifteenth-century painting ; France at this period 
can show among its painters a few personalities, 
but they are of the rarest ; all the rest hang on to 
the skirts of Flemish or Italian painters, or 
combine with more or less skill the different 
manners in fashion at the time. 

But, if patriotism was disconcerted, criticism 
received a healthy stimulus. The immense signi- 
ficance for the history of art of the illuminators, 
of whom the Limbourg brothers are the most 
distinguished representatives, was already begin- 
ning to be dimly appreciated. The publication, 
in the same year as the exhibition, of the facsimiles 
of the Tres-Riclies Hemes of the Due de Berry 
served to impress everybody with the capital 
importance of this branch of art at the end of the 
fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth 
century. The editor of the facsimiles, it is true, 
was unwilling to admit certain obvious evidence 
of borrowing by the Limbourgs from Italian art. 
Possibly he would have seen differently had he 
not convinced himself that the art of the illumi- 
nators was essentially French — a prejudice to 
which M. Mesnil renders justice. It is curious 
that the fellow-countrymen of that poet who 
boasted that he took what suited him wherever 
he found it, should think that the borrowing 
of motifs is derogatory to an artist's claim to 
originality. But, apart from this kind of patriotism, 
students everywhere recognized that here was 
an art some decades ahead of the Italians in 
realism, truth to nature, or whatever one likes to 
call the spirit which roused Italy in the early fif- 
teenth century from its Giottesque schematism. 
Exactly how well the work of such illuminators 
was known in Italy, we shall never be able to do 
more than guess from the traces of their influence 
discernible in the work of certain painters. But 
such radiation of influence from the North there 
was, and with the rise of Flemish painting under 
the Van Eycks the force of the rays was 
strengthened. M. Mesnil's theme is this : during 
the fifteenth centuiy, of the two centres of artistic 
activity that mainly count, Flanders and Tuscany, 
it is the former that throws its influence farthest, 
penetrating even to Italy, at a time when Italian 
influence barely passed the barrier of the Alps. 
But towards the end of the fifteenth century there 
is a sudden turn in the tide ; Italy overflows and 
overwhelms the North. Why is this ? 

It will not be unjust to M. Mesnil to say that his 


answer, put briefly, is that intellect is bound to win 

in the long run. Michelangelo is said to have 
complained of defects in Flemish painting, defects 
which, however, endeared it to the simple and 
devout mind, and practically amount to a 
lack of intellectual quality and of style. Intellectual 
significance and style are things that the general 
public finds disconcerting. Flemish painting is 
more pious, more pietistic, if you will, than Italian 
painting of the fifteenth century. (M. Mesnil 
would doubtless ignore Fra Angelico as a mere 
survival.) But it stands altogether on a lower plane 
of imagination and idea. In spite of the pages 
that have been written about the religious character 
of Italian art during the Renaissance, M. Mesnil is 
not rash when he urges that Christianity in Italy 
was then, for the artist, no more than a traditional 
cult. The artists no longer sought to express the 
soul of the sacred subjects which custom and 
commissions obliged them to represent. Had they 
done so, they would have been obliged to wander 
oft' into the trackless wilds of mysticism. 
Christianity, as the devout of that time conceived 
it, was, it is not too much to say, directly inimical 
to the development of art along the lines which the 
Florentine intellect had laid down for itself. 
Rightly or wrongly, the artists decided to take the 
direction which would give to their art a wider and 
higher human interest than the traditional beliefs 
would admit of. 

But even in Italy or in Greece, in Florence or in 
Athens, where the people are supposed to have been 
artistic to the core, the artists did not have it ail their 
own way, though the great men of the time may have 
appreciated them. It has been truly remarked that 
the average Athenian was probably an egregious 
Philistine ; and who shall say that something of 
the same kind was not true of the average Italian 
of the Renaissance ? Thus even in Italy, for the 
mass of the people, " the imitation of nature, 
pushed to the point of producing the illusion of 
reality, is the first of qualities". The people would 
have sympathized heartily with the preacher whom 
Matthew Arnold lectured so severely : — 

Man must begin, know this, where Xature ends ; 
Nature and man can never be fast friends. 
Fool, if thou canst not pass her, rest her slave ! 

The painters for them are the craftsmen who tell a 
plain tale, and rouse the most obvious sentiments, 
without exercising the brains of the spectator. 
Superficial fidelity to nature is their test of a good 
portrait ; little touches of realism their chief source 
of pleasure in a subject picture. Such pabulum 
was skilfully supplied by the early Flemings, and 
furnished forth with extraordinary craftsmanship. 
This craftsmanship, however, was based on 
tradition, a tradition which had its roots in the art 
of illumination, so far as matters of design and 
composition were concerned. Florentine design, 
on the other hand, was determined by the fact that 

Reviews and Notices 

the artists were accustomed to decorate large 
spaces in fresco. Hence tradition was constantly 
being put to the test, constantly being modified 
by scientific research ; perspective and other 
theoretic questions had to be worked out, ques- 
tions which hardly presented themseh-es to the 
worker on small panels ; intellect, and not mere 
cunning born of hereditary craftsmanship, was the 
dominant factor in the making of the Florentine 
artist. So he learned all that was to be learned 
from the Flemish tradition, in itself incapable of 
development beyond a certain point, and then he 
went on his own way. 

It is impossible to follow M. Mesnil into the 
numerous issues which he raises. Some will find 
his conclusions a little too sweeping, or argue that 
he occasionally takes Florentine art as covering 
more completely than it does in reality the whole 
of Italian art. Those, however, who go to his book 
rather than trust to the possibly misleading varia- 
tions on his theme which are given here, will 
probably come to the conclusion that his main 
principles are incontestably just. If they do not, 
it will be because they are " made so ". The clou 
of the book is the contrast between The Adoration 
of the Lamb in S. Bavon and the fresco of The 
Tribute Money in the Brancacci Chapel. In order to 
appreciate the solemn qualities of the former, one 
need not remain blind to the fact that its composi- 
tion is wholly inorganic, mechanical and immobile, 
and that in movement, in viegalopsychia, in 
grandeur of conception generally, the Italian makes 
the Fleming seem almost puerile. M. Mesnil puts 
his point more gracefully than this, but his 
meaning is none the less plain. Throughout the 
book, whether he is exposing the fallacy that the 
Mysteries were responsible for the revival of art at 
the end of the middle ages, or analyzing the style 
of what he aptly calls " retables gtiignols", or 
demolishing the theory that the Italian engravings 
of the Planets derive from German models, he 
writes with lucidity and eminent good sense. 


La Peixture en Belgique. Les Primitifs 

FLAMAXDS. By Fieress-Gevaert. Vols. II and III. 
Brussels : Van Oest. 

No branch of art-historj' has met with such con- 
centrated attention as the Early Flemish School of 
Painting, dating back as these studies do to the 
breaking of the ground by Mr. W. H. James Weale, 
whom we are glad to number still among the 
contributors to The Burlington Magazine. The 
valuable researches of MM. Hymans, Hulin and 
others in Belgium, Dr. Friedlander and others 
in Germany, to say nothing of writers in our 
country, such as Sir Claude Phillips, and the further 
studies of Mr. Weale himself, have mapped out a 
district in the history of art in which the chief 
objects of interest begin to take their proper place 

and assume their proper value. The close of the 
mediaeval or Gothic period, with its high aims and 
ideals, and its supersession by an age of progiessive 
materialism, in which the human element was 
gradually exalted at the expense of the divine, is 
one of the most interesting stages in the develop- 
ment of human intellect. It resembles the progress 
through childhood and adolescence to self-reliant 
maturity, with the inevitable senile decay to follow. 
Xo school of art illustrates this better than the 
Flemish school, and M. Fierens-Gevaert is doing a 
useful work in summing up the results of modern 
research, tracing the dividing line between the old 
age and the new, pointing out which masters in 
art belonged to the former and relied upon the 
past, and which boldly struck out new lines as 
pioneers and influenced the ages to come. When 
dealing therefore in his second volume with the 
great successors of the Van Eycks, Hugo Van der 
Goes, Hans Memlinc, and Gerard David, 
M. Fierens-Gevaert cannot but put into compact 
and intelligible form the concentrated researches 
of scholars such as have already been named. 
The same may be said of less-known painters, 
such as Justus of Ghent, Simon Marmion, 
Adriaen Ysenbrandt, Jean Provost and others, 
whose works can be much better studied and 
appreciated when they are brought into close com- 
parison with those of the greater masters. It is with 
the help of such a summary that M. Fierens- 
Gevaert, in his third volume, makes it possible to 
see the real importance in the history of art of such 
men as Jerome Bosch, Quentin Aletsys, Jean 
Gossart, and Joachim Patinir. All these painters 
have been the subject of special study in T/ie 
Burlington Magazine and elsewhere, but students 
will find the notices by M. Fierens-Gevaert com- 
plete and lucid. He shows, for instance, how Jerome 
Bosch was more than a mere painter of grotesque 
monstrosities : a powerful satirist and moralist, 
steeped in the mystic symbolism and religious 
fer\-our of the middle ages, but guided by the 
Mephistophelian spirit of the age to come. In all 
his details, however grotesque and extravagant 
they may seem, a meaning is never absent ; if they 
appear meaningless or absurd, the paintings may 
safely be attributed to some of Bosch's numerous 
contemporary imitators and pirates. Quentin 
Metsys has for long been accepted as one of the 
great figureheads of painting. It is gratifying to 
find that M. Fierens-Gevaert is prepared to defend 
the old tradition that he began life as a worker in 
iron and changed this for painting. Jean Gossart, 
of Maubeuge, so well known in England as 
Mabuse, has also lately been the subject of much 
study, especially as a portrait painter. It is 
generally accepted, and by M. Fierens-Gevaert 
among others, that Gossart, though by no means 
the first Flemish artist to visit Italy, or show 
Italian influence, was the first to be so 


Reviews and Notices 

profoundly impregnated by the Italian spirit 
as to bring it home and infuse it into the art 
of his contemporaries. Joachim Patinir, accord- 
ing to M. Fierens-Gevaert, is entitled still to his 
traditional claim to the creator of landscape paint- 
ing, not as a mere accessory to the main subject 
of the painting, but as the main subject in itself. 
From these four great individualists it is easy to 
pass to those artists who, like the mysterious 
Henri Bles, or the more obvious Bernaert van 
Orley, were the founders of great picture 
manufactories. Admirable as an executant, with 
all the latent powers of a Rubens in him, Bernaert 
van Orley still remains a great craftsman rather 
than a great artist. In him the medijeval spirit is 
dead, and the new scientific influence begins to 
make itself felt. Van Orley was too big a man to 
allow himself to be carried away into extravagan- 
cies or eccentricities of technical skill ; he depended 
rather upon a triumph of organization. So prolific 
was Flemish art in the early days of the sixteenth 
century that an attempt, so copiously illustrated, 
to sort out the painters of the Bles school, to 
elucidate the Coninxloo family, the Claeissins 
(as done lately by Mr. Weale), and other artists 
perhaps of secondary importance, must be greeted 
with cordial welcome. It must, however, be 
remarked that M. Fierens-Gevaert shows him- 
self insufficiently acquainted at first hand with the 
paintings of the early Flemish school in English 
collections. L. C. 

L'ArT MOSAN. By Jules Helbig. Tome II (i6th to 
i8th centuries). Brussels : Van Oest. 

With this volume the work projected and begun 
by the late M. Helbig has been brought to a con- 
clusion by his friend and collaborator, M. Joseph 
Brassinne. The first volume included the interest- 
ing part of the subject ; the present is a chronicle 
of minor achievement. Here instead of a Van 
Eyck we have a Lambert Lombard ; instead of the 
great innovating miniaturists who ruled the schools 
of France we have artists of little moment. The 
1 2th century sculptor of the famous Liege font is 
but poorly replaced by a Jean Warin or a Jean Del 
Cour. The work, in fact, was mainly a patriotic 
enterprise which has been studiously carried 
through to final completion. Such criticism as we 
have to make must be confined to a few questions 
of form. The book is difficult to consult and not 
easy to read. There are no sign-post head-lines, no 
breaking up of the text when a new artist comes to 
be dealt with, and only an incomplete index which 
failed us on the two occasions we needed it, in the 
one case referring us to a page in which the name 
did not occur and in the other lacking all reference 
to an important name. The illustrations are good 
and useful, but one appears to be unmentioned in 
the text. There is a lack of definiteness in some 

cases, even no vaguest information being given of 
the date of the reliquary of Sainte Pynosa, which 
has a full-page illustration. 

After the terrible destruction wrought in the 
parts of Lifege and Dinan by Dukes of Burgundy 
in the 15th century, art of course languished, not- 
withstanding the constructive efforts of Bishop 
Erard de la Marck. Practically all of importance 
that was produced was done to his order. The 
great episcopal palace which he built, and the other 
works of his architect, Arnold de Mulken, possess 
a certain originality and splendour which can still 
be tasted. As for the painters, about whom our 
author treats at greatest length, it is hard to take 
much interest in them. Lambert Lombard was an 
interesting and vigorous personality but a dull 
artist, and no one has yet satisfactorily isolated his 
work from a mass of false attributions. The principal 
17th century artist of Liege was G6rard DoufJet, 
a pupil of Rubens. Some portraits by him are 
noteworthy. The remaining artists discussed are 
of local interest, even the best of them who worked 
in Paris. Their lives are more entertaining than 
their pictures, for many details are recorded 
throwing light on the mode of life of artists every- 
where at that time. 

A few pages are devoted to the glass painters of 
the i6th century. Lichfield Cathedral possesses 
the most important set of their works — nine great 
windows of 1534-1539. A chapter on Dinanderie 
contains an epitome of the history of Mosan metal 
work, but three-fourths of it relates to the earlier 
period not supposed to be dealt with in this 
volume. M. C. 


M. Dreger. Vienna : Scholl. 

Students of lace will welcome the new edition of 
Dr. M. Dreger's learned work, which is practically 
exhaustive as far as it concerns the history of the 
period of which he treats. Dr. Dreger gives many 
and valuable quotations from historical documents, 
state records, and commercial accounts of prices. 
One very notable feature is the large number of 
reproductions of patterns for lace from early 
Italian and German books. Thirty portraits are 
given in the text-volume, ranging from the 
Venetian lady of the i6th century to the portrait of 
Napoleon I by Tofanelli. Events in the lives of 
Royal and other personages are recounted, as well 
as the dates of the birth and death of each 
painter and engraver. In a study of the different 
materials composing lace, and its elder sister 
embroidery, verbal descriptions and paintings do 
not much advance our technical knowledge of the 
lace itself or of the design intended by the worker. 
These portraits, therefore, are valuable chiefly as 
studies of costume, and records of the different 
fashions of wearing lace from the i6th century 


Reviews and Notices 

onwards. Students of the earlier period of lace- 
making will regret that no representation of the 
Modano and biiratto lacis or of the linen laces 
is given by M. Dreger. The portraits of the three 
Bentivoglio sisters, for example, painted by 
Lorenzo Costa in 1488, might well have been 
included — the beautiful Modano lacis adorning 
their dresses is so finely rendered that we can 
distinguish the lions on one band and dragons on 
the other : these have possibly some heraldic 
meaning. In the second part, the numbering of 
the 100 plates, chiefly from objects in the Vienna 
Museum, is puzzling : the first three plates are of 
silk embroidery of the igth and 20th centuries, 
followed by specimens of the i6th and 17th, with 
no classification of design, material, or technique. 
On the subject of design Dr. Dreger points out 
that, while in the West development of design 
from Eastern sources is easily traceable, in the 
East itself the standpoint towards Western ideas 
remains but little altered. Early design in lace is 
clearly of Eastern origin. Dr. Dreger gives a 
most notable example of linen lace from an 
Egyptian tomb, which has the many varieties of 
the same geometric form which are found in early 
Italian lacis and linen laces. Not only so, but the 
same stitches and manner of working can be 
recognized. These lately discovered Egyptian 
specimens, which have revolutionized the hitherto 
accepted date of such handicrafts, are, of course, 
to be found only in burials in the desert sand. 
Later, no such preserving medium saved the 
fabrics from perishing, but the carvings of 
Chartres, the windows of Tournai, as well as 
the painters of the quattrocento, go far to 
prove a continuous record for the art of lace- 
making with the aid of a net or linen founda- 
tion. A very interesting transition stage of 
design can be traced in the 14th and 15th- 
century laces. The limited possibilities of these 
lacis and linen laces gradually gave way to 
the freedom practicable only to the unfettered 
needle, which resulted in the evolution of punio 
in aria by Venetian workers of the cinque- 
cento. Fine specimens of transition laces are 
shown in Nos. 17, 24, 26. The linen threads in 
these are nearly all cut away, and figure subjects 
are attempted. Of the punio in aria, the crowning 
glory of Venetian lace-making, Dr. Dreger has 
disappointingly little to say — and his utter want of 
sympathy with the specimens illustrated is hard to 
bear. This rare lace, with at first its Persian 
inspiration and gradual merging into Renaissance 
types, is best illustrated by the fragments in plates 
18, 19, 20 and 28. The two large pieces, Nos. 10 
and 32-3, are evidently portions of some hunting or 
Orpheus scenes similar to those in Vavassore's and 
Zoppino's pattern-books ; but both specimens 
have been cut and the fragments patched up 
anyhow, so that the original design of the worker 

is lost. Plate 27 has a very beautiful and well 
thought out design ; the symbolic pelican in her 
piety is twice given, the initials IHS also, and 
birds and foxes introduced with the usual 
courage and spirit of the Venetian needle-worker 
of the period. It is hardly to be believed 
that this almost unique specimen is actually 
placed upside down. The lace-mender has 
sewn a superfluous edge to both sides of the 
lace, and it is accepted without remark in this 
ludicrously topsy-tur\y condition. Everyone 
knows that dealers in lace like to sew together any 
number of bits to make a square or oblong, which 
they consider more saleable. But surely such 
pieces should not be shown in a museum without 
explanation, if only for the sake of students. Of later 
needlepoint laces. Plates 49 and Jo are very fine 
examples, but as to the collars of Plates 47, 48 and 
others, it should again be noted that they are made 
up of pieces and no longer represent the original 
design. This must also be said of a bobbin-lace 
collar, Plate 58. Otherwise the Flemish specimens 
are truly representative, and the new departure of 
giv'ing a few specimens of machine-made lace is 
useful. The bibliography would be of more value 
for reference were it not interspersed in the text. 

M. M. P. 

A History of Architecture in Loxdon. 

Arranged to illustrate the course of architecture in England 
until 1800, with a sketch of the preceding European stj-les. 
By W. H. Godfrey. With a preface by Philip Normax. 
250 illustrations, 7 maps, and descriptive guide to the 
buildings. Batsford. 7s. 6d. net. 

The ungainly descriptive title has the merit of 
stating honestly the exact contents of Mr. God- 
frey's book. Several others have been published 
recently, covering much the same ground, so that 
there is no need to recapitulate here information 
now easily obtainable, nor to specify where Mr. 
Godfrey surpasses or does not come up to his 
predecessors. The statement that his book is one 
of the best of its kind will be enough to do him 
justice. His view is generally broader, his detail 
preciser, and his area larger. To amateurs, at any 
rate, the existence of a Norman, or English 
Romanesque apse at West Ham, will be a surprise. 
It is a pity that the illustration of it, in exception 
to the rule, should be positively bad. The book, 
however, has one feature deserving the highest 
praise — the excellent maps. Hitherto, the greatest 
difficulty in studying London architecture, and 
especially ecclesiastical architecture, has been to 
find half the buildings. This is now removed by 
the series of sections of Stanford's six miles to the 
inch map, specially numbered. Mr. Batsford 
may be congratulated on improvement in the 
arrangement of the generally pertinent illustra- 
tions, but there will be room for further improve- 
ment until he can make up his mind to brave 


Reviews and Notices 

popular taste and place his illustrations loose at 
the end of publications in some sort of wallet. 
If Mr. Godfrey's text, printed on ordinary paper, 
with the maps and descriptive guide, could be 
put in the pocket, and the illustrations and about 
a pound of white lead left at home, it would be 
far more useful, and Mr. Batsford's reputation 
should be high enough to make it equally saleable. 
If this plan of production can be carried out 
in a periodical like the " Monatshcfte fiir Kunst- 
wissenschaft " devoted to purely technical subjects, 
it could surely be made successful in an attractive 
guide-book to the buildings of this vast city. 

Masterpieces in Colour. Edited by T. Leman 
Hare, (i) LAWRENCE, by S. L. Bensusan ; (2) 
DuRER, by H. C. A. Furst ; (3) Watteau, 
by C. Lewis Hind; (4) Millet, by P. M. 
Turner ; (5) Delacroix, by P. G. Konody ; (6) 
COROT, by Sidney Allnutt ; (7) Mantegna, by 
Mrs. Arthur Bell; (8) FiLIPPO LiPPI, by P. G. 
Konody. Jack. IS. 6d. net each. 
We confess to a growing impatience with the new 
plague of such books as these, but moderately 
interesting in the text, however competent the 
writer, and depending for their market value 
on so-called " Masterpieces in Colour ". The 
modern processes of colour-printing can be 
worked only with patience and at some expense, if 
a satisfactory result is to be produced from the 
artistic point of view. As marketable commodi- 
ties such little books as these before us may have 
their use, but artistically they are detestable. The 
plates, for instance, after Lawrence are extremely 
bad, and those after Watteau equally unsatis- 
factory : those after Durer are better, only because 
the harder lines and severer planes are rather 

easier to reproduce than the thick impasto of 
the English master or the refined delicacy of 
Watteau. This is the case to some extent with 
Mantegna, and for a similar reason the plates after 
Millet are less displeasing, since he expresses him- 
self on broader and more simple lines, colour and 
composition being only incidental to the lesson 
which he wishes to teach. There is a certain 
amount of clever mimicry in these mechanical 
colour-prints, but, as in mechanical music, the 
artistic soul of the picture finds no place in the 
reproduction. This is particularly the case with 
the prints after Filippo Lippi and Corot. We 
must admit that, as the series advances, the execu- 
tion of the colour-prints becomes better, and does 
Messrs. Jack more credit, but we are daily led to 
increase our respect for the coloured reproductions 
of the defunct Arundel Society ; they were some- 
times inadequate, but seldom offensive. 

L. C. 

[In connexion with the article " Some Fifteenth- 
century Spanish Carpets " by Mr. A. Van de Put 
(September, page 344), and with Dr. Sarre's letter 
(October, page 46), Mr. Van de Put writes to us to 
point out that Dr. Sarre's reference to " the mis- 
understanding of a German phrase " was due to 
the editorial alteration of Mr. Van de Put's original 
sentence, which in his manuscript read thus : — 
" If one should concede that the outer border of 
this carpet with its strange animal forms and 
human figures were indeed an e.xample of native 
American influence upon Spanish sixteenth- 
century art", etc. 

Dr. Sarre wrote to us asking us to withhold his 
letter from publication ; but we regret to say that 
we received his request after the Magazine had 
gone to press. — Ed.] 



Mesnil (J.). L'art au nord et au sud des Alpes a I'epoque de 
la Renaissante : etudes comparatives. (11x9) Brussels 
(V. OcstI, 15 fr. 60 plates. . ^t 

Marignan (A.). Etudes sur I'histoire de l'art italien du Xie — 
Xllle siecle : le Paliotto de S.-Ambroise de Milan ; la porte 
de bronze de S. Zenon de Verone ; le poeme de Pietro 
d'Eboli sur la Ccnquete de la Sicile par Henri VI. (11x8) 
Strasburg (Heitz), 4M. . ^ , ^, ^ 

Michael (E., S.J.). Die bildcnden Kiinste in Deutschland 
wahrend des dreizehnten Jahrhunderls. (9x6) Freiburg 
im Breisgau (Herder), 7 M. Forms Vol. V of the author's 
" Geschichte des deutschen Volkes ". 24 plates. 

Havell (E. B.). The ideals of Indian art. (10x7) London 
(Murr.-iy), 15s. net. 32 plates. 

CooMARASWAMY (A. K.). Selected examples of Indian art. 
(14x10) London (Quaritch) ; Broad Campden (Essex 
House Press). 40 plates, 6 in colour. 

An inventory of the ancient monuments of Wales and Mon- 
mouthshire. 1. County of Monmouth. (13x8) London 
(published for the R. Commission by Wyman), 103. lUus. 
and maps. 
Osterreichische Kunsttopographie : V, Pol tischer Bezirk Horn; 
VII, Die Denkmaler des adeligen Benediklincr-Frauen- 
Stiftes Nonnberc in Salzburg. (12x9) Vienna (Schroll), 
Vol.V, 40K., VII, 35K. 
Caxziani (E.). Costumes, traditions and songs of Savoy. 
(11x9) London (Chatto & Windus), 2is. net. 50 col. 
plates, and line drawings, by the author. 

Weigelt (C. H.). Duccio di Buoninsegna. Studien zur 
Geschichte der friihsienesischen Tafelmalerei. (10x7) 
Leipzig (Hiersem.inn's" Kunstgescbtliche Monographien "), 
36 M. 67 collotype plates. 

• Sizes (height X width) in inches. 


Recent Art Publications 

Anselm Feuerbachs Briefe an seine Mutter. Aus dem 
Besitz der Kgl. National-Galerie zu Berlin lieransgegeben 
von G. J. Kern und H, L'hde. Vol. I. (9x6) Berlin (Meyer 

6 Jessen). 

Matthews (T.)- The biography of John Gibson, R.A., sculptor, 
Rome. (9x5) London (Heinemann), los. 6d. net. Illus. 

CoXDER (J.). Paintings and studies by Kawanabe Kyosai. An 
illustrated and descriptive catalogue . . . with explanatory 
notes on ... Japanese painting. (14x10) Tokyo (Maruzen 
Kabusbiki Kaisha) ; London (Probsthain). 56 plates, 1 in 

P.\ULi (G.). Max Liebermann : des Meisters Gemiilde in 304 
.\bbildungen. (10x7) Stuttgart and Leipzig (Deutsches 
Verlags-.\nstalt), 10 M. " Klassiker der Kunst ". 

Okkoxex (O.). Melozzo da Forli und seine Schiile, eine 
Kunsthistorische Studie. (iox6) Helsinki; Helsingfors 
(Akademiska twkhandeln), 1910 ; 6s. Plates. 

Graber (H.). Be trage zu Nicola Pisano. (11x8) Strasburg 
(Heitz), 6M. 5 plates. 

Laxicca (A.). Barthelemy Menn. {11x8) Strasburg (Heitz), 

7 M. 12 collotypes. 

Steinlen and his art. Twenty-four cartoons, with a critical 
introduction and descriptive notes. (15x11) London 
(Chatto & Windus). 

Ward (J.). Romano-British buildings and earthworks, (gx 5) 

London (Methuen's "Antiquary's Books"), 7s. 6d. net. 

Weigaxd (E). Die Geburtskirche von Bethlehem ; eine 

Untersuchung zur christlichen Antike. (10x6) Leipzig 

(Dieterich's " Studien zur chrislliche Denkmaler"), 3 M. 70. 

5 plates. 
Preusser (C.). Nordraesopotamische Baudenkmaler altchrist- 

licher und islamischer Zeit. (14x10) Leipzig (Hinrichs, 

for the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft), 50 M. 225 illus. and 

Laxgexegger (F.). Die Bauknnst des Iraq (heutiges Baby- 

lonien). (12 x S) Dresden (Kuhtmann), 12 M. Tllus. 
Hasak (M.). Der Dom desheiligen Petrus zu Koln am Rhein. 

(12x9) Berlin (Walther), 30 M. Vol. I of " Die deutschen 

Dome, eine Geschichte mittelalterlicher Baukunst''. 

Ward (W. H.). The architecture of the renaissance in France. 

A history of the evolution of the arts of building, decoration, 

and garden design under classical influence, from 1495 to 

1830. 2 vols. (9x6) London (Batsford), 30S. net. 
Blmpus(T.F.). The cathedrals of Central lUly, (9x6) London 

(Werner Laurie) , i6s. net. Plates. 
Magxi (G.). 11 barocco a Roma nell' architettura e nella 

scultura decorativa, I. Chiese. (20 x 14) Turin (Crudo), 

150 I. 137 collotype plates and text (34 pp.) in French and 


CusT (L.). Notes on pictures in the royal collections. Collected 
and edited from The Burlington Magazine. (13 x 10) London 
(Chatto & Windus), 123. 6d. net. Plates. 

Brockwell (M. W.>. "The Adoration of the Magi ", by Ja" 
Mabuse. (11 X9) London (The Athenxum Press), los, 6d. 
net, 92.50. II illus. 

Weber (S.). Die Beariinder der Piemonteser Malerschiile im 
XV und Beginn des XVI Jahrhunderts. (II x 8) Strasburg 
(Heitz), 8 M. n collotype plates. 

Eekhoud(G.). Lespeintresanim.iliers beiges. (10x6) Brussels, 
P.iris (Libr. nat. d'Art et d'Histoire). Plates, 5 fr. 

Baldry ( K. L.). The practice of water-colour painting, illus- 
trated by the work of modern artists. (10x7) London 
(Macmillan ; the Fine Art Soc), 12s. net. Col. plates. 

Bode (W.). Collection of J. Pierpont Morgan : bronzes of the 

Renaissance and subsequent periods 2 vols. Paris (Lib. 

centrale des Beaux-Arls). Catalogue privately printed at 

the Imprimerie Nationale. 
Rousseau (H.). La sculpture aux XVIle et XVIII= siecles. 

(9 X 6) Brussels (v. Oest's ' ' Collection des grands artistes 

des Pays-Bas "). Plates. 
Originalbildwerke in Holz, Stein, Elfenbein, usw. aus der 

Sammlung Benoit Oppenheim : Xachtr.ig. (i6x 12) Leipzig 

(Hiersemann). 25 plates. 


Bibliotheque Nationale, D^partement des Manuscrits. Notitia 
Dignitatura Imperii Romani. Reproduction reduite des 
IC5 miniatures du manuscrit latin 9661. (8x6) Paris 
(Brrthaud). With preface by H. Omont. 

Buberl (p.). Die illuminierten Handschriften in Stelermark. 
Thiel I : die Stittsbibliotheken zu Admont und Vorau. 
(14x11) Leipzig (Hiersemann). 

TlETZE (H.). Die illuminierten Handschriften der Rossiana in 
Wien-Lainz. (14x11) Leipzig (Hiersemann). The above 
form Vols. IV-V of the " Bcschreibendes Verzeichnis der 
illuminierten Handschriften in Osterreich". Illustrated. 

Savage (E. A.). Old English libraries : the making, collection, 
and use of books during the middle ages. (9 x 6) London 
(Methuen's "Antiquary's Books "), 7s. 6d. net. 52 illus. 

Hayden (A.). Royal Copenhagen porcelain ; its history and 

development from the eighteenth century to the present 

day. (11 X 8) London (Un win), Leipzig (Terrace), 42s. net. 

109 plates, 5 in colour, facsimile of marks, etc. 
Ricci (S. de) . Catalogue of a collection of mounted porcelain 

belonging to E. M. Hodgkins. (11x15) Paris (T, P. 

Renouard). 24 autotypes, some in colour. 

Jerxixgham (C. E.) and Bettaxy (L.). The Bargain Book. 

(9x6) London (Chatto & Windus), 7s. 6d. net. 9 plates 

and 9 tabular charts. 
DoN.ATH (A.). Psynhologie des Kunstsammelns. (9X5) Berlin 

(R. C. Schmidt), 6M. 50 illustrations. 
ViTKY (P). Le musee de Tours. (10x7) Paris (Laurens' 

"Museeset collections de la France"), 12 fr. 122 illus. 
Scaglia (S.). I mosaichi antichi de la basilica di S. JIaria 

Maggiore in Roma. (12x9) Rome (Pastet), 1910 ; 1. 25. 
Vorbildliche Glasmalereien aus dem spiiten Mittelalter und der 

Renaissancezeit. (26 x 19) Berlin (Wasmuth, for the K. 

Akademie des Bauwesens), 120 M. Col. plates. 


Jahrbuch der K. Preuszischex Ku\sts.a.mmluxgex. Heft 3. 

Berlin, igii. 
Dr. Warburg offers an interesting explanation of the subjects 
represented in two drawings ascribed to the Housebook Master 
in the Print Room, Berlin. The writer conjectures that they 
refer to two episodes of the captivity of Maximilian at Bruges — 
i.e., the solemn assembly in the Grande Place on 16 May, 1488, 
when Mass was celebrated at a temporary altar by the Suffragan 
Bishop of Toumay, and Maximilian took a solemn oath to 
withdraw his troops and to demand no satisfaction from the 
people of Bruges. On the reverse of the sheet is represented 
the banquet in the house of Jan Caneel in celebration of the 
peace, at which Maximilian was present. Dr. Frieplaxder, 
who contributes an introductory note to Dr. Warburg's article, 
considers that these drawings are among the latest works of the 
Housebook Master, and belong to the close of the 15th century. 
The date 1511, visible on the drawing of the Mass, is a later 

addition. Dr. Sievers has a long illustrated account of Joachim 
Bueckeleer, the pupil of Pieter Aertsen, with a chronological 
list of his more important works. Dr. Schmarsow concludes 
his article on '• Eniwicklungsphasen der Germanischen Tieror- 
naraentik ", etc. (4th-9th century). Dr. Wixxefeld writes an 
appreciation of the late Dr. Kekole von S;radowitz and his work. 

Amtliche Berichte aus den Koxiglichex Kuxstsam.mlun- 

gex. August 1911. 
Amoxgst notices of recent acquisitions is an account by Dr. 
Kristeller of a book of sketches by Giovan Battista Tiepolo 
presented to the Print Room by Herr von Wassermann, It 
contains many admirable drawings by the master's own hand 
and of his best period and other examples by a weaker artist 
The book forms an interesting pendant to the collection of early 
drawings by Tiepolo which has been in the possession of the 
Museum for many years 


German Periodicals 

September. — Two notable additions to tlie Museums are 
chronicled in tliis number: the highly important collection of 
Carlovingian coins formed bv a collector in Paris and recently 
acquired by the Department of Coins and Medals at Berlin which 
is discussed by Dr. Mexadier ; and the collection of votive 
offerings formed by Frau Marie Andree-Eysn and presented by 
her to the German section of the Ethnographical Museum. The 
collection, which is of the utmost value and interest, comprises 
an immense quantity of votive objects in silver, iron, wax, and 
pottery, as well as a large number of painted panels. 

Repertorhm fCr KuNSTwnssENSCHAFT. Heft 3. 191 1. 
Dr. Jacobsen writes on pictures in Genoa with special refer- 
ence to the catalogues of the paintings in the Palazzo Bianco and 
Palazzo Rosso, and of the drawings in the Palazzo Bianco, the 
former by Orlando Grosso, the latter by the same writer in 
collaboration with A. Pettorelli. This last-named catalogue 
treats principally of the important collection of drawings by 
Genoese artists of the 17th century. Incidentally, Dr. Jacobsen' 
touches upon the Chri%t on the Crosi at S. Michele, near Rapallo, 
a little-known masterpiece by Van Dyck, to the discussion of 
which he proposes to return on a future occasion. A fine Zur- 
baran in the Palazzo Rosso is held by the writer to be the best 
picture in that collection. Dr. Winkler writes on the cele- 
brated F"roissart MSS. at Breslau, He ascribes to Loyset Liedet 
the miniatures on five folios of the first volume, and on three of 
the fourth volume. The miniatures of the remaining three 
volumes are by an anonymous master, whom Comte Durricu 
has called the " Master of the Golden Fleece ", and who may be 
identical with Philippe de MazeroUes, court miniaturist of 
Charles the Bold, whose work can be identified with certainty 
in MSS. at Vienna. Paris, and in l^ndon. Dr. Winkler refers 
to a second MS, at Breslau, a Valerius Maximus (Dc diclis ct 
fadii Romanorum), some portions of which were produced 
under the immediate influence of the " Master of the Golden 
Fleece ". Dr. GrMBEL contributes new inform.ation relating to 
Hans Felber's activity, especially as an architect. His death is 
proved to have taken place before June, 1439, Dr. Huppertz 
seeks to prove that the S. Sebastian altar-piece in the Old 
Pinakothek at Munich (completed 15:5) was entirely the work 
of Hans Holbein the Elder, and that his son had no share in 
the execution of the side panels, as is usually assumed. 

KcNST UND KuNSTHANDWERK. Heft 3. Vienna. 1911. 
Dr. Philipp Halm writes on Hans Valkenauer and the marble 
plastic art of Salzburg. An exhaustive article with numerous 
reproductions of works by this admirable sculptor, who was 
born c. 1448 (the year of his death is unknown), and belonged 
probably to a Salzburg family of goldsmiths, but appears to have 
lived for some lime at Regensbuig, which explains w^hy later, 
when living at Salzburg, he is registered as " Hans Valkenauer 
von Regensburg ". In 1514 he agreed to execute the monument 
which the Emperor Maximilian proposed to erect in the King's 
Choir of the Cathedral at Speyer to the memory of the emperors 
buried in the crypt. The monument was never finished, and 
after a time wholly forgotten, but by a fortunate chance 
Dr. Martin, of the State archives at Salzburg, has discovered 
documents proving that certain statues in the museum at 
Salzburg belonged to the monument ; further fragments have 
now been identified by him, and have all been placed in the 

Hefts 6 and 7. — The magnificent collection of goldsmiths' 
work belonging to Herr Figdor at Vienna is discussed by 
Dr. Marc Rosenberg. Among the numerous works repro- 
duced are the very interesting niello of the Baptism of Christ, 
Florentine 15th-century work probably designed as a Pax, and 
the beautiful "Poison Cup'' of c. 1540. Dr. Bkaun writes on 
the plaquettes in the Watchers von Moltheim collection, which 
is especially rich in rare and hitherto unknown German 

Heft 8 and 9. — Dr. Halm writes on Sebald Bocksdorffer, a 
sculptor of the early Renaissance at Innsbruck, and refers to 
numerous works by him, among them the signed tomb of 
Christonhvon Truchsesz in the cloisters of Neu.-.tift, near Brixen; 
he attributes other works to this master, who in documents is 
spoken of also ai a painter and carver in wood. Th'j writer 
gives incidental notices of other plastic works in stone, a branch 
of T>TOlese art which has as yet been little noticed, though 
equally worthy of study as the sculptures in wood to which so 
much attention has been paid. 


Zeitschrift FUR BildendeKi-nst. Heft 10. July. 
Dr. Loewv, in a short note entitled " Das Vorbild einer Diirer 
Zeichnung ", refers to a Diirer drawing at Munich (reproduced 
in the January number of the Zeifschrift), representing different 
animals and to an engraving of the school of Bandini in which 
a similar subject is treited, both having evidently been founded 
upon the same model. Dr. David, the writer in the January 
number, believed that Leonardo was the inventor of the com- 
position, but Dr. Loewy is able to prove conclusively that the 
motive was of classic origin. Dr. Haendcke writes on the 
Netherlandish influence in German art of the 16th century. 
He denies that Italy had any determining effect upon German 
art and artists up to the beginning of the i6th century, and 
lays stress, on the other hand, upon the close intercourse 
between Germany and the Netherlands at this date; DR. 
Kehrer reproduces a portrait-drawing in the Germanisches 
Museum, the bust of a young man wearing a cap and seen in 
three-quarter face, with an inscription, two monograms, and 
the date 1517. The writer suggests that it is a self-portrait of 
the engraver Virgil Solis. His investigations lead him to 
conclude that Solis was a Swiss and not a S. German as usually 
assumed, and that he was born c. 1501, not 1514 as erroneously 
stated by Balthasar Jenichen. Dr. Be.vkard reproduces the 
Adoration of the Infant Saviour ascribed to Perugino in the 
Staedel Institute at Frankfort, and attributes it to a painter who 
came under the influence of the master. He thus reverts to the 
view which prevailed when the picture was in the Von Quandt 
Collection ; up to 1868, when the collection was dispersed, it 
passed as a work of the Umbrian school but after this date 
appears as Perugino. 

Heft II. — Dr. Bombe writes on the Palazzo Davizzi-Davanzat 
in Florence, and reproduces and comments upon the frescoes 
dealing with the history of La Dame de Vtrgy. 

Der Cicerone. Heft 14. 

Dr. Secker writes on certain fragments of 15th and 16th- 
century tiles recently discovered in the foundations of the 
Church of the Magdalen at Strasburg ; he believes that the 
compositions were taken from the works of 15th-century 
engravers, and refers in this connexion to Meister E. S. and the 
Meister der Spielkarten. 

Heft 15. — Dr. Haberfeld discusses the French pictures of 
the Kohner Collection at Buda-Pest, and reproduces some 
notable examples by Monet, Daumier, Courbet, Puvis de 
Chavannes, Cezanne, and others. 

Heft 16.— Dr. Lehrs has a note on Meister E. S. and the 
tiles discovered at Strasburg, in which he comments upon and 
corrects the conclusions of Dr. Seekers. Some recent acquisi- 
tions by the Cologne Museum are chronicled in an article signed 
" G. E. L.", among them a fine statue of the Madonna, a work 
of the central Rhine. 

Heft 17,— Dr. Cohn has a notice of the 18th-century sculptor, 
Landolin Ohmacht of Strasburg, with reference more especi- 
ally to a recent life of the .artist and to the exhibition of his 
works organized at Strasburg by Prof. Polaczek, Director of 
the Kunstgewerbe museum in that city. Dr. Biermann dis- 
cusses the fine collection of Dutch pictures belonging to the 
firm of MiiUer, art dealers at Amsterdam. 

Heft 18. — Dr. Baum writes on S wabian sculpture in wood seen 
at the recent exhibition of Christian art at Stuttgart, a subject to 
which he has devoted special study. Dr. Balet reproduces the 
heraldic glass formerly in the Cistercian monastery of Heilig- 
kreuztal, now in the Stuttgart museum, and ascribes them 
definitely to the so-called " Meister von Meszkirch " ; the date 
1532 is lound on one of these windows. A short notice over 
the initials F. M. deals with a Flemish 17th-century sculptor, 
Nicholas van der Veken of Mechlin (1637-1709). 

Heft 19. — Dr. Bierman writes on recent acquisitions for the 
National Gallery at Berlin, and on the excellent work done there 
by the new Director, Dr. Ludwig Justi. Dr. Voss reproduces 
the Concert ascribed to Caravaggi in the Portrait Exhibi- 
tion at Florence, and proves that it is by Lod')vico L.ana, of 
Modena, whose monogram he has discovered on the picture, 
which is the property of Prof. Mariano Rocchi, in Rome. 
Dr. Need reproduces some interesting ex.-iraples of plastic art 
of the Central Rhine, recently acquired for the Museum of 
Antiquities at Mayence. 


title of 

HE interest taken in Leonardo da 
Vinci was never greater than it is to- 
day. A whole library of comment 
has grown up round the inexhaustible 
subject of a man to whom the 
Universal Genius may most fitly be 
Anything which can throw even a side- 
light on this wonderful Superman is of cardinal 
value, and therefore any material, even though in 
itself relatively insignificant, which helps us to 
that end, becomes of importance. 

In the sphere of painting so little comparatively 
remains to us of Leonardo's own creations that 
what is vaguely called the Leonardesque demands 
our closest study. His pupils, followers and 
imitators reflect the glor>' of their master and 
teacher, and at times it is only through them that we 
get glimpses of the invisible source of inspiration. 
Admitting, as we well may, the artistic inferiority 
of what is called the Post-Vincian school of Milan, 
we may be thankful that it has preserved for us 
themes, compositions and motives of the master 
himself which but for it would have been for ever 

One such instance is here presented for the first 
time. A S. John the Baptist (so-called) attributed 
to Leonardo has just come to light after lying 
hidden in a house in Cheshire for sixty years 
past [Plate II, b]. No one knows its histor)', 
nor does any record exist of it in the older writers. 
Its discovery coincides somewhat curiously with 
the reappearance at the Grafton Galleries exhi bition 
of the similar picture, belonging to the Earl of 
Crawford, which also bears Leonardo's name 
[Plate II, c]. 

The latter is much smaller in size and entirely 
dififerent in details of landscape and accessories. 
Nevertheless, both are versions of one and the 
same theme, the theme which has long been known 
from the large picture in the Louvre called Bacchtis, 
also attributed to Leonardo. Here, then, are 
three pictures differing in size and detail from one 
another, but agreeing in the main figure (whether 
called Bacchus or S. John), and all bearing Leon- 
ardo's name. What is the conclusion to be drawn? 
Did Leonardo produce all three, or any one, or 

Internal evidence has long ago demonstrated 
that the Lou\Te picture can be the work only of 
some imitator (possibly more than one hand is 
here to be traced), a hybrid result according ill 
with the stj'le of the S. John the Baptist and the 
S. Anne, both likewise in the Louvre, which are, 
beyond question, in the main Leonardo's own work 
of the latest period (1513-19). It is idle to speculate 
on the name of the pupil or imitator who produced 

• The Raccolta Vinciana, now in its seventh year of publication 
at Milan, is invaluable for reference to all the Leonardo 

The BuaEiGTON MACiiZDis, No. 105. VoL XX.— Dectmber, 1911. 


this frankly disagreeable picture ; the point is that 
it is universally regarded as having no claim to be 
Leonardo's own original.^ 

As to Lord Crawford's little picture, internal 
evidence did not establish its certain parentage 
when exhibited in 1898 at the Burlington Fine Arts 
Club, where opportunities of comparison with 
many works of Leonardo's school were possible. 
The names of Cesare da Sesto, Martino Piazza 
(of Lodi), and Lanini found supporters. Detective 
analysis failed to establish unanimit}' as to the 
identity of its author. Nor has more recent research 
been entirely successful. ^ The fact remains that 
whoever did paint this exquisite little picture was 
certainly closer to Leonardo himself in quality than 
the painters of the other two, and has preserved for 
us much of the androgynous charm, much of the 
spirit of mystery, much of the elusive fascination 
which the great master himself would have given 

In quality the newly-discovered example stands 
not far behind its fellow. Of larger dimensions, it 
lacks perhaps the subtlety of feeling, and a certain 
daintiness of handling which characterizes Lord 
Crawford's example. The landscape is more 
summarized, the modelling less careful, and the 
chiaroscuro less masterly. Morcllian analysis does 
not reveal its author, and we must be content to 
accept this new revelation of the Leonardesque as 
proof that Leonardo did indeed treat the subject 
himself in a drawing or cartoon to which his 
pupils had access, and from which each worked 
outhis own version with varying degreesof freedom. 
That this was constantly the practice is proved by 
the innumerable copies, more or less contemporary, 
which were made of Leonardo's motives. The Last 
Supper, The Madonna of the Rocks, the S. Anne, 
the Leda, etc., exist in many school repetitions : 
and had it not been for the early disappearance of 
the Mona Lisa into the seclusion of the French 
King's cabinet, the world would doubtless to-day 
possess copies by Leonardo's actual pupils of 
greater value than the few French and Flemish 
copies which do exist.* 

And this brings us to the second point here 
illustrated. Of the twenty-five different versions of 
the S. Anne, the original of which is in the Louvre, 
none was more famous than the copy made by 
Salaino, probably under Leonardo's own eye. This 
copy long existed in the sacristy of the church of 
S. Celso in Milan, until removed into the Leuch- 
tenberg gallery now at S. Petersburg, where the 

2 The Church of S. Eustorgio at Milan possesses a similar 
picture, equally unauthentic. Another was in the Penther col- 
lection in Vienna, sold in 1887. 

3 Vide Sir Claude Phillips in the Daily Telegraph, i8th October, 

■•Of these, three are in England, at Earl Brownlow s, Earl of 
Wemyss's and Lord Malmesburj-'s. The last is now on exhibition 
at the Grafton Galleries. 


Leonardo da Vinci and some Qopies 

present writer lately was privileged to study it in 
detail, and to obtain a photograph here published 
for the first time [Plate II, e]. Fortunately the 
great original still hangs in the Salon Carre of the 
Louvre ; for, defaced though it be, and retouched 
by other hands, there can be no doubt that this is 
thevery picture mentioned in isiyason Leonardo's 
easel and still incomplete. It was just this incom- 
pleteness which induced the young assistant, 
Salaino, to try his hand at a copy, borrowing the 
central theme, working it up in careful detail, 
elaborating landscape and accessories, introducing 
just so much individual treatment as enables 
us to form a clue to his style elsewhere. Doubtless 
this version of the pupil hanging in one 
of the Milanese churches became the one most 
familiar to later students (for Leonardo's own 
original had gone to France); a proof of this is 
afforded by the later copy now belonging to the 
Earl of Yarborough [Plate II, d] which would 
seem to have been done by one of the itinerant 
Flemings who came south in the sixteenth century, 
especially to Milan, and there worked on 
Leonardesque designs. This copy is closer to 
Salaino's picture than to Leonardo's original, and 
is by no means devoid of charm and ability.' 

When we remember that Leonardo himself 
retouched some of Salaino's work (so says 
Vasari) the value of the Leuchtenberg version 
is increased ; and assuming the tradition to be 
true that it is really from the hand of Salaino, we 
get at last a \)oint de depart for disentangling his 
style from that of the other pupils, and a document 

of some importance in the history of Milanese art. 

We are so much accustomed to regard the Mona 
Lisa as the typical production of Leonardo, that 
it is difficult to realize that he must sometimes 
have fallen short of this, his supreme standard. 

But if we regard the matter from a historical 
standpoint, we shall more readily acquiesce in the 
idea of his growth and development. Leonardo 
was born in 1452 and passed thirty years of his 
life in Florence before migrating to Milan ; and 
it was not until twenty 3'ears afterwards, again, that 
he created the Mona Lisa. In other words, there 
is a period of at least thirty years' activity to be 
accounted for, and it is natural to suppose that 
Leonardo, like other Florentine artists, passed 
through successive stages of tutelage, apprentice- 
ship and an early independent career before 
attaining to the status of a recognized master. 
Yet of his early Florentine period, i.e., from about 
1470 to 1482, we know comparatively little and 
no unanimity prevails among modern writers 
as to the identification of those youthful works, 
whether in sculpture or painting, which he 

"First published and described by the present writer in the 
Gazelle des Beaux Arts, 1897. There is another Flemish copy 
at Berlin which is a positive caricature. 


must undoubtedly have produced. Nor is it 
rea-onable to suppose that everything has 
perished. True, there is the angel in Verrocchio's 
Baptism ; there is the little sketch of a landscape 
dated 1473 ; and another sheet of sketches dated 
1478 in the Uffizi ; there is the drawing in the 
Bonnat collection which can be assigned to 1479, 
and there is the unfinished Adoration of the Ma^i 
in the Uffizi dating from 1481. But is that really 
all ? Has all else perished ? Considerations of style 
have induced various writers to assign this or that 
drawing, this or that painting or sculpture, to this 
early period, but no real reconstruction of the 
Verrocchiesque Leonardo will ever succeed until 
we rule out the Mona Lisa standard, and frankly 
recognize that Leonardo was quattrocentist and 
not cinquecentist in style, that he was P^lorentine 
and not Milanese in character, and that his art 
was organic in its growth and not an isolated 
phenomenon springing, Minerva-like, fully armed 
from his magician brain. It would be impossible 
here to "grapple with whole libraries" dealing 
with the manifold conjectures of critics who have 
sought to rob him of his early works ; but it is 
safe to predict a far wider recognition of existing 
material as in fact his own production, and a more 
general acceptance than is the case to-day of the 
authenticity of such pictures as the Annunciation 
(Uffizi) the Gincvra dei Benci (Liechtenstein) the 
Lady iviih the Weasel (Cracow) and the later 
Madonna Liila (S. Petersburg) and La Belle 
Ferroniere (Louvre). Short of documentary proof 
(which may any day be forthcoming from recesses 
of the archives), nothing but the consensus of those 
best qualified to judge will establish such authenti- 
city, and this again can be determined only after 
long lapse of time. The mere ipse dixit of this or 
that critic will have to stand this supreme test 
before final acceptance. 

The Madonna and Child illustrated on page 128 
has already started on its course of self- 
vindication under the happiest auspices. Dr. 
Gustavo Frizzoni, of Milan, has bravely claimed it 
as genuine," and the distinguished director of the 
gallery at S. Petersburg, M. de Liphart, likewise 
believes in it.' So few people have been able to 
study the original in its remote home in Russia 
that it is probably quite unknown to English 
students; the present writer was privileged this 
year, for the first time, to examine it, and now 
publishes the photograph in The Burlington 
Magazine? His best thanks are due to the 
fortunate owner, Mme. Leon Benois. 

Dr. Frizzoni writes thus : " I am disposed to 
claim for Leonardo's early manner a small picture 
of the Madonna, who smilingly offers to the Child 

"Niiova Aiitohgia, July, 1911. 

' Lcs anciciincs ccolcs dc fcinturc dans Ics falais et collections 
fn'vc'cs Russis. Brussels. 1910. Pp. 30-32. 

8 It is also given in L'Aiic, 1909, p. 222, and in Vcnturi's 
Sloria dclV Arte llaliana, Vol. VII, 491. 





heonardo da Vinci and some Qopies 

a small flower. How and when it came to leave 
its native land to migrate to Russia no one knows. 
To-day it is in private possession at S. P'etersburg, 
where I had the opportunity of examining it a few 
months ago, and enjoying its delicacy (le fiiiezze) 
almost hidden under the aspect of a timid and, I 
should sav, vouthful effort ; an effort not entirely 
successful, to be sure, if one admits certain obvious 
inequal ties and imperfections, but nevertheless 
revealing many particulars in common with 
recognized works of Leonardo, especially in its 
way of understanding and of modelling the 
human form ", 

The first impression is, perhaps, displeasing; 
there is an unusual and uncomfortable present- 
ment of a sister playing with a baby-brother which 
accords strangely with the conception of the 
Madonna and the Holy Child. Yet this is exactly 
Leonardo's way — Bacchus or S. John, sacred or 
profane, who knows which ? — and so here. The 
intensely Human is made the type of the Divine 
myster\', and how wonderfully human it all is ! 
The Child trving to focus Its vision on the flower 
held out to It— the backward tilt of the head — the 
eager clutch of the tiny hands — the happy interest 
and devotion of the girl-mother. Here, indeed, 
is proof of observation, of that study which Leon- 


OOD-CARVING has become one 
of the most characteristic glories 
of Spanish art, and flourishes in 
Spain with peculiar splendour. The 
Spanish masters have always shown 
a special inclination to wood, employing it in 
preference to stone, either because they find 
it suppler, more plastic and warmer in tone, 
or because they have inherited from the Moors 
their predilection for a material of which that 
people made such frequent and successful use. 
The Spaniards quickly recognized that the brilliant 
polish of wood, the harmonious blends of its mark- 
ing, the elegance of its grain, the variety of its colora- 
tion, serve to assist the artist by stimulating him to 
greater delicacy of design. Although wood seems 
at first sight very liable to damage by fire and water, 
as a matter of fact it resists the elements and the 
lapse of time better than stone. It possesses 
other no less serviceable qualities, being relatively 
easy of transport, and the commonest species, such 
as oak and walnut, being precisely those which 
take the most beautiful polish and produce the 
happiest effects. Moreover, its fibrous nature 
gives it a wide reach without the necessity of joints 
or supports, and the close cohesion of its tissue 
adapts it to all forms and positions. In short, 
• Translated for the author from the French. 

ardo was always advocating. And how lovingly 
he has played with the pretty coils of hair, plaited 
as only Leonardo knew how, and the folds of 
sleeve and mande ! Yes, it may be precious, but 
that is Leonardo's way ; and it may be unfinished, 
and that is Leonardo's way, too ; and it may have 
strange harmonies and stranger beauties of subtle 
import, but that is Leonardo's spirit, the spirit 
which was afterwards to find fullest expression in 
the exotic beauty of Mona Lisa's hauntmg smile. 

A poor lifeless copy is to be seen in the Colonna 
Gallery in Rome, a caricature, indeed, probably 
Flemish in origin, which serves merely as a foil to 
its prototype. The Louvre, however, possesses 
a slight sketch, perhaps the first idea for the 
picture, and certainly genuine; only here the 
Child plunges His left hand into a bowl 
held by the Mother, and raises His right hand 
to her cheek. It is characteristic of Leonardo to 
vary the motives between sketch and picture, so 
the very variation is just what we should expect to 
find. And there is yet one further indication 
worth noting as possible evidence — a pen-drawing 
in the Uffizi has a note in Leonardo's own hand- 
writing . . . "(octo)ber 1478 I commenced the 2 
Virgin Marys ". Who can say whether the Benois 
Madonna be not one ? 

these qualities rendered it invaluable for the 
construction of the immense and elaborate pieces 
of furniture which abound in the sacred buildings 
of the Iberian peninsula. 

Among the most beautiful works of this kind 
which the Renaissance produced in the two 
Castilles must be reckoned the stalls of the 
cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada in 
Rioja, and of the ancient monastic church of San 
Benito el Real in Valladolid. It seems to-day 
that these two superb works, which are in walnut- 
wood, may be attributed with nearly absolute 
certainty to an almost unknown artist, Andres de 
San Juan de Najera. 

Cean Bermiidez in his " Diccionario historico 
de los mas ilustres profesores de las bellas artes " 
gives only short and vague information concerning 
Najera. After having stated that he was one of 
the experts nominated in 1532 to tax the costs of 
the retablo completed the year before by Alonso de 
Berruguete in the church of San Benito el Real, he 
adds that Najera worked for the cathedrals of Cala- 
horra and of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, and also 
for other churches of Rioja, but that his works have 
been attributed to other sculptors. It is true that 
in the supplementary notes collected by the learned 
author for a second edition of his work, which was 
never published, he does state specifically that 

Andres de Najera 

Andres de Najera is the author of the stalls in 
Santo Domingo and in San Benito, and that he 
will consequently amend the article which he had 
devoted to that sculptor in his dictionary. Father 
Mauro Mason, who was in a better position for 
obtaining trustworthy information than anyone 
else, and later than he, Bosarte, likewise believe 
that the stalls in San Benito really are due to 
Andres de Najera, and they rest their opinion on 
very conclusive arguments ; these, however, are 
too long to enumerate here. 

Santo Domingo de la Calzada has no connexion 
with the celebrated founder of the Order of Friar 
Preachers. It derives its name and origin from 
another Saint Dominic, who was born, lived and 
died in the immediate neighbourhood. Formerly 
a populous place, the little town has fallen from its 
former greatness. It is situated on the boundaries 
of Rioja and Old Castille, at the foot of the first 
spurs of the Sierra de Oca, in a region almost 
unexplored. In the fourteenth century it witnessed 
the struggle between Pedro the Cruel and Henry 
of Trastamarre in the plains still dominated by 
its ancient walls. Defeated in a first battle, Henry 
took his revenge, and, after having stabbed his 
brother and assumed the crown, returned to die 
on the scene of his fratricidal conflict, and was 
buried in the cathedral of Santo Uomingo. In 
this basilica, an amalgam of every style of archi- 
tecture, we find, besides Andres de Najera's stalls, 
a superb retablo in Damian Forment's purest 
plateresque manner ; but I have already stated in 
these pages Mhat I have no assurance that this is 
the actual work of the great Valentian sculptor, 
Damian Forment. The stalls of Santo Domingo, 
begun in 15 17, were far advanced, if not entirely 
finished, in 1521. In order to complete such an 
important work successfully in so short a time, 
the artist had called to his aid two collaborators, 
William of Holland and Juan de Castro, which 
explains the marked diversity of execution in its 
different portions. 

The structure consists of a higher and lower 
tier of stalls with a principal scat in the middle 
intended for the dean of the chapter [Plate I, a]. 
The upper stalls are separated from each other by 
elegant respond shafts, and in the back of each 
stall is a niche containing sometimes a full-length 
group in low relief, derived from sacred history, 
but more often a single figure, such as the Saints 
Jerome, Martin, and Christopher illustrated here 
[Plate 1 1, e]. Above these figures runs a decorated 
frieze, and above that a cornice ornamented with 
arabesques, astragals and branches, surmounted 
by a cresting composed of shells, each containing 
a bust, and alternating with delicate statuettes of 
slightly draped children and other figures. The 
lower stalls bear demi-figures of religious or 

> " Damian Forment ", by Paul Lafond, Burlington Magazine, 
Vol. XVI, p. 136, etc. (Dec, 1909). 

secular personages. The arms of the seats, the 
elbow-rests, the misericords, and the consoles 
present an intricate yet charming medley of 
cariatids, children, chimaeras, dogs, hippogriffs, 
birds, foliage, volutes and branches. 

It is doubtful whether this carving is Andres de 
Najera's first work, but it was probably the work 
which definitely established his reputation. He 
was then placed in control of the construction of 
the Formentesque retablo which is the chief orna- 
ment of the same basilica, and of which I have 
just spoken. Long before having been chosen as an 
umpire in the difference which arose between the 
monks of San Benito el Real and Alonso de 
Berruguete in 1531, as already mentioned, he had 
received the order for the wood-work in the choir 
of that church also. 

The church of San Benito el Real is now de- 
stroyed, but the stalls, long mis-attributed to 
Alonso de Berruguete, were undoubtedly carved 
by Andres de Najera between 1522 and 1528, after 
the completion of those in Santo Domingo de la 
Calzada. Still more elaborately decorated, they 
resemble them closely in their general plan, their 
proportions, their spacing, and above all in their 
detail. Acquired on the suppression of the 
religious houses by the provincial museum of 
Valladolid, which is very rich in carving, they 
comprise, like those of Santo Domingo, two tiers 
of upper and lower seats. While they still 
remained in the monastic church, the upper 
seats were distinguished, each by a painted 
escutcheon flanked by rich supporters and 
mantling, the insignia of the forty-two monas- 
teries of the various orders established in Spain. 
To the great detriment of the general effect, 
this curious and decorative blazonry has unfor- 
tunately now been relegated to a separate room 
in the museum — for what reason it is impossible 
to conjecture. The backs of the upper stalls bear 
first a panel adorned with grotesques and 
arabesques in the purest taste, and then a niche 
containing the image of a saint or benefactor of 
the order, in mid-relief. The figures of a prophet 
and S. Lucia are reproduced here [Plate II, d]. 
Among others the Miuloniia, and the kings fiian 
I and Jiiaii II, protectors of the monastery, may be 
particularly noticed. The abbot's stall, more im- 
portant than the rest, is surmounted by an image of 
S. Benedict, and is gilded, whereas the rest are 
of the natural colour of the wood, and the 
lower panel of the abbot's stall, instead of being 
ornamented as in the other seats with purely 
decorative motives, bears a crozier between two 
cows affronted pitrpiirc on a green field. The 
backs of the lower stalls bear elaborately carved 
bas-reliefs representing subjects mostly from the 
New Testament with some few from the Old : 
The Expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Earthly 
Paradise; The Annunciation; The Visitation; 



- H 





- < 
< a. 

The \*ativity ; The Massacre of the Innocents ; The 
Purification ; The Circumcision ; The Flight into 
E^ft ; Christ Teaching tlie Doctors ; The Marriage 
ofCana; Christ and the Woman of Samaria ; Christ 
and the Magdalen ; The Washing of the Apostles' 
Feet; Christ before Pilate ; The ]]\iy to Calvary; 
The Crucifixion ; The Deposition front the Cross ; 
The Descent into Limbo ; The Resurrection. A 
certain number of these subjects is treated with 
a sense of humour, a naivete and a verve 
reminiscent of the Middle Ages: for example, 
The Purification which presents the Holy Family 
in the Temple before the High Priest at the top 
of a winding stairs with an ornamented balustrade. 
This scene suggests the supreme effort of an 
apprentice, a sort of diploma winning him the 
Freedom of his Guild. The finest of these bas- 
reliefs is above the abbot's stall, and represents The 
Adoration of the Shepherds [Plate I, b]. It is a 
masterpiece of sustained composition, of delicate 
and charming execution, and of grand and noble 
sentiment, worthy of comparison with the most 
exquisite productions of the masters of the Italian 
school at its best period. 

The frieze and cornices are decorated with vases 
and urns, and demi-figures of women and children 
which terminate in flowered and foliated arab- 
esques. The consoles, the misericords and the 
elbow-rests, which at once recall those of the 
cathedral of Santo Domingo de la Calzada, are 
ornamented with the same decorative motives, 
more richly elaborated. The actual seats, like those 
of the metropolitan church of Burgos, are in 
marquetry of various coloured woods. 

It is impossible to imagine anything richer, more 
capricious, or more extravagantly fantastic, yet at 
the same time more delicate, than the stalls of San 
Benito el Real at Valladolid and of Santo Domingo 
de la Calzada. In spite of the innumerable details, 
the unity and completeness of the compositions is 
never lost. From the new forniulce imported from 
Italy they have borrowed no more than is consis- 
tent with the preservation of the national temper, 
which constitutes the peculiar charm of their 
appeal. The execution is always tasteful, the 
reflections well studied and arranged, so that the 
light falls on the points intended to receive it, the 
chiselling firm and incisive, and peculiarly personal 
and spontaneous, especially in the carving at 

Are these the only works due to Andres de 
Najera ? It is scarcely possible. Moreover, we 
learn from Cean-Bermudez that he worked for 
the cathedral of Calahorra as well as for other 
churches of the neighbourhood. But we do not 

Andres de Najera 

know what these works were, attributed as they 
no doubt have been to other artists more widely 
appreciated by the public, which always tends to 
generalize and include under the ascription of 
well-known names the works of obscurer 
personalities. The critic Cruzada Villaamil, rely- 
ing on the similarity of names, claims that the 
Maestro Andres who in collaboration with Maestro 
Nicolas executed the stalls of the monastery of 
Santa Maria de Najera in 1495 is the same artist 
as the carver of the woodwork in the choir of the 
cathedral of San Benito. The claim is inad- 
missible — not that the twenty or thirty years which 
separate the two works are an insurmountable 
obstacle, but because the style of the sculptures of 
Santa Maria de Najera is the purest and most 
archaic Gothic, and utterly different from the 
exclusively Kenaissance character of the two other 
churches. It is utterly impossible for the three 
works to have emanated from the same brain, to 
have been designed and carved by the same hand. 
It has never been given to an artist to transform and 
renew himself to the degree of realizing conceptions 
so alien as to bear no trace or suggestion whatever 
of his earlier work. 

Perhaps Andres de San Juan was born at the 
little town not more than four or hve leagues 
from La Calzada called Najera, which Cean 
Bermudez gives as his ordinary place of residence, 
and where he lived at least during the construction 
of the stalls in Santo Domingo. But there is a 
wide difference between that surmise and account- 
ing him the author of the woodwork in the choir 
of his birthplace — which, after all, is itself only 
problematic. Until we are more fully informed 
we must limit the artistic life of Andres de Najera 
to his great period of production— that is to say, 
from 1 5 17 to 1526. The short space of eleven years 
gave him time enough to create works of the 
highest order, which at an epoch when such works 
were by no means rare render him one of the 
principal masters in wood-carving of the Spanish 
Renaissance, one of those of whom Castilian art 
has the most reason to boast ; and that is sufficient 
for his glory .- 

^Bibliography :— 

Cean-Bermudez, Dii;c/o«ar/o-/(isfo'nVo de las mas ilustres pro- 
fesores dc las bdlas artcs en Espai'ia. Madrid; 1800-1S06. 

Bosarte (Isidore), Viaje artistico. Madrid ; 1804. 

Gomez (L. A.), Historia de la escultura en Espafia desde 
principio del siglo XVI hasta fines del XVIII. Madrid ; 1889. 

Martinez (J. A.), Sto. Domingo de la Calzada. Recuerdos 
histdricos. Haro ; 1890. 

Marti y Monso (J.). Estitdios htstorico-arti'iticos relatives 
princif^almcnte a Valladolid. Valladolid; 1898-1901. 

Vinaza (El Conde de la), .idicioncs al diceionatio-liistoiico de 
Cean-Bermudez. Madrid ; 1894. 

Villaamil (Cruzada), El arte en Espana. Madrid. 



HE portrait here reproduced [Plate I] 
has for many years botli delighted and 
puzzled me. It hangs in one of the 
chief galleries of the Kaiser-F"riedrich 
Museum at Berlin — that in whicii, for 
the pure delight of the visitor, is arranged in a com- 
pact group the unrivalled series of early Raphaels, 
and in which, moreover, to his amazement, he will 
still Fuid the strange Ascension of Cliiist ascribed 
without hesitation to Leonardo da Vinci. The 
official ascription of the portrait now to be dis- 
cussed is to Kranciabigio, the catalogue adding, 
however, the express word of caution that this 
attribution is doubtful. It appears from the same 
note that it was purchased in 1876 from the 
Marchese Patrizi of Kome. Our picture being 
hung as a pendant to another Portrait of a Yoniig 
Man (No. 245), signed with the monogram of 
Franciabigio, it is easy enough to see that, though 
the two panels belong to the same period and the 
same phase of Florentine art, they cannot possibly 
be by the same hand. Among Franciabigio's 
most typical portraits are this one here ; the 
famous Inconnn which has so long in the Salon 
Carr6 of the Louvre offered an agreeable problem to 
the visitor ; and the Knight of Malta of the National 
Gallery. Though ever psychical in his interpre- 
tations, and most sensitive to the deeper human 
side of the personality presented, he is calm and 
deliberate ; his portraiture is enveloped, as it were, 
in an atmosphere of solitude and melancholy. 
Here, surely, we are face to face with an indi- 
viduality of a wholly different order, with an 
executant much more impetuous, much less 
capable of self-control. The influence is that 
of Andrea del Sarlo and his coadjutor, Francia- 
bigio, on the one hand, but of Ridolfo Ghirlandajo 
(as we see him in various portraits of men, 
of the type of the GirolamoBcnivieni, in the National 
Gallery), on the other. There is something 
turbulent, full of unrest, at once sensitive and 
aggressive, in this counterfeit of a young man 
fronting the spectator with eyes of suspicion and 
defiance. He wears — not without a certain 
emphasis in the very placing of it — a grey-black 
barret, or flat cap, over long hanging locks of a 
peculiar dark brown-red, and is clad in a dress of 
dark brown, trimmed with greyish-black fur, one 
sleeve of richly-patterned grey brocade being 
visible beneath the mantle. A shirt of the finest, 
most diaphanous linen has been pulled up into 
broken folds, so as to show beneath the low neck 
of the doublet ; and even to this a certain saccade 
movement has been communicated. The landscape 
is of the type that Andrea del Sarto derived from 
Fra Bartolommeo and further developed. We 
find modifications of it in the backgrounds of 
paintings by Franciabigio and other contemporary 
Florentines. But here again all is agitation and 

exaggeration. The heavens are of a deep blue- 
green with bright red streaks at the horizon, and 
the landscape itself is blue-green, with notes of 
yellow and red-brown. All this is painted staccato, 
in a kind of jerky and aggressive fashion, and so as 
to establish a curious unity between the mood of 
the sitter and the mood of the landscape. 
By degrees I have convinced myself that 
we have here a portrait by 11 Rosso, and very 
possibly, having regard to the oblique watchful 
look of the disquieting eyes, an auto-portrait. My 
proposition, then, divides itself into two halves; 
and upon the first half — that this strangely dramatic 
and impressive portrait is by the band of Rosso 
Fiorentino — I desire to insist much more strongly 
than upon the second half — that the portrait is one 
of the eccentric master by himself. The technique, 
the morphological details, afford the strongest 
support to my attribution ; indeed, in my view, 
when taken in conjunction with the curious 
romanticism, the avoidance of conventionality, 
and with a certain neurotic violence in the con- 
ception, they are as nearly as possible conclusive. 
Take first the reddish tone of the flesh, so easily 
distinguishable from theclearer, lighter toneaffected 
by Andrea and Franciabigio ; the peculiar redness, 
too, in the orbit of the eye (which we find 
also, it is true, in Ridolfo Ghirlandajo). Take, 
then, the peculiarity of the parallel folds, both 
diagonal and perpendicular. But most con- 
vincing of all are these long, almost claw-like, 
hands, nervous, sensitive, bony, slightly swollen at 
the joints, with carefully trimmed " filbert " nails. 
These hands we find again, slightly modified to 
meet differences of age, sex, and personality, in the 
best known works of this famous yet, by moderns, 
too much neglected master. I rely greatly for com- 
parison on the vast altar-piece, The Madonna and 
Child enthroned, with many Saints, which in the Pitti 
Gallery is hung between two windows, so as to be 
almost completely obscured, and is, moreover, 
eclipsed in the eyes of the general public by two 
of Andrea's most elaborate works, hung in the 
same saloon. In this altar-piece occur several 
examples of the long, bony, expressive hand, moved 
by a strong, flexible wrist. The fine nude S. 
Sebastian, distinguished by an expression of febrile 
excitement, of self-conscious ecstasy, peculiar to 
our master, bears a close resemblance to the turbu- 
lent young man of our portrait, though the saint 
shows a tangled mass of curly hair — almost a zazzera 
— while the young Florentine has unusually long 
and unusually straight locks.' Another altar-piece 
available for comparison is a Virgin and Child 

'This is file altar-piece which, according to Vasari, was 
painted for the church of San Spirifo at Florence, for the family 
of the Dei, who had in the first place given the commission to 
Raphael, by whom it was, however, thrown up when he 
departed to Home. 






// Rosso (Florentine) hy Himself (?) 

ivith Saints, which was commissioned by the Hos- 
pital of S. Maria Xuova in Florence, and now, 
together with the world-famous Van der Goes and 
other notable works, has been transferred to the 
Uffizi. This — as well it might — frightened the 
young artist's patrons ; the haggard, grimacing 
saints seemed to them so many devils. And 
here Vasari intervenes with the observation 
that II Rosso was wont in his sketches in oils 
to impart to his figures a certain cruel and 
desperate air (certe arie cnideli e disperatc), 
which he toned down afterwards, tempering 
it to comparative gentleness, and out of 
bad evolving good. Is not this aria crudele 
e disperata just the one which so arrests 
us in the Berlin portrait, and may it not 
well be that we owe it less to any element of the 
demoniacal in the painter than to his passionate, 
febrile temperament, his youthful desire to make 
untrammelled assertion of his individuality ? 
Earlier, no doubt, than all these things was the 
Assumption of the Virgin, painted by Rosso in 1517 
in the Chiostrino de Voti which constitutes the 
atrium of the great Church of the SS. Annunziata at 
Florence. This time he is seen in conjunction 
and in competition with all the shining lights 
of his group. Here are the world-famous 
frescoes of Andrea del Sarto — those of his fresh, 
promising youth, and those of his splendid, yet 
not wholly satisfactory, maturity. Here are, 
following upon the master's work, the Sposalizio 
of Franciabigio and the Visitation of Pontormo 
— the one and the other to be counted among 
the masterpieces of these painters. It must be 
owned that Rosso pales, and but ill supports 
the comparison with his fellows ; in this 
instance he exaggerates the mannerisms and 
misses the great qualities of his own particular 
school. Yet he had some great qualities of 
his own, to which even the supremely accom- 
plished caposcuola Andrea del Sarto himself 
could not pretend. To make up for the lack 
of this perfect balance and academic perfection, 
this equable, never-halting rhythm, he had true 
vision, an originality of conception which was by 
no means entirely bizarrerie. Even in his day, 
when giants still walked the earth, he was un- 
daunted ; though overshadowed, he went his wav 
alone and the satellite of no great luminary. We 
cannot now more than guess at his great power as 
a fresco painter and decorator ; and this for the sad 
and sufficient reason that the splendidly exuberant 
painted decorations with which he enriched the 
chateau of Fran9ois I at Fontainebleau are now so 
ruined, so disfigured and obliterated by restorations 
and re-restorations, that to pass judgment upon 
them — the greatest effort of his all too short 
life — would be mere temerity.^ The wonderfully 

^ See Vasari, Le Vite (Ed. Sansoni, Vol. V, pp. 155-174). 
According to Milanesi, II Rosso was born 1494, and died in 1541, 

rich ensemble of decorations in stucco, which, 
enframing the ruined paintings, still adorns the 
Gallery of Frangois I at Fontainebleau, remains 
to show the inventiveness, the variety of the' 
Florentine master, working in the new fields 
opened to him when he became the chief painter- 
decorator of the art-loving French monarch. But 
to return for a moment to his Florentine 
achievements. The greatest of these, and, on the 
whole, his masterpiece as a Florentine painter of 
the Renaissance, is the imposing altar-piece, 
Lo Sposalizio, which still retains its original place 
(on the altar of the second chapel to the right, 
on entering) in Brunelleschi's great church of 
S. Lorenzo at Florence. The Marriage of 
the Virgin is here represented in a fashion so 
wholly original, so unorthodox, that to the 
squeamish it might appear almost heretical. S. 
Joseph is depicted as a young man in the v'ery 
bloom of manhood, with rich curling hair, and a 
quasi-Roman habit — the flowering wand held 
erect in his left hand as if it were the very sceptre 
of royalty. The Virgin herself is Sibylline in the 
fulness of her matured though still youthful 
beauty, and even more so are the holy women who 
kneel in the immediate foreground. Yet the 
dignity of the composition, the grandeur of the 
central group, the atmosphere of muted passion 
and true reverence which envelops the whole — these 
great qualities go far toward redeeming whatever 
there may be of the fantastic and the baroque in the 
conception. In this great Sposalizio occur many 
instances of the long, bony and structurally over- 
accentuated hand to which I have called particular 
attention in the Berlin portrait claimed by me for II 
Rosso. The Sibylline types recur bolder, grander, 
more strongly emphasized, in the Three Fates 
of the Pitti, presently to be discussed. Another in- 
stance of our master's freakishness and refusal to be 
bound by the trammels of conventionality, even in 
sacred art, \'ii\\eHolyFaniily\n theStaedel Institut at 
Frankfurt. This charming piece is somewhat marred 
by the hotness of the general tone, and especially by 
the all-pervading reddish flesh-tints to which I have 
already called attention. Using still the types, for 
Virgin and Bambino, of Andrea del Sarto, he has 
nevertheless surrendered himself to his own 
inspiration, employing them to make a new and 
charming thing. The Virgin, lightly holding the 
Divine Infant, looks on in mirthful delight, as 
He and the little S. John, radiant with the 
unrestrained joy of children, play at some special 
game understood by them, and by them alone. 
Quite apart from all the rest is the group. The 
1 hree Fates, in the Pitti Gallery. This, as I need 
hardly point out, was, until comparatively recent 

so that he was but forty-seven when he perished by his own hand. 
See also the interesting and instructive chapter devoted to Rosso 
and Primaticcio in the volume, French Painting in the i6th 
Century, by L. Dimier (1904). 


// Rosso (Fiorentinoj by Himself (P) 

times, ascribed to Michelangelo, Accepted by the 
public as his, it stood out, one of the most popular 
things in the whole popular gallery.' 

Modern criticism has with very general assent 
assigned The Three Fates to Rosso. At one time 
I was strongly inclined to give this painting to 
Pontormo in his Michelangelcsque phase : so 
strong is the resemblance to his types, so near 
does the pale, monumental colouring, whitening 
in the high-lights, approach his.* The setting 
of the eye, too, and the exaggerated impor- 
tance given to the zygomatic arch are quite in 
Pontormo's style. For all that, there is a quality 
of true invention, of true grandeur, in The Three 
Fates which belongs to Rosso and not in the same 
measure to Pontormo. No doubt the parent source 
from which the imagination of Rosso has in this in- 
stance been fed is the terribilita, of Michelangelo ; 
no doubt The Three Fates is composed by one who 
has seen and worshipped the aged Sibyls of the 
Sistina. Still the creation is one which, mannerisms 
notwithstanding, has a spontaneity and grandeur 
of its own. It remains in Italian art the typical 
rendering of the subject. Quite convincingly do 

> Mr. Lionel Cust h.^s called my attention to the curious and 
important fact that in the "Inventory of Pictures, etc., in the 
Possession of Alethea, Countess of Arundel, at the time of her 
death at in 1654", published by Miss Mary L. Cox 
in The Burliiiglon Magazine,, No. loi (August, 1911), 
occurs the entry : " Rosso: Trc senile /atale" {sic). I am unable 
at the present moment to say what is the provenance of the 
Pitti picture, or whether it is or is not identical with that which 
was once, as we learn from this inventory, in the collection of 
the illustrious Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. We know 
now at any rate, that a picture of the Three Fatal Sisters was 
placed to Rosso's credit a little more than one hundred years 
after his death. 

< Compare Pontormo's wonderful Michelangelcsque compo- 
sition. The Descent from the Cross, in the Church of S. Felicita, 
at Florence ; also the considerably earlier Joseph and his 
Brethren in the National Gallery. 

these long, bony, terrible hands, with the " filbert " 
nails and developed knuckles, speak for II Rosso. 
Allowing for the differences between youth and age, 
and for the necessity in the case of the Three 
Fates of further accentuating the accentuated, the 
hands of the F'atal Sisters resemble in a quite 
extraordinary degree those of the passionate young 
Florentine of theBerlin portrait. The proof which I 
am bringing forward moves no doubt, to some extent, 
in a circle, but it is well-knit for all that. The last in 
order of date among Rosso's oil paintingsstill extant 
is the Pietd of the Louvre, now relegated to one 
of the minor galleries there. This was painted for 
the Chateau of Ecouen as a commission from the 
Connetable de Montmorency. It is a work of an 
almost frenzied exaggeration, Michelangelesque 
with a vengeance, but conceived and worked 
out with a passion that is Rosso's own, 
and quite different from the deliberate exagger- 
ation in which the less distinguished among 
Buonarroti's Italian and Netherlandish imitators 
indulged. Even here, I trace, or fancy that 
I trace, resemblances with the Berlin portrait, 
and more especially between the face of the young 
mm whom 1 would identify as II Rosso and that of 
the distraught Mother of Christ. Will my suggestion 
be accepted that we have in this ardent, picturesque 
young Florentine with the dark-red hair Giovanni 
Battista di Jacopo di Guasparre, whom his 
fellow-citizens nicknamed U Rosso, and the 
French later on called Maitre Rotix—iho. master of 
the red locks ? However this may be, it should be 
borne in mind that this is not my main contention, 
I have striven, above all, to make clear that we 
have in the Berlin picture a notable portrait by 
this too much neglected painter, and on this 
main point I hope that I have made out a good case. 


'HEN the principal of King's 
.College honoured me with an 
.invitation to take part in the 
Jcourse of lectures on " The 
History of Christian Art", I was 
pleased at the opportunity of meeting an author 
whose valuable work on Kodja Kalessi in Cilicia 
had stimulated the lively interest which I take in 
Asia Minor. Although Dr. Hcadlam's essay was 
published in " The Journal of Hellenic Studies", 
it did not receive nearly so much attention as it 
deserves, but I found in it all that I have been 
looking for, since the recognition that Rome and 
Byzantium, to a certain extent, are the mere figure- 
heads of Hellenistic and Oriental art. Encouraged, 
then, by the principal's invitation, I asked myself 

• A lecture delivered by Dr. Striygowski at King's College, 
London, on November 22 and at Oxford on November 24, 


how this compliment came to be paid me, from 
England ? For I could not help recalling the 
times when our own range of vision was confined 
in the strictest sense, to Europe ; when Hellas and 
Rome were, for us, the only soil in which all the 
arts had germinated ; whereas here in England 
your gaze had already penetrated far beyond such 
narrow limits. I have only to name Fergusson ; 
but I should like also to record my own astonish- 
ment at George Gilbert Scott's "Essay on the 
History of English Church Architecture", when 
the book was given to me by my valued English 
friend, Mr. Somers Clarke. As soon as I opened 
it, I found that much that I believed to have been 
stated by me for the first time in 1901 was already 
accepted fact in England twenty years earlier. 

Meanwhile, an immense mass of material has 
accumulated, thanks largely to the enterprise of 




English travellers and the wise expenditure of the 
museumsof the British Empire. Crowfoot supplied 
material for my book on Asia Minor, and Miss 
Bell for the one on Amida as regards Christian art 
in Mesopotamia. It was the late Canon Tristram's 
illustration of the facade of Mshatta, in his book, 
"The Land of Moab ", published in 1873, which 
first introduced me to that masterpiece of 
Hellenistic-Persian art. I remember the hours 
which I spent with Mr. Dalton, over the Cyprian 
treasure and the Constantine cup in the British 
Museum ; and I do not forget the textiles and 
ivories in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Indeed, 
since this is the first time that 1 address an audience 
in England, it is my duty to acknowledge all the 
obligations which I owe to English research and 
to my English friends. It is unnecessary for me 
to remind you of the importance of Mrs. Arthur 
Strong's researches in the domain of Roman art, 
but I should like to add, that I owe to her my first 
introduction to an English audience. 

And now let me plunge at once into the middle 
of the subject on which you have come to hear 
my views — The Origin of Christian Art. We have 
a sort of finger-post to guide us, the "Tabula 
Peutingeriana ". Since it has been shown that it 
deals with a pilgrims' itinerary to Jerusalem for 
the whole empire, dating back to the fourth 
century, it gives us the first direct evidence how 
early the idea became general, that Jerusalem was 
the centre of the human sphere. As early as the 
fourth century Jerusalem takes, to Christians, the 
place of the old caput muiidi, Rome. The 
pilgrims' reports of the year 334 and about 383 
show that just as the aim of every Moslem's life 
to-day is to reach Mecca, so Christians, from the 
time of Constantine until the end of the Crusades, 
were drawn by a similar yearning towards 
Jerusalem. From the fourth century Jerusalem 
is a focus of the Christian world, a new capital 
beside Rome and Byzantium, It superseded 
Alexandria and Antioch as the centre of art, 
and led its pilgrims through countries in which 
art was more dependent on the centres of 
Hellenistic- Persian culture in the East than on 
those about the Mediterranean. Thus Christ 
became a turning-point in the evolution of Western 
art three hundred years after His birth, much as, 
three hundred years before it, Alexander the Great 
had been the arbiter of Eastern destinies. 

From which point of view, then, ought I to 
present " The Origin of Christian Art "—from the 
Asiatic or from the European? The matter looks 
very different from those opposite standpoints. 
Perhaps in England you will find the paradox less 
violent than my German colleagues do, because 
in India you are in a position to regard it from the 
other side also. Is, then, the creative faculty in 
the vast tracts of land between India and the 
Mediterranean less important than in Europe at 

T/ie Origin of Qhristian Art 

the time of the evolution of Christian Art ? Did 
Christianity travel from its birthplace in Palestine 
westward only and not east^vards also? And has 
the contact of both spheres of culture in the 
latitudes nearest to Jerusalem had no result in the 
evolution of mediaeval art ? In the Persian sphere 
of culture, Christianity wins its way quite as 
successfully as it maintains its position among 
other religious influences,underthe Roman Empire, 
about the Mediterranean. In the East, it meets 
with the most diverse creeds ; it comes in contact 
with Buddhism, and is overpowered at last by 
Islam ; while in the West it remains victorious. 
From this victory Western scholars often conclude, 
not, indeed, that Christianity, but that Christian art 
must have originated amongst us, and, like a tender 
plant, must have been nurtured, root and branch, 
exclusively by us ever since. I, on the contrary', 
argue from the conviction that it was only when 
Western eyes were opened to consciousness of the 
value of the observation of nature — I mean at the 
renaissance ofthethirteenth century- — that Chris ian 
art in the West first began to run its own peculiar 
course, whereas, for all its Grasco- Roman premises, 
it was closely dependent until then on Eastern art 
whether purely Christian or Persian, Sassanian or 
Islamic. I now follow the chief phases of the 
origin of Christian art in chronological and topo- 
graphical sequence. 

Even before Jerusalem, the source of Christianity, 
became the centre of the Christian world, 
Christian art already existed in the centuries 
before Constantine, both about the Mediterranean 
and in the East itself, where indeed it had attained 
to a more aggressive and absorbing development. 
At that time the Christians, like other religious 
communities, were already building places for 
their worship, were beautifying places for the 
burial of their dead, and were introducing into 
them representations of scenes from the Old and 
NewTestaments, aswell as symbols and ornaments. 
This conclusion is not based only on the paintings 
of the catacombs and sarcophagi in Rome, the 
existence of which caused Rome to be represented 
as the source of Christian art. What remains of 
Alexandria and Antioch : of the art of political 
organizations such as Osroene and Armenia, 
which had already accepted Christianity as the 
state-religion before Constantine, or of countries 
where the population was almost entirely Christian, 
like Asia Minor ? Where are the works of Manes, 
who painted pictures, decorated books, and was 
put to death as early as the year 276 ? Concerning 
what had gone before Constantine, we must for 
the present mainly draw our conclusions back- 
wards from the fully developed examples of his 

So it is, first, in the domain of ecclesiastical 
architecture. The reports of the Byzantine Research 
Fund now conclusively prove that the Church of 


The Origin of Qhristian Art 

the Nativity at Bethlehem has come down to us 
in its present state from the time of Constantine. 
It presents the type of the five-aisled basilica, but 
is distinguished from the basilicas of Rome by a 
rich, peculiarly constructed choir, the Trikonchos. 
The same applies to Constan tine's other buildings ; 
first, the great galleried church of the Holy 
Sepulchre ; then, the Octagon in Antioch of which 
we may form an idea from the later San Vitale 
in Ravenna; and lastly, the cruciform church of 
the Apostles in Constantinople, of which we can 
now draw a picture from the reconstruction of the 
ruins at Salona. The types are so various, the 
individual characteristics so numerous, that we 
cannot but suppose that a vigorous, innovating, 
creative force, totally opposed to the uniformity of 
ecclesiastical architecture in Rome, was already at 
work by Constantine's time, and, in the wide 
regions of the East, earlier still. We have a hint 
of this in the most ancient types of the representa- 
tions of Christ. The two leading spheres of 
culture, the Roman-Hellenisticof the Mediterranean 
and the Aramaic- Persian, are especially striking in 
this respect. So far as my knowledge goes, no 
portrait of Christ existed ; in both these spheres 
He was represented according to the racial ideal. 
The Greeks depicted Him with the features of a 
beautiful youth, in Asia Minor specifically, wearing 
long locks, as on the Berlin sarcophagus, and in 
Syria and Egypt with short, curling hair, as in the 
Constantine diptych in the Louvre and on the 
Berlin pyx. The Aramaeans represented Him 
bearded, with smooth, parted hair, as on the 
Constantine cup in the British Museum. The best 
example, however, is from the later mosaics at 
Daphni. Victory fell at last to the oriental type, 
for we can to this day scarcely picture Christ to 
ourselves otherwise than as bearded. The differ- 
ence between Greek and oriental taste is no less 
evident in the inclination of the Greeks for the 
human form, and the greater prominence given by 
the Easterns to ornament. I offer as two good 
examples taken from totally different domains of 
art, first, a pre-Constantinian miniature from Asia 
Minor, used during the tenth century in a 
Psalter (number 139 of the Bibliotheque 
Nationale) ; and secondly, the fa9ade of Mshatta, 
to which I assign the same early date. This 
difference bore an immense harvest later. While 
the Mediterranean influence carried the Hellenistic 
representation of the human figure eastward as 
far as India and China, the Oriental brought the 
motives of Persian decoration westward, and from 
this interchange the new unity of Christian 
Mediaeval art directly sprang. 

I now pass on to the crucial period, from the 
fourth to the sixth century, when the archetypes 
which were to endure throughout the thousand 
years that followed, took form, and Asia, instead of 
the Mediterranean, guided their evolution. This is 

the period when Jerusalem becomes the Christian 
centre and Constantinople arises as a new 
Hellenistic metropolis beside the old one. These 
two cities become the poles of the Eastern world, 
which stands firm between the flood of peaceful 
commerce and monastic development, on the one 
hand, and the threatening waves of Eastern peoples 
migrating westward, on the other. There, those 
forces meet and hollow out a new channel for the 
stream of art. The peculiar realm of oriental 
decorative art then extends vastly wider than it 
had ever done during the Roman period. Certain 
regions assume decisive import in this respect, but 
concerning the functions of each we can as yet 
only form an idea from the part played by the 
later Islam which reached from India to Spain. 

I start from the presentment of the subject 
placed before us some years ago in the German 
universities. Inspiration in all and everything 
was attributed to Rome. Byzantium was regarded 
with a sort of mistrust, for some were disposed to 
attach a certain importance to it. What Vogiie 
had said about Syria, and Texier and PuUan about 
Salonica and Asia Minor, was treated as no con- 
cern of ours ; as if it had nothing to do with the 
development of the matter in Europe. Then, I 
went to Constantinople, Greece and Asia Minor. 
The result was the conviction that Constantinople 
does not offer the key to the so-called Byzantine 
question, but is rather a mere focus where the 
rays from the East meet. Then followed revela- 
tion, step by step. I cite, as stages, my books : 
" Orient oder Rom ", " Kleinasien ", " Mschatta", 
and "Amida". This is about how the matter 
stands to-day. 

We must at last begin to reckon with the fact 
that the great cities of the Mediterranean were 
not the only centres of Hellenistic art. Others 
flourished also in the heart of Further Asia ; first, 
ancient Bactria, which, though quite late, counts 
for much in the rise of Islamic art and culture; 
next, Seleukia on the Tigris, to which Sassanid 
art owes a great deal of its strong Hellenistic en- 
velopment ; and finally, the triangle of northern 
Mesopotamian cities, Edessa, Amida and Nisibis, 
which play an important part in the rise of 
Christian art. This Aramaic hinterland to Asia 
Minor, Syria, Palestine, and even Egypt, by com- 
bining, as it does, the forces of Nearer Asia, is the 
progenitor of the germinal forms of Christian art. 
We can detect this principle in both the new 
focuses, Jerusalem and Constantinople, and cannot 
help seeing it powerfully at work later in the West 
during the Middle Ages. Let me give some 
examples in support of my statement. 

From what Vogue had published and from the 
important advances on his knowledge recently 
made by the Princetown Expedition, we should 
have expected Northern Mesopotamia to present a 
similar picture to Syria, perhaps somewhat reduced 


and pro\"incialized. It was a great surprise to find 
that the exact opposite is the case. We might have 
formed a suspicion of it from "The Chronicle of 
Edessa"and the Theological School of Nisibis, 
but recognition of the fact was first brought home 
to us by a comparison of the great central churches 
of Wiranschehr, Resapha and Amida. How 
amazing individual achievement must have been 
in urban ecclesiastical architecture alone ! The 
oval octagonal cupola of the ancient Constantina 
measures 67 metres long by 50 broad ; the central 
church of Sergiopolis 42.5 by 36 ; and we have 
remains and a description of the Church of the 
Virgin in Amida, which show that it was in the style 
of the destroyed church of S. Benignus at Dijon 
and as large as the chief churches of Venice. The 
neighbouring region of Syria and Asia Minor is 
equally rich in the most varied types of buildings. 
In the domed basilicas and the centralized 
churches there, we find the connecting links with 
the most magnificent examples of these types, the 
Church of the Apostles, and Saint Sophia's in 
Constantinople. We have here also an advance 
in the domain of architectural decoration, such as 
the world has perhaps never seen since. 

And is it not, generally, the same in the domain 
of sculpture and the pictorial arts? I offer you some 
evidence that there is no difference. The ancient 
marble quarries at Cyzicus, which were apparently 
one of the chief reasons why Constantine founded 
his new capital on the Bosphorus, at that time 
supplied the whole Mediterranean littoral with 
columns. But what the quarr}--men supplied was 
not antique capitals, it was rather forms embody- 
ing the new spirit. There is first a change in the 
carving of the acanthus leaves. The ribs and the 
contour of the outlines are drilled deep to produce, 
not hea\-y shadows, but black colour, so that 
surface colour-effect seems to be attempted 
instead of the antique modelling. This is so on 
sarcophagi from Asia Minor and on the fafade of 
Mshatta. In the composite capital, baskets with 
flat rendered vine-leaves and trellis-work take the 
place of the acanthus. Further, the abacus is decor- 
ated with beasts' and birds' heads instead of angles 
and bosses. Finally, even the form itself changes, 
and the funnel-shaped or rhomboidal capital 
appears, massive and unbroken, often decorated 
with purely Persian surface-ornament. Arabesques, 
and the double or triple guilloche, incorporated 
later into Germanic, Irish, Armenian, and Arabic art, 
were evolved here and became favourite motives. 

The great Asiatic tradition in earlyChristian times 
must be regarded as a single closely-knit organism 
of vital creative forces, which invaded Europe in 
the North by land and in the South by sea, bringing 
its productions with it. A striking example of this 
truth is afforded by the growth of the silk industry 
which, starting in the farthest East, spread through 
Persia to Syria, and finally established itself 

The Origin of (Christian Art 

ineradicably in B^'zantium, and afterwards in 
Palermo and in Spain. The patterns are mainly 
Persian, formed on the palmette and the double 
guilloche ornament enriched with hunting scenes. 
They are imitated in China. You find among them 
also subjects from the Bible, the frames of which, 
composed of closely knotted circles, also became 
a favourite motive in the West. Centuries later, 
embroider}', though not silk-weaving itself, has 
more influence than any other decorative art. 

At that time, when the construction of decora- 
tive sepulchres declined and the architecture of 
monumental churches advanced ; so in pictorial 
representation, the didactic and historical methods 
of the East made their appearance in the place of 
the older Hellenistic symbolism, and firmly 
established new types. This we know, for instance, 
from a mosaic on the fagade of the Church of 
the Nativity at Bethlehem. Mary appears 
there enthroned beside TJie Nativity and The 
Adoration of the Magi. The Magi are clad in 
garments so purely Persian, that the Sassanid 
conquerors refrained on that account from 
destroying the church. A gold medallion pre- 
serves the scheme of this facade, and mosaics at 
Parenzo and Ravenna adhere closely to the central 
group of the Madonna. Or, take the Archangel 
of the Greek ivory tablet in the British Museum. 
He stands on the steps of the proscenium of the 
ancient theatre, so majestic in bearing and inter- 
pretation, that he continues ever afterwards to 
dominate the whole Middle Ages. Akin to him 
in expression is the Christ in the mosaic of the 
Good Shepherd in the Mausoleum of Galla 
Placidia at Ravenna. The landscape there with 
the trees amongst which Christ is sitting re-appears 
in the apse of Sant Apollinare in Classe, where 
we find every sign of a form of ecclesiastical 
decoration, sprung originally from Syria, which, 
later, in the iconoclastic sti'uggle, became of 
further significance on account of its landscapes 
with hunting and fishing scenes on which figures 
played a less conspicuous part. The highly 
original Transfiguration at Classe presents a 
fundamental anachronism. The biblical events 
are at that time already depicted with the full 
consciousness of their significance. In this 
respect, Edessa seems to have taken the lead. I 
cite carvings in ivory, such as the five-panelled 
diptych in the Louvre, and the cathedra of S. 
Maximian at Ravenna, with its romantic apocry- 
phal scenes from the life of Mar}'. 

The Asiatic tide of evolution, however, really 
reaches its height in the third period of the rise of 
Christian art, when hordes of horsemen from the 
northern parts of the interior of Asia invade 
Europe and drive the Germanic peoples southward 
and westward. I will ignore at present the flood 
of migration from the South evoked by Islam. 
The northern nomads carried into Europe 


The Origin of Qhristian Art 

stores of golden vessels and other furniture wrought 
in the Persian style ; the Germans took with them 
on their flight jewellery with Pehlewi inscriptions 
and Indian stones set in Persia and its hinter- 
lands ; and the double and triple guilloche, 
enriched with birds' and beasts' heads, of which 
we seek, and can identify, the prototype in the 
East, was thus firmly established throughout the 
West. At this period the industrial arts assume in 
Europe that leading importance which they had 
attained hundreds of years earlier in Asia. 

While this transforming power from the Central 
East sweeps on like a tempest, and brings to a 
close the pre-historic development of the North, 
Christianity slowly and certainly filters through 
from the South. Before the migration, the church 
in Celtic Gaul and even so far as Ireland is entirely 
permeated with Greek culture. After the re-settle- 
ment of the Germans it is pre-eminently the great 
Irish Apostles who bring back to the Continent 
the ancient Hellenistic culture, together with the 
knowledge of the Greek language, and there meet 
monks and merchants who were mostly in close 
relations with the East. For lack of time, I can select 
from the eastern side of the subject only what is sig- 
nificant to the origins of Christian art in the West. 

I begin with architecture, and here again 1 limit 
my theme. I leave aside, as sterile germs of form, 
the Hellenistic basilicas — that is to say, the 
churches with columns, wooden roof and exterior 
atrium — and thus omit the sole type which pre- 
vailed in Home. I concern myself only with 
vaulted construction which then matured in the 
West into that fine flower, called by us the 
Romanesque and Gothic styles. By restricting 
my theme to this point, I intend to emphasize my 
conviction that the forms of oriental art did not 
reach the West through the Crusades — as has been 
maintained — but rather that forms were developed 
simultaneously both in East and West along 
parallel lines. Thus, so far as concerns vaulting 
in particular, long before the Romanesque period, 
not only in Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, but also 
in Spain and Lombardy, we can point to the 
existence of basilica-shaped churches with vaulting; 
and vaulting is an indication more to be depended 
on than the type of construction. 

I place certain western Gothic churches of 
Spain beside similar churches in the region of Tur- 
Abdin in Mesopotamia. San Juan Bautista in 
Banos was built by Receswinthus in 66 1. This 
church has three barrel-vaulted, parallel aisles 
with the horse-shoe arch throughout, and this — 
let me observe — already in pre-Islamic times. 
It is, however, their barrel-vaulting which is the 
essential characteristic of the western Gothic 
churches, especially when the church is aisle-less. 
Take as examples, Santa Maria de Naranco, the 
AulaRegia built by Ramiro who died in the year 850, 
and Santa Cristina de Lena. But these vaulted 


buildings are generally triple-aisled, as in San Tu- 
llano at Oviedo, which has a broad transept ; and all 
its parts are barrel-vaulted. I place beside these 
the ground-plan of Mar Jakub in Salah, and the 
cloister of Mar Gabriel, both in the region of the 
Tigris, north of Nisibis. There you have the 
barrel-vaulted transept, with the three apses also 
barrel- vaulted, and theelongated bodyof thechurch 
barrel-vaulted too — in short, forms of building 
exactly similar in principle to those in Spain ; the 
vaults also are not very differently constructed. 
In Spain we find transverse arches set in the stone ; 
while in Mesopotamia the splendid tile-vaulting 
runs smoothly over the whole length, with trans- 
verse arches constructed either of stone or brick. 

The barrel-vaulting with transverse arches and 
the horse-shoe arch of the Spanish churches are, 
together with purely stone-construction, the 
favourite motives of ecclesiastical architecture in 
Central Asia Minor. I point to the nave of the 
ruined cathedral of Binbirkilisse with its horse- 
shoe stone-vaulting and transverse arches. Then, 
in order to give an idea of the immense variety of 
construction, I cite another example, an example 
of the so-called rising barrels which are to be 
found in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle also. 
Once more, look at the ground-plan and the 
elevation of one of the churches of Central Asia 
Minor, with its towered front and almost Roman- 
esque piers with respond shafts ; and you will 
realise how significant it was when Sir William 
Ramsay's and Miss Bell's excavations confirmed 
my dating of these buildings as regards their types. 

Such churches, then, must have been the starting 
point of the great building-movement in Milan. 
Its impulse probably dates back to the time of 
S. Ambrose, though no very certain traces have 
yet come to light in Milan anymore than at Como 
and Brescia Meanwhile, some evidence has been 
found which will strengthen the link between 
North Italy and Asia Minor, as regards centralized 
churches. The great building-movement of the 
East comes over-sea to Ravenna, and onwards, by 
Milan and Marseilles, and over-land by means of the 
Asiatic and Greek artists who travel westwards in 
the train of the Goths. Buildings such as the 
tomb of Theodoric, or later, the Church of 
Germigny-les-Pr^s seem to me explicable only in 
this way. The double-choired churches also, the 
choir with radiating chapels, and the cruciform 
basilicas in the place of the tau-shaped churches 
of earlier date, have their origin in the East 
I am of the opinion that the West — Gaul, the 
Rhine, and the British Isles — shares in the great 
development of Christian art in the Ea->t. The 
off-shoots of the Eastern Monastic Orders, the 
Gothic migration, and Commerce continue the 
ancient combination of Celtic and Hellenistic 
culture. In this way, then, I explain such 
phenomena as the appearance of similar motives 

in the East and the West, and I give as an 
instance of it, the bird and fish initials, which 
occur in Merovingian and also in Armenian 
manuscripts ; and I include the erection of 
stone crosses, which is common both here in 
the British Isles and also among the Armenians. 
What I am leading up to is, that we ought to 
begin to follow up these traces systematically. 
Means are provided here in England by the 
founding of the Byzantine Research Fund. 
England must apply all her energy, so that, just as 
Dr. Stein has done in Chinese Turkestan, explora- 
tions may be made on the Indian frontiers, and 
especially the north-western border, which the 
sculptures of Gandhare prove was the centre of a 
great art movement. I am convinced that it is 
there that discoveries will be made which will 
give us a new conception of the significance of 
the Persian centres of Hellenistic art and of the 


HERE is no article of English 
domestic plate of more general inte- 
rest than the spoon. To begin with, 
it has been much longer in common 
use than its present concomitant, the 
fork, and for several centuries a few spoons 
have been the first silver articles acquired by those 
not possessed of inherited plate. These spoons 
often still remain the oldest contents of many 
well-stocked family plate-chests, or are even more 
valued as the last relics of others now sadly 
depleted. There are few owners of any silver at 
all who do not possess a spoon or two, with some 
traditional claim — quite as interesting to the owner 
as if it had any real foundation — to affinity with the 
types of which the names have become household 
words, such as the " rat-tail ", or even the 
" Apostle ", in spite of the extreme rarity of the 

An inquiry into the earliest type of spoon known 
in these islands is not within the scope of this 
essay. The first of which we have any trace is 
attributable to the Romans, and specifically to the 
early Christians, and was, perhaps, formed on 
earlier Greek or Eastern models. The etymo- 
logical history of the Roman spoon, cochlear, is 
worth recording. When the Roman epicure 
indulged in his favourite dish of snails, he was 
served with a little spoon of ivory or bronze, with 
a round bowl, furnished with a handle ending in 
a point for extracting the snail from its shell. 
These spoons, though also used for eating eggs, 
actually took their name from the snail. Cochlear, 
a word surviving with us in the cognate form of 
cockles. A dubious epigram by Martial (XIV, 21) 
records the Latin derivation : — 

T^e Origin of Qhristian Art 

sources of Islamic art, and, at the same time, 
however, will modify the theory of the genesis of 
Christian art which I have, from my own stand- 
point, just submitted to you. 

In my opinion, early Christian art and early 
Medi.'eval art rest on Asia unified with Europe by 
the interchange of their productions — a much 
broader basis than any we could have imagined 
until a very few years ago. It will be well to give 
this question somewhat more attention for the 
future than was, or could be, given to it hitherto, 
in the search after an exclusively Roman origin of 
Christian art. A true conception of the manner 
in which the Orient was imprinted upon European 
arts through Christianity and the great migrations 
can be gained only by studying the arts of the 
second religious revival, Islam, which appeared 
six hundred years later, but this could be dealt with 
only in a further lecture. 


Sum cochleis habilis, sed nee minus ntilis ovis : 
Nnmqoid scis potius cur cochleare vocer ? 

We need not inquire too closely the meaning 
of Martial's jests. 

For eating oysters a spoon of larger size and 
slightly different shape was used. The one illus- 
trated by the line drawing [FIGURE i] is in Messrs. 
Elkington's possession. It is a typical Roman 
" Shell-fish spoon ", and was found, with other 
Roman relics, among a large quantity of oyster- 
shells. It is made of pewter, and the mode of setting- 
on the handle at a level in advance of the bowl (here 
visible only in the sectional drawing, FIGURE 2) 
should be noticed, because it would suggest the 
use of the spoon, without the oyster-shells among 
which it was found. I may remark that British 
oysters were famed even at Rome, and, as every- 
one knows, were celebrated by Juvenal* in the 
first century after Christ. The Roman conquerors 
left their mark even upon trifling articles of 
European domestic use, many of which they 
introduced into the countries which they subju- 
gated. To France it would appear that they 
imported not only the " Snail-spoon ", but its 
name, which survives to-day in the current French, 
cuiUcre. It seems highly probable that it was 
through the Romans that the Britons also first 
became acquainted with the spoon, though the 
signs of direct connexion between the ancient 
Britons and the East makes this uncertain. 
At any rate, the Roman pattern, with its fig- 
shaped bowl and projecting stem, is the first 
in Britain known to me, and, though it was 
modified by decoration, it remained the accepted 
type in England, at any rate, through many 
centuries. Of course, many ancient spoons 
of widely different origins have come down to us 
— some in rock crystal, for example — which were 
made solely for ritual use, and vary in type 
' Rutupinove edifa fundos Ostrea. Sat. IV, 141, 142. 

English ^Domestic Spoons 

according to the rite for which they were designed. 
These ritual spoons, however, and the question 
whether their use preceded or followed the use of 
the spoon for domestic purposes, do not directly 


FIG. 2. — SEC- 




concern us here. It will be sufficient to notice the 
development of the English domestic spoon from 
the Roman. 

Our English name " spoon ", represented in the 
Anglo-Saxon $p6u, meaning a splinter, and in all 
the modern northern European languages by 
similar forms with the same meaning, implies that 
the earliest English domestic spoons were made 
of wood, though horn and bone were probably 
also employed. Perhaps the original meaning is 
still preserved in the golf spoon. 

One of the earliest allusions to the English silver 
spoon is to be found in the records of the Abbey 

of Croyland, where it is noted that the Abbot 
VVulketel gave back to the Abbey "twelve spoons 
of silver ". These had probably originated at 
Croyland, where much plate seems to have been 
wrought under monastic patronage and direction. 
From the thirteenth century until the end of 
Elizabeth's reign the same pattern of spoon, allow- 
ing for modifications in the decoration of the stem, 
continued to be made in England. The earliest 
examples are surprisingly similar to the cochlear 
of the K'omans with a fig-shaped bowl and stem 
terminating in a sharp " diamond " point, as it is 
called. A drawing of an interesting specimen of 
a " dyamond poynt " spoon, in the collection of Mr. 
W. H. Willson, is given here [FIGURE 3]. It is of 
base metal, and though its exact date is difficult to 
define, it is presumably English and of the late 
thirteenth century. The method of attaching the 
stem to the bowl differs from that seen in the 
Roman model [Figures i and 2] and the stem has 
now become quadrilateral. The facetted knop is also 
quadrilateral with sharp " diamond " corners and 
a centre point. The stem still remains long, and 
the bowl actually dips considerably below the level 
of the handle, though this feature appears only in 
a sectional drawing. In this connexion is illus- 
trated the knop of a " dyamond poynt " silver spoon 
referred to the first quarter of the fourteenth century 
[Figure 6]. In this specimen, belonging to 
Mr. Robert Drane, the stem is hexagonal and taper- 
ing, with a larger bowl than the first, though the 
whole spoon is shorter. The maker's mark — a 
small Old English " g " — appears on the back of 
the bowl, and has apparently been engraved, not 
stamped. A late specimen in the same collection, 
bearing the full London hall-mark for the year 
1586, is much larger, and its stem less decidedly 

Allusions to spoons made of the precious metal 
are fairly common in wills and inventories from 
the thirteenth century onwards, but the chaos 
caused by the Wars of the Roses in the fifteenth 
century is responsible for the destruction of much 
of our English silversmiths' work. During these 
wars the domestic arts were at a standstill, and it 
is not until the peaceful era of the Tudors that we 
find evidences of a re-established prosperity in 
England. In the "spacious times of great Eliza- 
beth ", even in a farmer's house, according to 
Holinshed, might be found " greate provision of 
tapestrie, Turkye work, brasse and cupboards of 
plate ", and again, " treene platters are exchanged 
for pewter, and woode spoons into silver or tin ". 
An exceedingly rare type is that known as the 
" Wrythen top", one of the earliest specimens of 
which bears the London hall-mark for the year 
1488 : this was in the Staniforth collection, 
which was dispersed about a year and a half ago. 
The name " Wrythen top " speaks for itself, and 
denotes a knop decorated with twisted flutings. The 


type is rare even in base metal, but in the few 
known examples the knop varies considerably. The 
specimen belonging to Mr. Drane, which is 
reproduced in FIGURE 7, is of base metal and 
believed to date from about the end of the 
fifteenth century. Another type which may be 
connected with the "Wrythen top" is the 
" Akerne " (Acorn) knop, which may be found as 
late as the sixteenth century. Mr. Drane's 
collection again supplies a specimen [Figure 9] 
which is also in base metal and is of about 
the same date as the spoon last mentioned. The 
"Ball-end" [Figure 8] may almost be considered 
a variant of the "Wrythen top"; it is found on 
spoons of somewhat later date, and is almost 
equally rare. There exist also other similar knops 
which may be connected with these early types. 

I have mentioned above that Church patronage 
was responsible for much of our early silversmiths' 
work ; and this influence survived until the fifteenth 
centun,-. The knop of the next tj'pe of spoon, 
the so-called "Maiden Head", may represent the 
head of the Virgin and have been invented for some 
wealthy client of Our Lady, perhaps a member of a 
monastic order specially devoted to her service. 
On the other hand, it has been supposed 
to have been derived from the siren. At any rate, 

English IDomestic Spoons 

Holinshed's remark, already quoted, is evidence 
to this effect. Many a prosperous merchant, 
content to furnish his board with vessels and 

knives of pewter and 
possess silver spoons. 
a sponsor to bestow a 
child as a baptismal 

steel, grew ambitious to 
It became the custom for 
silver spoon upon a god- 
gift. Hence originated 
"Apostle" spoons. The christening spoon was 
theoretically to bear the effigy of the child's saintly 
namesake, and there is no direct evidence to prove 
that it was only "Apostle" spoons which were 
given at christenings. Spoons of a simpler type 
were given on the Continent also. In the Willet- 
Holthuysen Museum at Amsterdam is an old 
Dutch christening spoon of about this period, 
with a fluted knop and a curiously hinged handle 
engraved with the name of the child " Hendrik 
Ruitenbach ". Possibly a complete set of 
" Apostle " spoons was bestowed by a wealthy 
god-parent ; this may account for the passage in 
Shakespeare's "King Henry VlII", in which 
Henry invited Cranmer to stand sponsor to the 
infant Princess Elizabeth : — 

" My Lord of Canterbury, 
I have a suit which you must not deny me : 
That is, a fair young maid that yet wants baptism. 
You must be godfather and answer for her". 

6 78 


the "Maiden Head "spoon is of further interest 
because it reflects the fashion of the day. It 
follows the development and decay of the horned 
head-dress worn by ladies in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. Thus it is easy to assign an 
approximate date to most examples. The knop 
consists usually of a female head and bust, and 
was made from the fourteenth century until the 
reign of Elizabeth, when it naturally fell into 
disuse. Two illustrations of the " Maiden Head " 
are given here. The first [Figure 4], showing 
the horned head-dress, is from a base metal 
specimen assigned to the beginning of the fifteenth 
centurj-. The second [Figure 5 J shows a later 
fashion, and dates from about the year 1575 ; it 
bears the London hall-mark, 1575, and is one 
more specimen from Mr. Drane's collection. 

During the sixteenth century a certai.n dignity 
was undoubtedly associated with the silver spoon ; 

To this the Archbishop replies, protesting his un- 

worthiness : 

" The greatest monarch now alive may glory 
In such an honour : how may I deserve it 
Who am so poor and humble subject to you ? ' 

Henry treats this humility as an excuse, observing 
sarcastically : 

" Come, come, my lord, j'ou'd spare your spoons". 
This would seem not only to allude to the prelate's 
well-known parsimony, but to imply that it was a 
custom to bestow more than one spoon as a 
christening gift : possibly therefore a " Set ". Such 
a set may have belonged to Sir John Fastolfe, whose 
inventory, made during the fifteenth-century, in- 
cludes " Thirteen spoons ". A complete set of 
Apostle spoons requires thirteen distinct figures — 
the Master, easily recognizable by His attitude of 
benediction, and eleven of the original twelve 
Apostles with S. Matthias or S. Paul as substitute 



English ^Domestic Spoons 

for Judas Iscariot, the Betrayer. A complete set 
of "Apostle "spoons, by the same maker and of 
the same date, is to-day a remarkable rarity — in 
fact, few such are known to exist. The late Mr. 
George Lambert presented such a set, dated 1626, 
to the Goldsmiths' Company, and in 1903 a set of 
the year 1636 appeared at Christie's. In the 
Bernal collection was a set of twelve for the year 
15 19, which in 1855 was acquired by the late Rev. 
T. Staniforth. 

The rarest among "Apostle" spoons have 
always been those bearing the figure of Christ : 
as regards the rest, S. Jude seems to be the 
commonest. The " Evangelist "spoon — S. Mark's 
with his symbolic lion — is decidedly rare. It is 
usual, though not invariable, to find a nimbus 
surrounding each saintly head, often engraved 
with the Saint Esprit or Dove of the Holy Ghost. 
"Apostle " spoons continued to be made without 
artificial revival as late as the reign of Charles II. 
In every known example the Apostle appears at 
full length holding his proper emblem in one or 
other of his hands. S. Peter holds his key 
(or rarely a fish), S. John his poisoned 
chalice and S. Andrew his saltire cross. The 
curious specimen of an "Apostle" spoon, 
illustrated here [Plate, c] belongs to me, and, 
so far as I can make out, bears the figure of S. 
Philip, without a nimbus, which is rare. It may 
be observed that the stem is still hexagonal, the 
bowl fig-shaped. The spoon bears the London 
mark of 1610, and the maker's mark of a crescent 
and saltire. The S. Andrew spoon [Plate, d], 
in Messrs. Elkington's possession, is of a much later 
period ; here the saint wears the nimbus. The stem 
of the spoon is more massive, the bowl larger and 
broader. The London mark is 1632, and the 
maker's mark " D " enclosing " C ". The Apostle 
spoon may be found as early as the year 1495, but 
it is extremely rare at such a date. In all the early 
examples known the stem is long and slender ; the 
bowl resembles that of the " Dyamond Poynt " 
spoon [Figure 3], dipping more suddenly below 
the level of the stem. 

Contemporary with the "Apostle" spoon, but 
much rarer, is the " Lion Sejant ", the stem of 
which is "knopped" with an heraldic seated lion. 
It is not certain for what reason this device was 
used on spoons, since no other heraldic emblem 
was apparently adopted for a similar purpose. 
The Lion Sejant in the language of blazon signifies 
"An advised counsellor ", and the lion has from 
very early times been the crest, or ensign, of the 
kings of England. Our royal arms since the 
Norman kings have borne three lions or leopards 
passant guardant. In the Museum of Versailles, 
among the shields of the Crusaders appears that of 
Richard Cceur de Lion : De giteiilesd trois leopards 
d'or (French Heraldry, Li-opnrd= Lion). The lion, 
as a supporter, has been associated with the arms 


of England since the reign of Edward III. It is, 
perhaps, strange that we have so few specimens of 
the "Lion Sejant" spoon, as the lion might be 
expected to have proved a popular device. No 
example, however, is known earlier than the reign 
of Henry VII, nor later than that of Charles II. 
The " Lion " knop illustrated here [Figure 10] is 
from a spoon in Mr. Drane's collection, bearing 
the London hall-mark for the year 1560. 

Nearly every type of knop on the early English 
spoon appears to have been suggested more or less 
by foreign influence : even the " Lion ", which 
might be considered a typically English emblem, 
may have a foreign origin. One belonging to me 
of French manufacture of the middle of the 
sixteenth century is illustrated in the Plate [b]. 
The shield between the front paws is found on 
English spoons also. With these " Lion " spoons 
is another French specimen of mine, with a baluster 
knop [Plate, a]. Such a knop upon an English 
spoon has not yet come under my observation. It 
should be observed that in both these foreign 
examples the stem is entirely different, resembling 
that of the earlyspoon [Figure 3], already described. 
It is square, not hexagonal, in section ; and the 
bowl is of the almost round form characteristic of 
the foreign spoons of this period. 

The " Seal top " spoon is of particular interest, as 
it affords an excellent example of development in 
decoration. The earliest " Seal top " was probably 
suggested by a " Ball-end ", or whorled top : it 
appears as a fluted ball, " capped " as it were by a 
flat hexagonal mount. This ball gradually develops 
into a column, more or less ornamental, varying 
in length and shape, while the flat " cap " remains. 
It does not seem that this type of knop was ever 
intended to be used as a seal ; the name, however, 
is suggestive and appropriate. Examples are seldom 
found earlier than the reign of Elizabeth : and they 
continued to be made as late as the last quarter of 
the seventeenth century. A specimen of mine 
[Plate, e] shows the earliest form in which the 
" Seal-top " is found; this specimen is ascribed 
to the middle of the sixteenth century. It bears a 
provincial mark, and a maker's mark (a five-lobed 
rosette) in the bowl. For comparison with 
it is a spoon [f], belonging to Messrs. Elkington, 
of a late type, with long baluster-knop: it may 
be placed in the first quarter of the seventeenth 
century, and is also provincial-made. The 
maker's mark "HP" is repeated two or three 
times on the back of the stem. Both marks are 
those of unknown provincial makers. 

It may here be noted that all the above types of 
spoon were made not only in London but in most 
English provincial towns, but are unknown in 
Scotland and Ireland. One type of knop, distinct 
from any yet discussed, the rare so-called 
" Riiddha ", appears to have been made only in the 
West ol England. Spoons ul this type dale from 

y ta 












the sixteenth ceatury. The knop resembles the 
figure of an oriental god or saint, but its origin 
and meaning remain very obscure. 

The Puritan upheaval in the early part of the 
seventeenth century may be said to inaugurate a 
new era in the history of the spoon. It will be 
well, therefore, to consider briefly here the chief 
characteristics of the spoon during the period 
hitherto discussed. There is absolute similarity of 
workmanship through all the developments of 
decoration already described, the spoon being 
always wrought entire, — bowl and stem fashioned 
from" one piece of silver without a join. The knop, 
of whate%-er form, is cast, and soldered to the 
handle bv means of a clamp of V-shaped or other 
design. In the early " Maiden Head " [FIGURE 4] 
is shown a section of this V'-shaped clamp, a 
slightly different section is shown on the " Lion 

English ^Domestic Spoons 

Sejant" in FIGURE 10. The earliest marks 
known on English spoons are similar to the 
one found on Mr. Drane's early " Dyamond 
Poynt" [Figure 6] described above. Later, the 
London hall-mark (a leopard's head) was stamped, 
on spoons made in the metropolis, not on 
the back, but inside the bowl close up to its union 
with the stem, while the maker's mark and 
date letter appear on the back of the stem, also 
close to the bowl. The earliest example of the 
date letter is for the year 1479, and our excellent 
system of marking plate, which in its comprehen- 
sive simplicity compares favourably with some of 
the foreign systems, was completed in 1544 by the 
addition of the lion passant Thus, upon a 
spoon of a date later than 1544, the town mark 
should appear in the bowl, the maker's mark, 
date letter and lion passant, on the back of the stem. 


IN' the first article' I discussed a few of 
/the less known Primitive Italian paint- 
gs in this exhibition. Of the 
„^ ^N'orthern Primitives by far the most 
<Tt~v v*^ important is the Portrait of Leondlo 
dEslc, by Rogier van der Weyden, which has 
already been published in detail in The Burlington 
Magazine.- I fail to understand the hesitation of 
some critics in accepting the conclusion that this 
Is a portrait of the great Italian patron. Likeness 
in the sense of a particular effect of expression is 
alwaj-s a most deceptive thing, and is subject to 
the personal equation of the spectator to an 
extreme degree, but if we confine ourselves to the 
actual forms of the features — and these in 
Leonello d'Este's case are very singular — it seems 
to me impossible to doubt the identity of the 
sitter with the prince of Pisanello's painting and 
medals, and when this is borne out by the coat of 
arms at the back which is certainly very nearly, if 
not, as I think, quite contemporary, and the known 
fact of Rogier van der Weyden's visit to Ferrara 
the probabilities seem to me to be almost 
conclusive. One objection which has been made 
is that no explanation has yet been found of the 
little hammer which the prince holds in his hand. 
Now here, it seems to me, is one of those minute 
characteristics which definitely supports the 
contention. It is known from the medals that 
Leonello had a peculiar fondness for such impresc 
which generally expressed some quite private 
personal incident or character, and that while the 
meaning of some is fairly evident there are others 
which had apparently for their owner the charm 

' Burlington Magazine, November, 191 1, pp. 66, etc. 
-Ja-iuary, 1911, Vol. XVIII, N'o. 94, pp. 198, etc. 

of secrecy. The little hammer appears to me to 
have all the appearance of one of Leonello's 

The panels from Holyrood are comparatively 
little known in London, and the opportunity of 
studying them again is welcome. It is quite clear, 
as Sir Claude Phillips has pointed out,' that the 
work is of very var\-ing merit. The Royal 
portraits in particular show a perfunctory and 
timid hand, and were presumably not done from 
life. One imagines that even if Hugo van der Goes 
had only a journeyman artist's portrait to go by 
he would have infused more life into his version, 
so that we may rather suspect that they were 
added by another hand. Much the most interest- 
ing of the four paintings is the terrible Trinity, 
one of the most disquieting and strange concep- 
tions of Flemish art. One realizes here the 
morbid intensity of religious feeling, the brooding 
mysticism which was destined to drive Hugo van 
der Goes to insanit}'. 

This, indeed, was one of those "reveries and 
preoccupations " which, according to his fellow 
monk, Gaspar Ofhuys,* " caused the bursting of a 
delicate little vein in proximity to the brain, which 
vein is governed by the creative and contemplative 
powers ", and thus precipitated his fatal malady. 
Certainly few artists have arrived at so strangely 
painful a conception of the Divine Nature, so 
tortured with the problem of salvation, so bowed 
down with the sins and sorrows of His creation. 
In the certainty of its spacing, the harsh insistence 
of its bitter colouring, and the aggressive exaggera- 
tion of the modelling, this picture has the evocative 

* Daily Tctegi-aph, i8th October, 1911. 

<C/, .\lphonse Wauters, Hiigucs van der Goes, p. 12. 



Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries 

and arresting power of an actual vision, instead of 
the more or less beautiful schematic formula with 
which, for the most part, this theme is perforce 
envisaged by artists. 

I will turn now to some examples of the later 
Italian Renaissance. There are no less than three 
paintings attributed to Titian in the present 
exhibition. In the case of one of these, the so- 
called portrait of Ignatius Loyola (No. 105), the 
attribution is merely a traditional label with no 
pretence to accuracy. It is, however, a remarkably 
good example of Italian seventeenth-century 
portraiture. For the most part the Italians of the 
seicento were content in their portraits to 
harmonize a more or less general and superficial 
view of character with the accepted canons of 
style, but here there is a deeper insight into 
the gloomy intricacies of a powerful and self- 
contained nature ; there is, in fact, something of the 
psychological interest of Northern art, though its 
expression is not free from the rhetorical manners 
of Italian art of the period. In general style and 
in the peculiar pallor of the lights it agrees well 
enough with Salvator Rosa's manner, and would, 
if it be his, justify more than most of his works 
his title oi " pittore delle cose morali". That the 
picture is from life one can hardly doubt, and in 
that case the inscription Ignatius Loyola, though 
apparently of the seventeenth century, can scarcely 
be justified. Unfortunately it is hard to get any 
good evidence of the Saint's appearance whereby 
to decide the question. 

Of the two other works ascribed to Titian, the 
earlier is the Judith with the head of Holofernes 
(No. 43) [Plate i]. It is not unnatural that 
several of the best critics have been unwilling to 
admit that this, by no means perfect, work can 
possibly be by Titian at the height of his technical, 
though not of his imaginative, power; and yet I 
find it difficult to explain its characteristics on any 
other hypothesis. In any discussion of its merits 
it must not be forgotten that the picture has been 
relined at a time when such a process implied 
serious damage, and that only a few parts have 
escaped injury entirely. In places the paint 
has shrunk into disfiguring wrinkles ; elsewhere 
the impasto has been obliterated. In many parts 
of the flesh, the face and hands of Judith for 
instance, the modelling has almost disappeared 
from the effects of the ironing and the subsequent 
retouching, but in those places where the original 
surface remains I find it hard to doubt the evidence 
of Titian's handling. The Judith is very like the 
model of the " Bella ". The pose of the hand on 
the breast is not only too clearly realized for a 
copyist's or imitator's work, it is, moreover, very 
characteristic of Titian, and may be compared to 
the hand of the Isabella 0) Portugal at Madrid. 
The treatment of jewellery is also found frequently 
in Titian's portraits of the 'thirties and 'forties, 


and seems to me highly characteristic. But what 
is to my thinking most conclusive is the curious 
minuteness of the handling. The curls of Holo- 
fernes's hair are painted with minute lines and the 
jewellery is everywhere enlivened by minute points 
of colour. No other Venetian artists, aiming as 
Titian did at great breadth and continuity of 
handling, knew how to introduce as well such 
miniature-like detail. 

The part which has suffered least damage is the 
figure of the attendant which the artist, departing 
from the traditional type, has made an excuse for 
a profile portrait of the same model. The whole 
figure may perhaps have been added as an after- 
thought ; certainly its relation to the principal 
figure is not very definitely ascertained. None the 
less, in the rapid brushwork with which the lights 
are put in on the dull yellow hood and in the 
brilliant and nervous drawing of the hand Titian's 
methods are surely apparent. 

It is of course possible that we have here an 
unfinished work of Titian's which was elaborated 
by one of his followers, but I cannot doubt that 
the design is his and that the main part of the 
actual painting which underlies the extensive 
retouching is also his and that it dates from some- 
where about the year 1540. 

The other picture attributed to Titian, Lord 
Brownlow'sZ)/V7;;rta;/t/^cteo«(No. i54)[FlateII], 
is another work which perhaps scarcely adds to 
Titian's fame though here again the evidence both 
of his design and his execution in parts seems fairly 
strong. It is known that one of the numerous 
mythological pieces which Titian executed for 
Philip II and sent to Madrid was an Actceon torn 
bv dogs. Lord Brownlow's picture is very nearly 
of the same dimensions as the other compositions 
of the series, and in style it agrees with the other 
works done by Titian at this period, namely in and 
around 1560. The type of figure with long limbs 
and small elegant head corresponds closely with 
that of the Andromeda in the Wallace Collection, 
as does also the relation of the figure to the land- 
scape and of the spatial arrangement of the figure. 
It must be admitted that both the colour and a 
great deal of the handling are unworthy of 
Titian. The colour is too uniformly hot and 
brown and this is not entirely due to old varnish. 
The drawing of the group of Actneon and 
the dogs, though the placing and the general move- 
ment is fine, is heavy and dull. The figure of 
Diana, however, is splendidly constructed and 
the design here shows all Titian's power of 
counterchanging silhouettes of light on dark and 
dark on light. Here and there, too, especially in 
the gleam of light on the water, there is something 
of Titian's brilliance and economy of touch. It is 
of course possible that the original picture is lost 
and that we have here a studio replica done under 
Titian's supervision and touched here and there by 












3 u 

Exhibition of Old Masters at the Grafton Galleries 

him ; but I am inclined to think that this is the 
picture referred to in Titian's letter to Philip, though 
one must in that case admit that Titian allowed a 
greater amount of assistant's work on it than on 
any other of the series. 

One of the most important pictures which the 
present exhibition has brought to light also refers 
to Titian in a curious way, though not by him. It 
is the Bacchanal by Nicholas Poussin (No. 39) 
[Plate III], .A comparison with Titian's Baa7/rt;/fl/s 
at Madrid shows how curiously Poussin, for once 
at least, followed what he regarded as the 
dangerous precepts of V'enetian art. For not 
only is the whole theme here based on Titian's 
work, but a number of incidents istaken by Poussin 
and ingeniously twisted to his own purposes. The 
reclining woman in the centre who leans on her 
elbow and stretches out a wine glass to be filled 
by a satyr, is made up by a combination of two 
reclining' women in Titian's group. The indelicate 
putto in Titian is removed by Poussin to a safer 
distance and greater seclusion, but his derivation 
is unmistakeable. The comparison of the original 
and this wonderful revision is interesting for the 
light it throws on Poussin's methods. He has 
abstracted the general lines of Titian's composition, 
the great spiral curve which binds the whole group 
together and ends in the silhouetted hand with the 
wine jar against the sky. Having ascertained this 
schematic basis he has redesigned his figures so as 
to give much greater continuity and more easily 
apprehended relations. Particularly noticeable in 
this connexion is the ingenious design of the 
kneeling satyr, which serves to unite the lower 
loop of the curve with the dancing figures which 
mark its close, and fills a gap left by Titian, or rather 
a place where he allows uprights to infringe on the 
general system. Every^vhere Poussin shows himself 
more self-conscious, more deliberately geometric, 
more learned in his design. Again he has felt that 
the sleeping figure of a Bacchante which fills the 
whole right hand bottom corner of Titian's picture, 
in spite of its extraordinary beauty, was never 
properly harmonized with the rest of the compo- 

sition and has replaced it by a more easily 
subordinated group of still life. The sentiment of 
the two pictures is curiously different in spite of 
the general likeness. There is in Poussin nothing 
of the fervour of Titian's poetic feeling ; indeed the 
picture bears the trace of some curious conflict. 
It would almost seem as though it was a half- 
ironical essay in the Venetian manner, for nowhere 
else does Poussin allow himself such voluptuous 
richness and sweetness of colour. It proves, 
indeed, that he was by nature what he was afraid 
of becoming, a great harmonist. But if the colour 
is lyrical in feeling and suited to the general idea, 
it is contradicted by an almost spiteful and ironical 
insistence on the coarseness of some of the types. 
Such an intellectual and critical attitude as this 
avows cannot but destroy the abandonment of the 
lyrical mood. The execution betrays something 
of the exceptional conditions which one must 
presuppose for this work, for, instead of the suavity 
and economy of a line which seeks for distinction 
sometimes at the risk of emptiness, the drawing 
here is tense and nervous, brilliantly and sharply 
accented, almost staccato in its quality. One 
wonders what it was which made him for the 
moment desert his ideal of a high serene abstrac- 
tion of form and declare himself, almost contemp- 
tuously, to be more brilliant than the virtuosi. 
Brilliant and masterly it certainly is, and with a 
mastery which is more evidently and easily grasped 
than in his more typical works. 

There is a possibility of approximating to the 
date of this picture, since we know that Titian's 
original was in Rome in the Ludovisi Palace until 
1638, when it was presented to Philip IV by 
Cardinal Ludovisi. It is not likely that it was 
done very much before this date, since Poussin's 
earlier Roman works were so thinly painted on a 
bole ground that the red has in course of time 
shown through the scumbles, whereas here the 
impasto is unusually thick and solid, and the 
picture is fortunately, and partly in conse- 
quence of this, in an almost perfect state of 


F all the craftsmen of the eighteenth 
century, Thomas Sheraton has usually 
been held to be the greatest, as regards 
acquaintance with the trade of the 
_^ furniture-maker. Chippendale is better 
known as a designer than as an actual maker — that 
is, one who actually worked at the bench — and of 
the personal capabilities of George Hepplewhite 
very little can be stated with any degree of accuracy, 
as the first edition of the " Cabinet Maker and 

Upholsterer's Guide" was not issued until he had 
been dead nearly two years. The publication of 
a book of designs appears to have been a necessary 
concomitant to fame at this period, and thus 
Sheraton has been described as a cabinet-maker, 
although it is almost certain that he made no single 
piece of furniture, at any rate during his London 
career, and Seddon, Sons and Shackleton, who 
had extensive premises, and were no doubt 
responsible for a good deal of the furniture which 


Thomas Sheraton^ Qahinet Maker 

has usually been ascribed to others, published no 
book, and were therefore unknown until recent 
close researches unearthed their name. 

(~ne so often meets with examples of furniture 
which are not only described as being in the style 
of Sheraton, but are also actually attributed to him, 
that it is a matter for wonder how this fictitious 
reputation originated, and how it was fostered. 
Sheraton's addresses in London are known, and 
the whole of his metropolitan career can be traced. 
He had no workshop worthy of the name, and his 
multifarious occupations, as preacher, writer of 
Scriptural pamphlets and tracts, teacher of drawing, 
writer of books of design, and publisher, could not 
have left him any time to have followed his trade. 
He may have worked as a cabinet maker in 
Stockton-on-Tees, but of this there is really no 
evidence. He came to London at almost the close 
of the eighteenth century, and in his fortieth year. 
The glories of the "Golden Age" of English 
cabinet making had almost departed, and if 
Sheraton did anything at all worthy of note by 
posterity, it was to stay this decline in some 
measure, until at length the current proved too 
strong even for the last of the furniture designers 
of the century, and in the " Cabinet Dictionary " 
he followed the depraved taste for the " English 
Empire" of Thomas Hope, and finally extinguished 
all that had hitherto made English furniture 
esteemed, and the names of Chippendale, Hepple- 
white and Adam renowned in the furnishing history 
of the later eighteenth century. 

There is some negative evidence in the " Cabinet 
Makerand Upholsterer's Drawing Book" indicating 
Sheraton did not work as a cabinet maker during 
his London period. There are numerous references 
to the examples illustrated having been made by 
one or other of the cabinet makers of the day — 
thus a set of library steps " has been made, with 
great success, by Mr. Campbell, upholder to the 
Prince of Wales ", and a certain John Lane is 
referred to as one who specializes in the making 
of knife-boxes. We nowhere find any reference 
to Sheraton himself in the capacity of a maker of 
furniture, and the omission, had such been the case, 
is unthinkable, as Sheraton never missed an 
opportunity of advertising himself. His book, on 
which his fame principally rests, is another curious 
instance of the cranky and spiteful character of the 
man. It was the day of queer titles, Builder's Bench- 
mates, Cabinet Maker's Darlings, Keal Friends 
and the like, and the " Drawing Book " possibly 
aroused no suspicions in the minds of the sub- 
scribers. The demand was for a book of new 
designs, something which would advantage the 
trade and enable the maker of furniture to offer 
something to his patrons in place of the Adam, 
Hepplewhite or Chippendale models which had 
held the field for so many years. Sheraton, 
however, had other ideas. His notion was to 


astound the trade with a display of knowledge on 
the subjects of perspective, the " Five Orders " and 
drawing in general. That nobody wanted such 
instruction mattered little to Sher.iton. He was a 
bigot in publishing as well as in religion. There- 
fore he sets out with a preface in which he vilifies 
other members of the trade, Hepplewhite in 
particular, and he finds fault with Chippendale — 
whose " Director " was, after all, only a glorified 
trade-catalogue — for not wasting space with 
drawing-lessons which were not wanted, to the 
exclusion of designs which were. Adam alone he 
ignores, but then the famous architect was beyond 
his spleen, and he had borrowed too much from 
him to care to call attention to the fact. 

The " Drawing Book " appeared in three parts, 
mainly devoted to perspective-lessons, geometrical 
problems and the " Five Orders." Before the 
issue was completed, however, Sheraton must have 
received some broad hints that this was not exactly 
what the subscribers expected. The result was an 
"Appendix" to the "Drawing Book," and in the 
preface he states : — 

" Here I would beg leave to observe that it is 
natural for every man under a heavy burden to 
pour out his complaint to the first sympathising 
friend he meets with. If the reader be one of 
these, I will pour out mine, by informing him of 
the difficult task 1 have had to please all, and to 
suit the various motives which different persons 
have for encouraging a publication like this". 

The "Accompaniment " follows the "Appendix ", 
owing, possibly, to pressure from the same source, 
and in this latter part occur the descriptions of the 
manufacturing methods as advocated by Sheraton, 
in which particular many of his subscribers were 
better fitted to teach the author, as they were nearly 
all culled from the trade. 

Nearly everyone is acquainted with the latticed 
mouldings in the doors of bookcases and cabinets, 
which are such a distinctive feature of the eighteenth- 
century work. The system of building these up 
with strengthening ribs behind had been known 
in the very early days of Chippendale, as is evident 
from specimens preser\-ed from that date. With 
the earlier work, however, shapings were usually 
avoided in this latticing, as offering difficulties in 
the making. Robert Adam did much to alter radi- 
cally the trade of the cabinet maker by his reckless 
disregard for the nature of the materials which had 
to be used in the making up of his designs. With 
much of his work it would not be correct to say 
that he designed for composition enrichment, but 
that composition was a logical necessity in the 
realization of his creations. He introduced the 
shaped and carved lattice, probably under the 
impression that these mouldings were secured to 
the glass by an adhesive. Hepplewhite followed 
in the steps of Adam in many of the "Guide" 
designs, and he appears to have been puzzled by 

Thomas Sheraton^ Qabinet Maker 

his own patterns, and knowing, as a practical 
cabinet maker would, that the method of sticking 
on glass was an impossible one, he solves the 
difficulty by suggesting that they should be made 
from moulded lead, probably in imitation of some 
of the Adam fanlights, which were actually so 
made. It remained for Sheraton to rush in where 
others had wisely paused, and to suggest a method 
of manufacture' for these shaped lattices, one, 
however, in which he could have had no practical 
experience. The fact was, that these were actually 
made at this period, but only in the London shops. 
They were never attempted, even in the factory of 
a firm as noted as the house of Gillow. A practical 
London craftsman could have instructed Sheraton 
in this particular, but then Sheraton's mission was 
to teach the trade ; it would never have done for 
the master to seek knowledge himself. He 
preferred to follow the ironical advice given by a 
novelist of his period, that, "when on any subject 
you find yourself absolutely ignorant, redouble 
your native assurance and speak with an infallible 
air and with the greatest detail and circumstance. 
Thus you may hope to impose on others as 
ignorant as yourself". 


KiGL'RE I shows a specimen latticed door 
taken from the "Drawing Book", which has 
been selected as it is the one which Sheraton 
chooses in his description of the method of 

manufacture. The following is taken from the 

'' Drawing Book": — 

"The first thing to be done is to draw on a board an oval of 
the full length and breadth of the door. Then take half the 
oval on the short diameter and glue on blocks of deal at a little 
distance from each other, to form a caul ; then on the short 
diameter glue on a couple of blocks, one to stop the ends of the 
veneer with at the time of the gluing, and the other, being 
bevelled off, serves to force the joints of the veneer close, and 
to keep all fast till sufliciently dry. Observe, the half oval is 
formed by the blocks of the size of the astragal, and not the 
rabbet ; therefore consider how broad a piece o( veneer will 
make the astragals for one door, or for half a door. For a 
whole door, which takes eight quarter ovals, it will require the 
veneer to be inch and a quarter broad, allowing for the thick- 
ness of a sash saw to cut Ihem off with. Veneers of this breadth 
may, by proper management, be glued quite close ; and if the 
veneer be straight baited, and all of one kind, no joint will 
appear in the astragal. Two half ovals thus glued up will make 
astragals (or a pair of doors, which, after they have been taken 
out of the cauls and cleaned ofl a little, may be glued one upon 
the other, and then glued on a board, to hold them fast for 
working the astragals on the edge, which may easily be done 
by forming a neat astragal in a piece of soft steel, and fixing it 
in a notched piece of wood, and then work it as a gage ; but 
before you work it, run on a gage for the thickness of the 
astragal, and after you have worked the astragal, cut it off with 
a sash saw by turning the board on which the sweep pieces are 
glued on an edge ; then, having sawn one astragal off, plane 
the edge of your stuff again, and proceed as before. 

" For gluing up the labbet part, it must be observed that a 
piece of dry veneer, equal to the thickness of the rabbet, must 
be forced tight into the caul ; and then proceed as before in 
gluing two thicknesses of veneer for the rabbet part, which will 
leave suflicient hiding for the glass, on supposition that the 
astragal was glued in five. 

" The door being framed quite square, without any moulding 
on the inner edge, proceed to put in the rabbet pieces. Put 
first, an entire half oval, and screw this to the inner edge of the 
door, and level with it : then jump up the other half oval to it, 
and screw it as before, which completes the centre oval. Next 
fix the square part, having been before mitered round a block 
and keyed together, after which, half-lap the other quarter ovals 
into the entire oval where they cross each other ; and into the 
square part, liping (? tiffing) it into the angle of the door, put in 
the horizontal bars for the leaves to rest on, glue on the astragals, 
first on the entire ovals, tying it with pack-thread to keep it on, 
then the straight one on the outer edge of the framing, fitting it 
to the oval lastly, miter the astragal on the square part and every 
other particular will follow of course. 

" With respect to the doors on Plate XXIX, all of them 
may be made on nearly the same principles, at least the 
rabbet parts must ; ... As to fixing any part of the ornaments 
introduced in these doors, this is easily done by preparing a 
very strong gum which will hold on glass almost as strong as 
glue on wood ". 

It is curious that the two who are generally 
regarded as essentially the practical cabinet-makers 
of the later eighteenth century, Hepplewhite and 
Sheraton, should both boggle at these doors with 
shaped astragal lattices. " Hepplewhite and Co." 
frankly cut the Gordian knot by suggesting that 
they should be made in metal and painted. They 
do not pretend to give any succinct directions for 
the manufacture of the pieces which are illustrated 
in the " Guide ", and may therefore be excused for 
ignorance of the construction of these shaped 
lattices ; but what are we to say of Sheraton, the 
practical cabinet-maker, the professed teacher of 
his fellow craftsmen, and one who is never tired of 
pointing out their ignorance and his own superior 
knowledge ? He evidently borrowed the idea of 
these latticed doors from other cabinet-makers, but 


Thomas Sheraton^ Qabinet Maker 

it is more than doubtful whether he ever made a 
single examplevvithhis own hands, or even watched 
the process of manufacture by others. An astragal 
moulding in a door of this kind formed of five 
thicknesses of veneer glued cdgcivise is an absurdity 
which hardly needs pointing out, and the idea of 
" jumping " {i.e., bending) ovals between blocks 
should never have entered the head of a practical 
cabinet-maker. Sheraton's explanation is involved 
— as are all his constructional descriptions in the 
" Drawing Book " — and was probably never 
sufficiently comprehended, even by himself, or the 
notable omission of the method of housing the 
central ribs of the astragals which form the rebates 
for the glass, and the way to secure the glasses 
in, would have occurred to him. He was also 
not aware of the undesirability of internal angles 
if the lattice be constructed in the proper manner 
— which would inevitably cause the glass in the 
sections on either side of the central rectangle 
in the design illustrated in FIGURE I to break 
with any change of temperature. 

To show the contrast between the methods 
described by Sheraton, and those which were 
actually followed in the eighteenth century cabinet 
shops, in the making of these lattice doors, the 
following description of the process of manu- 
facture may be of service. We will take as 
an example the design [FIGURE il as being straight- 
forward, and easy of comprehension, although the 
same methods will apply, in a general sense, to 
other patterns. 

«5ecfions oj jraminq Aid lotTice- 

FIG. a 

back and moulded on the front inside edges with 
an ovolo moulding which will intersect with the 
astragals to be used for the lattice. This is shown 
in Figure 2, where both the ovolo and the astragal 
sections are indicated. The usual way is to polish 
the ovolo before gluing up the framing of the door, 
in order to avoid the " dirty corners " which are 
inevitable when internal moulding angles are 
polished. When the door is framed together a 
panel of deal is cut to fit in the rebate, and on this 
the design of the lattice is carefully set out, with 

oj {indincj mtrzi 
of ikajDCel 
noould'nas on. 

FIG. 3 

double lines of the same distance apart as the 
thickness of the astragal mouldings. Where these 
lines cross, a simple bisection will give the profile 
of the mitre for the intersecting mouldings, as 
illustrated in FIGURE 3. The various shapings are 
next cut out from wood the thickness of the style- 
depth of the ovolo on the framing, or that of the 
astragal. These shapings are, of course, cut the 
same width as the finished astragal, and they are 
then sent to moulding machine to have a bead 
and double fillet worked. In the case of the work of 
the eighteenth century, the astragal would, of 

'c^<rn7/cAir V/-^ Cuf?'- />■ ,v/rr,<yr,/ '^tii'M^, 

The framing of the door is first constructed, 
tenoned, and mortised together, rebated on the 

FIG. 4 

course, be moulded with the " scratcher ", a piece 
of steel cut out to the reverse of the section 
required, and inserted between two pieces of wood 
notched out for the purpose. Figure 4 is an 
example of a primitive " moulding scratcher " 


Thomas Sheraton^ Qabinet Maker 

which is still used in many of the smaller shops, 
especially in country districts. The moulding for 
the central rectangular frame in the door, which 
we are describing, would be worked with a mould- 
ing plane in these shops ; in London or large 
towns the machine would be used for straight and 
shaped pieces alike. This moulding would be 
made in one straight piece and framed up later 
together with the shaped pieces. 

After the astragals have been worked, the uniting 
pieces at the top, bottom and sides would be cut 
out ready for the carver ; but before, the grooves 
for the strengthening fillets which form the double 
rebates would be scratched in these and the astragals. 

tSckI of ctoss/og 

FIG. 5 

Figure 5 shows the astragals grooved with the 
fillets inserted. The astragals are then polished and 
mitred together on the set-out board, and cut in, 
to intersect with the ovolo on the framing of the 
doors, and they are then neatly glued together and 
allowed to set. The backboard is then removed, 
and although the lattice is too weak to stand any 
strain, the gluing of the mitres will hold it sufficiently 
to permit of the fillets being glued in the grooves 
behind. It is presumed that the carved ties at the 
top, bottom and sides of the oval have been made 
and fitted with the lattice. The grooves behind 
in these would run only through the centres, from 
the oval to the framing, the fronds of the honey- 

suckle at the top, for instance, being allowed to 
rest on the glass, secured only by cement or fish- 
glue. The door is now turned over on its face, 
and the fillets, of width just sufficient so as to come 
flush with the inside face of the door when they 
are in position, are put in. To get the maximum 
of strength, these fillets are not mitred, but allowed 
to run through in one length the one way across, 
the transverse being butted or lightly cut in, in a 
V groove, into the other, as shown in FIGURE 5. 
These fillets, being usually only one-eighth of an 
inch in thickness, are bent into shape, instead of 
being cut, thereby avoiding short-grain wood. The 
glass is then cut for the panels formed by the 
rebates on either side of the fillets, and is either 
puttied or beaded in ; the former is more usual, 
and is stronger, although the glasses are more 
difficult to replace in the event of breakage. 
The fitting of the lock, bolts and hinges, and the 
polishing of the flat faces of the framing, complete 
the door, which is then ready for hanging. 

It will be seen from the above that the process 
of constructing these lattice doors is very diiiferent 
from that described by Sheraton in the " Drawing 
Book ". What is also more material for our 
present purpose is, that the method here de- 
scribed is the one which was generally followed 
in the eighteenth-century work. However the 
trifling details may have been varied in different 
shops, the finished result must have been the 
same, as astragals built up of several veneer thick- 
nesses are never found in cabinet and bookcase 
doors of the period. One is forced to the con- 
clusion that the technical training in his craft 
which Sheraton received in his native town did 
not include any experience of the construction of 
lattice doors, although it is characteristic of the 
man that the lack of this knowledge did not pre- 
vent him from instructing his fellow workmen in 
the same way as if he had possessed it. 



Sir H. B. S.\muelson's interesting picture, now 
on exhibition at the Grafton Galleries, excites 
considerable attention and not a few irreverent 
remarks on account of the unusual rendering of 
the subject [Plate]. The representation of the 
"Calf", which is really a healthy, well-developed 
bull careering through the heavens, is quite out of 
keeping with the story as we know it from 
" Exodus ", Chap, xxxii. Sir Claude Phillips, 
in publishing the picture in the "Art Journal" 
(1906, page 4),' expressed himself as puzzled by 
this " vision of menace that shows, with the moon 
on its flank, like some inflamed sign of the Zodiac ". 

*The picture was also reproduced in the Arundel Club's 
portfolio for 1906. 

In the last phrase he has indicated the solution of 
the riddle. This "Golden Calf" is nothing but 
the sign Taurus. About 1460 there was produced 
in Italy a series of engravings of the planets, of 
which the Venus is one of the best known [Plate]. 
They are dealt with by Mr. Hind in his "Catalogue 
of Early Italian Engravings " (Vol. I, pp. 48, etc.)."- 
To his bibliography we may now add the interest- 
ing essay in M. Jacques Mesnil's " L'Art au Nord 
et au Sud des Alpes ". The Venus plates show, 
above, the car of the goddess — the signs Taurus 
and Scales are placed on its wheels — and, below, 
various loving couples making music, dancing and 
otherwise enjoying themselves. I think there can 
be no doubt that Filippino took a suggestion for 

= The Venus reproduced here is A, III, 5, pp. 56 and 57, Vol. II 
of Mr. Hind's Catalogie. 


Notes on Various f Forks of Art 

his picture from these engravings, although he has 
carried out the idea in his own waj'. How far lie 
entertained any theory about the real meaning of the 
worship instituted by Aaron it is difficult to say. The 
animal represented was, according to modern critics, 
not a calf, but a bull ; but they differ as to whether 
it was the bull Apis or some invention of Aaron's 
own for symbolizing the gods of the Israelites, It 
is quite possible that the artist may have had some 
inkling of the fact that bulls were sacred to certain 
oriental goddesses identified by the Greeks with 
Aphrodite, and that accordingly he jumped to the 
conclusion that the worship of the "golden calf " 
was merely a case of Aphrodite worship. Or he 
may, without venturing on "higher criticism", have 
worked simply on the knowledge that, as the text 
of the engraving says, Venus a dita abitazioui, el 
toro dig(i)orno e libra di mite. G. F. Hill. 

In' a critical notice of the pictures in the Poldi- 
Pezzoli Museum at Milan (" Repertorium fiir 
Kunstwissenschaft ", 1888, Vol. XI, 391), Mr. 
Stiasny saj's that the painting, Xo. 23, attributed 
to Quentin Metsys, but bearing many points of 
resemblance to works by Dirk Bouts and the 
master of the S. Bartholomeiv altar-piece in the 
Museum at Coeln, had been recognized as having 
been painted by a Bruges master, homo uoviis, 
unknown to art historians, one Peter Nicolas 
Maraulus. A painting by this master, representing 
the Mass of S. Gregory in the collection of Baron 
C. von Aretin, sold at Munich in November, 1887, 
DICITVR DEN OVDEN SACK. This inscription 
shows that the painter, so far from being a " novus 
homo", is no other than Peter Claeissins(born 1499- 
1500),' who when living in theMarael Street, painted 
the Mass ofS. Gregory in his workshop in the Old Sack 
Street whichat that date wasnot a thoroughfare. As 
there is no copy of the von Aretin sale catalogue 
in the Art Library at South Kensington, 1 shall be 
greatly obliged if any reader of this note can give 
me the name of the purchaser and the price paid, 
or say where this Mass o/S. Gregory now is. Peter 
Claeissins apparently did not acquire the workshop 
in the Old Sack until 1550.- 

I trust that this note will hinder Maraulus's 
name being recorded in any " Dictionary of 
Painters ". 

The miniature-portrait of the Archduchess 
Isabella by Giles Claeissins, 1607 (Biirlinglon 
Magazine XIX, 203), is probably now in the 
National Library at Paris, Sauvageot collection. 
No. 1028 (.08 by .055). 

••See Burlingtdii Magazine, Vol. XIX, p. 198. 

'^AU the docunents relating to the Claeissins have been pub- 
lished by me ia the .imialcs dt la Societ6 d' Emulation of Bruges, 
pp. 2&-76. 

The inventory of the collection of the Duke of 
Aerschot at the castle of Beaumont, drawn up by 
Novilliers in 161 3, mentions a series of si.\ circular 
panels representing episodes in the life of Joseph 
attributed to Roger Van der Weyden. In 1863 I 
described (" Le Beffroi ", 1,351) two panels in the 
Abel collection at Stuttgart, which almost certainly 
formed part of the series. Two others in the 
San Donate Gallery were sold at Paris in 1870. 
On the border of the tunic of the principal figure 
in one of the latter is the inscripton lOSEPH DE 
DROMERE, Joseph the dreamer (Genesis x.v.\vii, 
19). These four panels, now in the Berlin Gallery 
(Nos. 539 A-D) are attributed to one Joseph De 
Bromere, a painter whose namie is nowhere 
recorded and for whose existence there is no more 
evidence than for Dr. Waagen's lARENVS. 

W. H. J. W. 

The interest attaching to the treatment of classical 
or mythological subjects by the artists of the 
Renaissance is so great that it seems worth while 
to call attention to the scene described and illus- 
trated as Medea and Pelias in Mr. Mitchell's 
article on "The Limoges Enamels in the Salting 
Collection " {Bnrlington Magazine, No. 104, 
Vol. XX, p. 84 and PI. 1 1).' He mentions " Medea 
seething the ram in a cauldron, with Pelias lying 
on the ground in front". A glance at that plate, 
or better still, at the original (to the exquisite 
tones of which no reproduction can do justice), 
reveals no ram in the cauldron, and the omission 
of so essential a detail suggests that we may have 
to deal with another of the revivifications ascribed 
to Medea in the very complex legends connected 
with her. Following the way shown long ago by 
Wickhoff, we may lay it down as a general rule 
that the artists of the Renaissance were always 
guided by some literary source in their represent- 
ations of legendary or historical scenes ; and it 
becomes a question of identifying the author and 
the passage which is most likely to have been in 
their hands. No work of the kind would be better 
known in France about the middle of the sixteenth 
century than the " Metamorphoses " of Ovid, and 
when we turn to the stories about Medea in 
Book VII, we find the scene of which we are in 
search, exactly as it is represented in the enamel. 
It is not the death of Pelias (which is described in 
lines 299-349), but the revivification of .<Cson, the 
father of Jason C162-293). Jason entreats his 
wife to restore youth to his father, " iam proprior 
leto fessusque senilibus annis" (163). Medea 
consents, and, after a nine days' quest for magical 
herbs, returns and carries out the experiment : — 

CoHititit adveniens citra limcnque forcsque ; 
Et tantum caelo tegitur : refugitque viriles 

' [On pages 78 and 84 of Mr. Mitchell's article, Plate II should 
read Plate III, and vice versa.— ^u.] 











Contactjs ; statuitque aras e cespile binas ; 
Dexterlore Hecates, at lK%-a parte luventae. 
Has uhi verbenis silvaque incinxit agresti ; 
Haud procul egesta scrobibus tellure duabus 
Sacra facif. 


The sacrificial rites are followed by an invocation 
of the infernal powers, and then Medea proceeds: — 

Quos ubi placavit precibusque et murmure longo, 

iEsonis effetum proferri corpus ad aras 

lussit : et in pler.os retolutum carmine somnos, 

txanimi similem, stralis port exit in herbis. 

Hinc procul ^sonidem, procul binciubet ire minislro?; 

Et monet arcanis ocu os removere profanes. 

Diffugiunt iussi. Sparsis Medea capillis, 

Bacchantum ritu, flagrantes clrcuil aras, 

Multifidasque faces in fossa sanguinis atra 

Tingit, et intinctas geminisaccendit in aris, 

Terque senem fJamma, ter aqua, ter sulfure luslrat. 

Interea calido positum medicamen aeno 

Fervet et exsultat, spumisquetumentibusalbet. (251-263.) 

The mixing of the magical ingredients in the 
cauldron follows, and here comes the moment 
chosen by the artist for his representation : — 

His et mille aliis postquam sine nomine rebus 

Propositi m instruxit mortali barbara munus, 

Arenti ramo iampridem mius olivse 

Omnia confudit, summisque immiscuit ima. 

Ecce vetus calido versatus stipes aeno 

Fit viridis primo: nee longo tempore frondem 

Induit. et subito gravidis oneratur olivis. (275-281.) 

The operation is then completed, and ^^son is 
restored to the vigour of youth. 

All the essential details of this description occur 
in the Salting plaque. The scene takes place in 
the open air in front of the house or palace of 
i^son. To the right and left (not, of course, of 
the spectator, but of the priestess standing as it 
were between them) are the altars (not "of turf" 
which would not be sufficiently ornamental for our 
artist) of Hecate with her three faces ("diva 
triformis", line 177) holding perhaps the magic 
wand and a cup of incense or magical ingredients, 
and of Youth with a palm branch. Round the 
base of the latter are placed the sprays of foliage, 
traced in gold and therefore barely visible in the 
reproduction. In the foreground lies the form of 

Notes on Various Works of Art 

iEson, sunk in a death-like slumber, while the 
figure of Jason may be seen retiring up the palace 
stairs, in obedience to Medea's command, and the 
three men in the middle distance are, perhaps, the 
"ministri" also bidden to depart. Medea, "like 
a Bacchante", unrobed and with loosened hair, 
stands by the steaming cauldron. Behind her are 
the vessels used in the rites which she has just 
performed (246), and the basket of ingredients 
which she has collected. One of these, a spray of 
red berries and green leaves, she is about to drop 
into the seething mixture which she stirs with the 
olive branch held lightly in her right hand. This 
is, no doubt, the exact moment chosen for the 
representation, as the olive rod is drawn in gold 
to show that it is withered as described by Ovid 
before it turned green and bore fruit after contact 
with the magic concoction (279-281). Two other 
details may be noticed, the meaning of which is 
not clear. The recumbent ^^^son is propped up 
on draper}- and (apparently) on an urn or vessel (of 
gilt bronze like the cauldron and the pedestals of 
the images), from the mouth of which a stream of 
blue liquid flows away to the right. Perhaps it is 
the artist's version or the" two trenches " described 
by Ovid as filled with the blood of the victims and 
the libations (243-247) ; but it looks almost as if he 
had taken for his model one of the well-known 
figures of river gods reclining with the symbolical 
urn under the arm, and had left this detail un- 
altered. Between the figures of Hecate and Youth 
stands a tall pyramidal object (violet in colour, and 
therefore not of metal) with concave sides. Its 
base is hidden by a ridge of grass, and it appears 
to be standing by the side of the road where the 
three men are conversing in the middle distance. 
The only suggestion that occurs to me is that it 
represents a sepulchral monument of the type 
familiar to the artists and antiquaries of the 
Renaissance from the examples existing in their 
time along the ancient roads in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Rome. 



To the Editors of The Burlington Mag.\zine. 
Gentlemen,— With reference to Mr. Lionel 
Cust's account of the recently discovered portrait 
of Thomas Cromwell by Holbein, published in 
the October number of The Burlington Magazine 
(Vol. XX, page 5), it is of interest to note that in 
Cromwell's accounts, preserved in the Record 
Office, there is the following entry under 4th 

January, 1538 ; " Hans, the painter, 40s." This 
payment would suggest that, in all probability, 
Holbein painted the miniature (now in Mr, 
J. Pierpont Morgan's collection) at some date 
between August and December, 1537, in honour 
of Cromwell's creation as a Knight of the Garter, 
and presented it to his patron as a new year's 
gift, receiving in return a present of forty shillings. 
Yours faithfully, 

Arthur B. Chamberlain. 




The Painters of Japan. By Arthur Morrison. 

Jack. £i 53. net. 
The European amateur who ventures to set his 
foot on the wide shore of Oriental art will traverse 
its first sunny slopes with the exhilaration which 
attends discovery. But if this exhilaration moves 
him to advance further and wet even one cautious 
toe in the sea of Oriental art-history, he finds that 
he is on the verge of a shivering, shifting quick- 
sand. Not only do artists' names change and 
multiply with bewildering rapidity, so that a casual 
acquaintance with Chinese and Japanese characters 
becomes almost useless ; not only do authorities 
both in Europe and the East seem uncertain or at 
variance as to the authorship of a considerable 
portion of their treasures, but the records of the 
artists themselves are scanty, not infrequently 
contradictory, and often obviously fictitious. 
Gradually the field of Japanese colour-printing 
has been more or less mapped out, and of recent 
years the spirit of Oriental art in general has been 
the subject of some delightful studies, among 
which Mr. Laurence Binyon's " Painting in the 
Far East" is perhaps the most serviceable and 
familiar. But even Mr. Binyon does not really 
dive into that treacherous sea of historj- — his 
wings are strong enough to let him skim over its 
surface — and so to Mr. Arthur Morrison belongs 
the credit of making the first real plunge. In 
saying this the great sei^vices rendered to the study 
of Oriental art by men like Dr. Anderson and 
M. Gonse must not be forgotten, nor such accu- 
mulations of valuable material as that made 
by Professor Giles in connexion with painting in 
China. But Mr. Morrison has had access to many 
sources of information which were not available 
for earlier writers. He is at least not inferior to 
them in his zeal as a collector, and he has subjected 
his material to patient scrutiny, both personal and 
external, which gives us confidence in the stability 
of his results. 

By discarding a strictly chronological arrange- 
ment, and treating separately the various schools 
into which the artists of Japan may be grouped, 
he has done much to remove the misconception 
and confusion which are incurred by treating side 
by side painters of widely different origin, training 
and aims ; and the mere addition of a chrono- 
logical table would make his work quite proof 
against criticism on the score of planning. Mr. 
Morrison's reputation in other fields of literature is 
a guarantee of clear, concise and forcible ex- 
pression ; while his frankness in facing quite 
insuperable tangles of evidence indicates how 
much judgment and research have been employed 
in reducing a vast mass of mixed material to 
reasonable and compact shape. 

The one serious criticism which can be brought 
against the bock is the absence of references. This 
defect applies not so much to the literary sources 
from which Mr. Morrison has derived his 


information (for these, if they were to be ransacked 
anew, would be ransacked only by men who had 
erudition enough to search and find for themselves) 
as to the illustrative material which the average 
European student so badly requires. The per-ma- 
nent value of such a work as this depends after all 
upon the quality of its subject-matter, and that 
quality can be judged only by Japanese paintings 
or by good reproductions of llum. In illustrating 
his book, with comparatively few exceptions, from 
examples in his own famous collection, Mr. 
Morrison has both justified his own enthusiasm, 
and shown us how extensive and representative a 
collection he has foi med. But hardly any Japanese 
artist, except perhaps some of the Tosa painters, 
can be judged from one or two examples. Most 
of the famous men were masters of more than one 
style and of more than one class of subject, so that 
it is only from a number of carefully selected 
examples that we can really form an idea of their 
talent. Moreover, copies and dubious attributions 
are so common that even native connoisseurs adopt 
a cautious tone. So in attempting a final estimate 
of any man's genius, we have to rely almost wholly 
on the comparatively few works which Japanese 
critics and Japanese tradition agree in regarding as 
certainly from his hand. 

Many of these works were exhibited at Shepherd's 
Bush last year, and will never be seen in Europe 
again. Many more are accessible through the 
reproductions in Japanese publications such as the 
" Selected Relics" and "The Kokka". Sometimes 
even the letterpress of "The Kokka" might have 
deserved a footnote. For instance, Mr. Morrison 
dismisses curtly the sixteen native styles of rock- 
painting; a brief reference (K. 196) would havegiven 
the reader a chance of discovering what these 
" Mountain Wrinkles " were like. But in the case of 
the illustrations such references would have been 
universally helpful, and once or twice they seem 
positively called for. In connexion with Kano 
Motonobu, for example, Mr. Morrison calls attention 
to the collection of his works in the Reiun-In 
monastery, but illustrates without comment a land- 
scape which is a compressed version of one of 
those very pictures. In another case, that of 
Watanabe Kwazan, the illustration conveys no 
idea of that master's spirited and trenchant style 
in dealing with bird life. A delightful work by the 
swordsman Musashi (Niten) is described with just 
enthusiasm : again a reference to the collotype 
reproduction in "The Kokka" would have enabled 
the reader to share his author's delight. It is no 
use talking of some masterpiece in the possession 
of this or that remote Japanese temple, or of this 
or that (probably still more remote) Japanese 
marquis. Where wonderful reproductions are 
within reach, references to them will give us a far 
better idea of Japanese art than the most eloquent 
description of distant inaccessible originals. The 
average student of Japanese ait will thus be wise 

Reviews and Notices 

to supplement the already lavish and excellent 
illustrations in Mr. Morrison's book by as complete 
a series of reproductions as he can gather from 
native works like those we have mentioned. Mr. 
Morrison's sumptuous page is exactly adapted to 
such Grangerizing, and thus amplified, his book 
would be the most complete as well as the most 
scholarly guide to its subject which Europe is 
likely to produce for some time to come. 

As in questions of authenticity Mr. Morrison 
tends to be rather more positive than the average 
native connoisseur, so in his attitude towards 
Japanese painting as a whole he is almost more 
orthodox. For example, he is an uncompromising 
champion of the landscapes painted in the style of 
the so-called " Northern " school of China, which, 
though they may bear names as great as that of 
Kano Motonobu, and have an august tradition to 
back them, do not seem to be accepted by the 
modern Japanese critics without considerable 
qualification, Certainly this is the side of Japanese 
painting which the European student finds it 
hardest to admire, often exhibiting, as it does, all 
the mannerisms of its Chinese models, without the 
profound feeling for wild and solitary nature 
which, with the Sung and Yuan masters, makes us 
forget such defects. With the subjects of the 
" Southern " school the Japanese genius was more 
in sympathy. The same spirit and refinement 
which we note in Keion, Mitsunaga and the other 
early Fosa masters give a new life to the treatment 
of birds and flowers and foliage by the Kano 
school. Later they reach their culmination in the 
work of Koyetsu, Sotatsu, and Korin ; while with 
the Ukiyoye colour-printers we have a third and 
final renaissance covering a much wider field, 
though one which is, strictly speaking, outside the 
bounds of painting. The colour-printers have so 
much of the genuine Japanese spirit as to be a less 
misleading introduction to Japanese painting than 
would appear to be the case at first sight. It is 
easy to pass from them to Korin and Sotatsu, and 
thence to the Tosa painters is but one step more. 
The Buddhist painters and the Kano School in any 
case neid a separate education and one that 
logically starts in China. If Mr. Morrison there- 
fore will complete his task by doing for China 
what he has done for Japan in the volumes before 
us, we shall be able to begin our study of Oriental 
art at the proper place, as he would like us to do. 

E. S. 

Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones. By 

Edgar Gorer and J. F. Blacker. 2 vols. Bernard 
Qaaritch. £\.o lOi. net. 

These two volumes together form a sumptuous 
album with two hundred and fifty-four plates all in 
colour, of which twenty-five are devoted to jade and 
other hard stones. The text, which is rendered in 
French as well as English, consists of a short intro- 
duction and full descriptions appended to each 

plate. The main object of the work is to furnish a 
series of " reproductions in actual colours of all the 
most sought-for types" for "those who desire to 
study and compare the typical examples of the 
great periods," and there is no doubt that such a 
book is most welcome as a comprehensive record 
of beautiful objects which have themselves mostly 
passed beyond the reach of the collector and 
student. Many of the pieces have already been 
seen in the collections formed by Sir William 
Bennett and Mr. Richard Bennett, a few may be 
found in the Salting collection at the Victoria and 
Albert Museum and in the Franks collection at the 
British Museum, but the rest are in private hands and 
consequently not easy of access. The importance 
of such a work as this primarily consists in the 
selection and execution of the illustrations, and in 
these respects the present volumes fully realize the 
aims and hopes of their authors. The actual 
ground covered, it is true, forms but a part of the 
wide field of " Chinese porcelain ", and the title 
must be interpreted in a limited sense only. In 
fact, with about a dozen exceptions, the whole range 
of the selected porcelain is covered by the century 
aad a half from 1650 to i8oo. It is true that the 
free use of the word Ming would imply a larger area, 
but that is a point which will be discussed presently. 
The authors have deliberately chosen this short but 
brilliant and prolific period to the exclusion of all 
else, and within their self-prescribed limits they have 
certainly provided the finest imaginable exhibition. 
Indeed where every example is of such remark- 
ably high quality it would be difficult to pick out 
any individual specimen for special mention. 
There is such an amazing number of large vases 
with black, green or yellow grounds, and of the 
costly porcelain with decoration " enamelled on 
the biscuit ", that the sated admirer turns 
almost with feelings of relief to the lovely vase 
on Plate 107 on which the charming design 
of rockery and birds in a flowering prunus tree 
stands out against a clear white glaze. The choicest 
famillc vcrle, blue and white, jamiUe rose and egg- 
shell follow one another in bewildering profusion, 
and a few fine examples of Ming, decorated in 
deini grand feu glazes, complete the gallery of 
masterpieces. Among the later wares, the rare 
altar set (Plate 200), comprising a tripod incense 
vase, two pricket candlesticks and two beakers in 
millc Jlenrs decoration, forms a striking illustration, 
and it would be hard to imagine anything more 
delicately beautiful than the eggshell vase on Plate 
213. For the objects themselves there can be 
nothing but admiration, and the colour reproduc- 
tions are probably as good as can be obtained by 
four-colour and similar processes. The e.xact 
rendering of the subtle shades of porcelain colours 
is almost beyond the power of the plate-maker, 
but the colours in this work are certainly far above 
the average, and the effect on the whole is 


Reviews and Notices 

excellent. There is one difficulty of reproduction 
which seems to have been deliberately disregarded, 
and that is the rendering of the light and shade on 
the rounded surfaces. The claim of the authors that 
" the pictures presented are as perfect and artistic 
as they possibly could be " can hardly be upheld in 
this respect. The defect is negligible in the 
heavily coloured pieces or where the surface is 
angular or rugged, but wherever there is an 
expanse of white ground, as in some of the 
large panels (e.g.. Plates 134 and 135), and on the 
necks of the blue vases (Plate 140), an unnatural 
flatness results, and the while porcelain fades into 
the surrounding field. Among the single colours 
the pale uniform dair dc litne suffers from want of 
modelling, while the more broken tints of the sang 
de bccuf are excellently given, notably in Plates 
162 and 165, which are conspicuously successful. 
It is a matter of regret that the text of this book 
is hardly worthy of the brilliant objects which it 
describes. The claim that "these descriptions can 
be regarded as educational " is scarcely justified 
in face of the numerous errors which they contain. 
The preparation of so extensive a catalogue 
demands a profounder and more accurate know- 
ledge than the authors seem to possess. The 
writers of the descriptions display, it is true, great 
aptitude in the delineation of the objects before 
them, and they have amassed considerable stores 
of information from unacknowledged sources on 
the symbolism of the decoration, but their knowledge 
is imperfectly assimilated. Many of the mistakes in 
the catalogue of the Richard Bennett collection have 
been emended, but hislions arestill occasionally kilins, 
and his " sea-monsters " are lions. " Kilins, or dogs 
of Fu " (Plate 83), is a double mistake for " lions, or 
dogs of Fo ". A true kilin on the other hand is 
described as lung ma, or dragon horse (Plate 158). 
All his horses are " horses of Mu Wang ", though 
those celebrated steeds do not appear once in the 
book. The yellow on Plate 59 " under the glaze", 
the decoration on Plate 37 "outlined in a warm tone 
of Chinese ink " [Pl.\te], and the " rouge defer under 
the glaze " on Plate 199 are technical blunders 
all suggesting impossibilities. The "hundred 
antiques" (po ku) is a conventional collection of 
symbolical ornaments and has nothing to do with 
the Hsiian Ho po ku tu lu, or "illustrated 
description of the antiquities of the Hsiian palace". 
What is meant by " decorated with the coloured 
enamels in glazes of the old period" (Plate 195), 
"with the three colours of san ts'ai " (Plate 58), 
" Artats or Lohan, a modern modification of the 
archaic disciples of Buddha" (Plate 213)? These 
are a few examples of many confusions, blunders 
and misleading statements, which are in no way 
compensated for by sentences couched in learned 
phraseology,such as," reserves of the c/i/(<t;i,ri?/!(;;i«;f 
or Japanese makemono form ", to describe a panel 
in the shape of a picture scroll. The task of 


naming figures of Chinese deities is extremely 
difficult and mistakes are pardonable, but at least 
half of the names attached to the figurines should be 
queried. Plate 23 is simply a husbandman on an 
o.x. Shou Lao (Plate 68), Kuan Ti (Plates 77, 85 
and 87), Kuei Hsing (Plate 79), " Kou Loung" 
(Plate 94), Milo Fo and Kuan Yin (Plate 229) are 
more than doubtful. The three Gods of Light 
(Plate 84) are equally apocryphal, and their 
"hieratic tablets of jade" are courtiers' sceptres, 
the use of which, to cover the face, is shown on 
Plate 118. With regard to the important question 
of dates, the beautiful dish on Plate 171 is almost 
certainly a late imitation and not a Sung piece, and 
the indiscriminate dating of "on biscuit" colours, 
whether in vases or figures, to the Ming period 
cannot be seriously defended. No adequate reason 
is given, and the ascription is purely arbitrary and 
not even consistently followed, for while Plate 16 is 
Ming, Plates 17 and 18 are K'ang Hsi, though the 
distinctions are not at all apparent, and the descrip- 
tion of the pair of yellow-ground vases on 
Plate 53 as "early Ming" is quite fantastic. The 
same system is applied to some of the single colours 
and results in a contradiction in terms on Plate 16$, 
where the name Lang yao is derived from K'ang 
Hsi's viceroy and a vase of that description is 
labelled "Ming period". These attributions are 
contrary to the reasoned opinion of all serious 
students, among whom the late Dr. Bushell was 
not the least, and though prevalent in auction 
catalogues and trade descriptions, their appearance 
in any serious work is to be deprecated. The short 
introduction is full of misapprehensions and 
mistakes, and the avoidance of " reference to marks 
and seals" except in isolated cases, is a policy 
which many readers will regret. Yet in spite of the 
drawbacks of the text these two volumes are for 
their beautiful illustrations a valuable possession 
and an extremely reasonable purchase. 


The Architecture of the Renaissance in 

France, a History of the Evolution of the Arts of 
Building, Decoration and Garden Design under Classical 
Influence from 1495 to 1830. By W. H. Ward, M.A., 
Architect. 2 vols. B. T. Batsford. 30i, net. 
It has been sometimes felt that there is in this 
country a dearth of writers and thinkers about the 
Fine Arts whose works have not only a serious 
aim, but are founded on a genuine knowledge of 
the subject with which they are concerned. This 
notion, which the existence of The Bndlitgton 
Magazine goes some way to dispel, can hardly be 
maintained in the case of Architecture, upon 
which the literature in late years has been so 
plentiful as to be almost indigestible. We are m 
some doubt as to whether this exuberant output is 
due to a cacoelhes scribendi on the part of architects 
themselves, or to the patriotic zeal of Mr. Batsford 
in proving to the world at large that books on 

#1 £,. 
$ IT' 


V I 

Reviews and Notices 

artistic subjects can be as well written, as well 
printed, and as well illustrated in this country as 
in any other, and this at a comparatively mod- 
erate price. We incline to the latter view, because 
we feel that Mr. Ward, who has already made his 
name as a writer on French architecture, would 
probably have had some difficulty in finding his 
public without the kindly aid of j\Ir. Batsford. It 
is unnecessary for us to allude once more to the 
excellent and handy form in which such an im- 
portant book has been produced. Mr. Batsford^s 
publications may be said to be ho]S concoiirs in this 
respect. If we have any criticisms to offer, this 
will be upon the author's share in the publication, 
and we must begin with the title of the book 
itself. We are inclined to dispute thft author's 
right to extend the term " Renaissance " to such 
" styles, whether of building or decoration, which 
are ultimately based on classical architecture 
from the re-introduction of classical forms at the 
Renaissance to the revival of Gothic in the nine- 
teenth century ". The Renaissance was a definite 
period in the history of the Fine Arts, the range 
of which can be defined with some accurac)-. The 
posthumous results of the Renaissance can hardly 
be credited to the Renaissance itself, since they are 
really the outcome of a national character working 
its way through a Renaissance atmosphere. To 
speak of Le Vau, Mansart, or Oppenordt as 
Renaissance artists is as unacceptable as it would 
be to speak of Rubens, Lebrun, and Fragonard in 
the same way. The Madeleine and Versailles are as 
far removed from Fontainebleau as Fontainebleau is 
from Beauvais or Notre Dame. They belong to a 
different age and a different spirit, the classical 
predilection being a symptom of the age and not a 
mere recrudescence of the embers of a smouldering 
Renaissance. Apart from the title of the book the 
fact remains that Mr. Ward has given us a most 
valuable and encyclopaedic compendium of French 
architecture for three and a half centuries. Like 
most architects, he is too matter-of-fact to be 
literary, and the voluminous extent of the informa- 
tion compressed into these two volumes militates 
against their being easy reading for the ordinary 

France, up to the close of the Napoleonic order, 
presents to the student of architecture, both as 
builder and artist, an inexhaustible field of interest. 
Indubitably great as was the influence of Italian 
architecture in France during the sixteenth century, 
we are disposed to disagree with Mr. Ward in his 
assertion that from the last years of the fifteenth 
century Italy intervenes in a decisive manner in the 
destinies of French art. We are inclined to main- 
tain that with the extinction of the house of Valois 
French art and French architecture began to assert 
itself as a distinctly national growth, illustrative of 
its time and its people, but in itself essentially 
French, even during the Palladian era, until the neo- 

Hellenic revolution, brought about by the discoveries 
and publications of the Society of Dilettanti, which 
resulted in an attack of Anglomania, leading to the 
pseudo-Greek archaism of the Napoleonic period, 
and the inevitable reaction towards a medieval 
or Gothic revival in the 19th century. This and 
much more besides can be discovered in Mr. Ward's 
exhaustive narrative, even if its readers come to 
different conclusions about the development of 
architecture in France. Space forbids us to criticize 
these volumes in greater detail, but we can add 
that their size renders them quite possible as well 
as desirable companions to the student tourist in 
France. L. C. 


"Gift Books" and "Christmas Books" are 
becoming terms of contempt, signifying books 
which the buyer does not care to keep in his own 
possession. Very many books bought for presents 
at Christmas-time are, in our hurried lives, mere 
vehicles for the expression of goodwill or social 
amenity. They are ordered in the mass, and the 
choice of them may as well be left to the con- 
venience of our bookseller. They represent the 
taste neither of the giver nor of the receiver. The 
following notes include books of this class, and 
custom accords to these an indulgent standard of 
criticism. The critic responds for the moment to the 
holiday mood of the public. But since indis- 
criminate giving is not universal and gifts are still 
sought for which will represent to the receiver the 
giver's appreciation of his taste, other books which 
aim at rendering their solid quality attractive to 
the eye are also included here. The reader will 
discriminate between these classes in the case of 
each book, and he should do so not by the length 
of the review, but by the tone in which the partic- 
ular reviewer speaks. Publishers tell us that the 
flood of colour-illustrations in general shows signs 
of abating, and particularly that there is a marked 
decrease in the reproduction of landscape-draw- 
ings. We are glad to hear it ; landscapes re- 
produced in colour are particularly futile, for 
they seldom add anything to the text and suggest 
nothing of themselves. We should be still gladder 
if a decrease in colour-illustration generally were 
to make room for the older manual processes, while 
the remnant of excellent craftsmen — wood- 
engravers especially — still survives. Their craft 
gave artistic value to a large body of illustrations 
having little value in design ; the colour processes 
add none, and too often deprive the originals of the 
value which they may possess. 

(a) From Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton we 
have received " The Idylls of the King ", with 
some twenty illustrations in colour by Miss 
Fortescue Brickdale. The original water-colour 
drawings were shown at the Leicester Galleries a 
few weeks ago. Unfortunately a good deal has 


Reviews and Notices 

been lost in reproduction, but on the whole the 
artist will seem to her admirers by no means 
unsuccessful in this task. (B) Uniform in size and 
price the same publishers have issued an edition 
of "The Compleat Angler" with pleasing colour 
illustrations by Mr. James Thorpe. The printing 
of both books has been well executed, and they 
make handsome volumes. (C) From the same 
publishing house comes a volume of " Stories from 
the Arabian Nights" retold by Mr. Laurence 
Housman, with the well-known drawings in colour 
by Mr. Edmund Dulac, first published in a larger 
volume some years ago. (d) Equally attractive 
are Mr. Reynolds's plates illustrating a sumptuous 
edition of "David Copperfield ". (E) "The 
' Flower of Gloster ' " is the title of a book in 
which Mr. E. Temple Thurston describes a voyage 
by canal-barge from O.^ford via Banbury, Warwick, 
Stroud, and the "Golden Valley" to Inglesham, 
where the canal joins Thames thirty miles above 
O.Kford. Of the si.\ illustrations in colour, made 
on the spot by Mr. W. R. Dakin, that of the bridge 
at Kempsford is perhaps the best, but the 
numerous reproductions of his chalk drawings 
scattered throughout the boDk add greatly to 
the attractions of what should prove a popular 
volum;. (f) In "O.Kford Illustrated by Pen and 
Cam2ra", Mr. H2ary Taunt has brought together 
over two hundred pages of photographic repro- 
ductions showing the most picturesque views, and 
the most interesting scenes in the University City. 
Tnere mast hz few w'.io kno.v "that sweet city 
with her dreaming spires " who will not be grateful 
to Mr. Taunt as the author, illustrator, and publisher 
of a volume so full of reminiscences. (G) If so 
well established a classic as White's "Selborne" 
needs illustrating in colour, Mr. Collins shows 
himself quite suited for the task. He is successful 
in depicting some of the most charming scenes in 
and about the little Hampshire village where 
White lived and wrote. But the most appropriate 
edition of the "Natural History" is an eighteenth- 
century volume for the pocket. (H) Though the 
illustrations of this edition of " Ingoldsby " are 
somewhat crude, so is the humour of the rhymes, 
and they will probably please the same people. 
Mr. Ta^akjr has the right kind of imagination for 
his work and avoids imitation, which must have 
been rather diffi:ult. The Drumnaer Boy of 
Salisbury Plain is a good figure of its kind. (l) 
Mr. Charles Robinson is a successful illustrator 
within his own field, and should not have allowed 
himself to be enticed out of it by publishers' 
ambition. Nobody could illustrate "The Sensi- 
tive Plant" ; and Mr. Robinson appeals in vain for 
assistance to Monticelli, Fantin-Latour and 
several inferior artists in his full-page pictures, and 
to Aubrey Beardsley in his end-paper. The con- 
sequence is an amalgam of antagonistic styles. 
Individual taste in literature and the imitative arts 

is by no means equal in degree, but Mr. Robinson 
illustrations can scarcely appeal to the same people 
who appreciate the criticism of the poem in 
Mr. Edmund Gosse's introduction. (j) Seven 
stories by Hans Andersen arc selected as text to 
some two dozen colour-prints from Mr. Edmund 
Dulac's elaborate drawings on those themes. As 
usual, the artist employs his great skill to best effect 
in tones of blue, and instinctively avoids inharmoni- 
ous contrasts in polychrome. His fertility in 
imaginative design does not increase ; the undraped 
figures which he introduces into his designs have still 
the merit of being nude and not looking stripped. 
Could he carry this faculty with him into picture- 
painting? He is wise, probably, in sticking to his 
own lasts. A town at night, with falling snow 
(p. II), illustrating "The Snow Queen"; the 
Chinese boatman listening to the nightingale 
(p. 8i); the music-master writing his treatise 
(p. loi) ; and the weavers making the emperor's 
new clothes (p. 209) are the best of the illustrations. 
The book is attractively produced, though its 
elaboration entirely misrepresents the simplicity of 
Hans Andersen, (k) Mr. Folkard's illustrations 
are of the Dulac type, but he does not profit so 
much as he might by the direct economy ot 
Mr. Dulac's early work. He is far too " handy " 
with his lines, which need more quality and less 
quantity. His imagination is very slight and he 
wisely chooses scenes of grotesque humour whenever 
he can. Grimm's imps and dwarfs suit him best, 
but he translates even these into terms derived 
from the British school of caricature. Though he 
does not detract much from the immemorial stories, 
he does not add much to them : he leaves that to 
Ruskin's preface, (l) A large proportion of Mr. 
Hugh Thomson's "scratchy" lines does not signify 
much, but his figures are probable and not un- 
pleasant to the eye. He seems to work with a 
pen and ink and to wash in pale tints over this 
pen-work. The result is quite pleasing but has 
not much character. He avoids all ugliness, and 
in that interprets Sheridan ; but " The School for 
Scandal " is surely pleasanter to read in a more 
portable form. In this respect the book appeals to 
us as a "gift-book" in the contemptuous sense, 
but it is a nice one and may safely be included 
even in a short list. The publishers have decked 
it in a really gay cover. Mr. Thomson's original 
drawings may be seen at Messrs. Brown and 
Phillips' Galleries in Leicester Square. Appreciation 
of the poems in two illustrated volumes (M and N) 
is omitted here not because the books have been 
placed in the hands of a reviewer uninterested in 
verse, but because such criticism is not the business 
of this Magazine. It is unwise of a poet to confuse 
the first impressions of his work by interpreting it 
in terms of any other art. He does so at his 
peril, even if he acts as his own illustrator ; but 
he is rasher still if he trusts his work to another 


Reviews and Notices 

artist, and rashest of all if the artist be one of 
Mr. Lionel Lindsay's calibre. Mr. Osmaston is 
known as an amateur of the arts who practises 
them from his own point of view, a philosophical 
rather than a purely artistic one. Mr. Guthrie's 
illustrations do not add to the effect of Mr. 
Osmaston's verse, but they represent sincere effort 
which seems to be based on William Blake's 
designs, and in some instances, on his wood- 
engravings. More credit must be given to Mr. 
Griffyth Fairfax than the supposition that the 
drawings illustrate the poems any better than they 
decorate them. Either Mr. Fairfax or Messrs. 
Smith, Elder, or both, committed a great error of 
judgment in publishing the work cf a little-known 
writer in the present environm.ent. (Oj Mr. Lee 
Warner gives new life to the Baroness von Hugel's 
translation and M. Thoreau-Dargin's original text 
by presenting it in a very attractive form, and 
especially by entrusting the choice and annotation 
of the illustrations to the taste ar.d judgment of a 
connoisseur of the arts so distinguished as Mr. Hill. 
Mr. Hill and Mr. Warner between them have gone 
a long way towards reducing the unpleasant com- 
bination of illuminated reproductions and printer's 
ink. There are six illustrations of works by such 
painters as Sano di Pietro, Benedetto Bonfigli and 
Fiorenzo di Lorenzo reproduced by colour-blocks, 
and sixteen others in half-tone, all greatly increased 
in interest by Mr. Hill's learned and always 
perfectly apposite and lucid notes. The cover is 
imitated from an Italian book of the i6th century. 
This is one of the most satisfactoiy illustrated 
volumes at a low price yet produced by Mr. Lee 
Warner, and should be highly appreciated. (P) It 
is pleasant and not ccmmon to meet with a book 
of which the scope is less than the author's 
capability. This series, called " The Art and Letters 
Library", is not intended, we take it, to say to 
profound students the last words on its various 
subjects ; but if Dr. Singer's contribution may be 
taken as a just sample, it must be welcome to very 
intelligent readers. The disproportionate notice 
given to little Masters is a quality inherent in the 
series and not without its advantages. Profound 
students of great Masters do not seek information 
about them from small composite volumes, but 
Dr. Singer gives an intelligent view of those which 
he deals with which will incline such students in 
other fields to pay them more attention, while he 
tells quite enough for anyone to know about minor 
artists such as George Pencz, Raphael Mengs, 
Daniel Chodowiecki and Anton Graff. These are 
lucky in having so capable a biographer. The 
illustrations are well chosen and sufficiently well 
produced for the price of the book. 
(a) The Idylls of the King. By Alpred, Lord Tennyson, 

Illustrated in colour by Ele.^nor Fortesclb Brickdale. 

Hodder and Stoughton. 15s. tet. 
(B) The Compleat Angler or the Contemplative Man's 

Recreation I being a Discourse of Fish and Fiihirig not 

unworthy the perusal of most Anglers. By Izaak Walton. 
With Illustrations by JaSIES ThoRIE." Hcdder and 
Stoughton. 15s. net. 

(c) Stories from the Arabian Nights. Fctold by Laurence 

HocsMAN. With drawings by Edmcnd Dllac. Hcdder 
and Stoughton. "s. 6d. net. 

(d) The Personal Histosy cf David Ccppekfield. By 
Charles Dickens. Illustrated in colours by Frank 
Reynolds, R.I. Hodder and Stoughton. 

(r) The " Flower of Gloster ". By E. TEJiPLE Thurston. 

Illustrated' by W. R. Dakin. Williams and Norgate. 

7s. 6d. net. 
(f) Oxfokd Illistpated by Pin and Camera. By Henry 

W. Taint, F.R.G.S. Oxford : Taunt. 
(o) The Natural History and Antiquities of Seleorne is 

the County of Southampton. By Gilbert White. 

With Illustrations in colour by George Edward Collins, 

R.B..\. Macmillan. los. 6d. 
(h) The Ingoldsby Legends of Mirth and Marvel. With 

illustrations in cckur ty H. G. 1 beaker. Macmillan. 

5s. net. 
(If The Sensitive Pi ant. By Percy Bysshe Sheliey. 

Intrcduciicnby Edmund Ccs?E. Illuttiatiousby Chames 

Robinson. Htinemann. 15?. net. 
(') Stories from Hans Andi RSEN.wilh illustrations by Edmund 

DULAC. Hocder and Sttu.ehlcn. 15s. ret. 
(k) Grimm's Fairy Tale?. With an introduction hy John 

RusKiN. Illustrated by Charles Falkard. A. and C. 

Black, 6s, 
(I.) The School for Scandal. By Richard Brinsley 

Sheridan. Illustrated by Hugh Thomson. Hodder and 

Stcuf-hlon. 15s. net. 
(m) Art and Nature Sonnets. By F. P. Osmaston. With 

drawini;s by James Guthrie, tlkin Mathews. 55. 6d. net. 
(n) The Troubled Pool and Other Poems. By ]. Griffith 

Fairf.\x. With si.\ original etchings by LIONEL Linds.w. 

Snith, Elder. 31s. 6d. net. 
(o) The Life of S. Bernardino of Siena, translated from 

the French of Paul TnoKEAU-DANGiNhy the Baroness G. 

VON HCGEL. Wiih illustrations aittr the Old Wasters 

stlericd and annotated by G. F. Hill. Lte Warner. 

los. 6d. net. 
(I'l Stories of the German Artists. By Prof. Dr. Hans W. 

Singer. With illuslraiions. Chatto ai.d Wincus. 7?. 6d. 


The chief advantage of international exhibitions 
is the opportunity for comparison between the 
typical work of different nations in those applied 
arts such as furniture where there is comparatively 
litde interchange of ideas. Unfortunately one 
cannot be certain that the best work of each 
country gets an equal representation. Still, even if 
the general conclusions which such comparisons 
provoke are only tentative they may have value as 
suggestions for future lines of endeavour. 

In furniture the actual achievement of the 
English makers is still, as it always has been, very 
satisfactory. Their technical excellence and solidity 
of construction are indisputable, and if we confine 
taste to its purely negative aspect of the avoidance 
of extravagance and eccentricity, they may certainly 
be said to have better taste than their foreign rivals. 
The series of furnished rooms in the British section 
is harmonious and agreeable in general effects, but 
some of them are taken bodily from old interiors, and 
almost all the makers confine themselves to revivals 
and adaptations of old models. This implies really 
an unhealthy state of things both for the craftsman 
and the public. The reaction against the vile taste 
of the nineteenth century, instead of producing a 


Reviews and Notices 

determined effort at the discovery of good design, 
has relapsed into an acquiescence in copies which, 
however excellently they are carried out, fail of the 
particular charm which any genuine expression of 
feeling gives even in the humblest and most 
necessary craft. The fact is that with one or two 
exceptions the English firms do not employ artists 
but well-trained copyists skilled in archaeology 
rather than in art. The French, on the other hand, 
do employ artists, mostly bad ones it is true, and 
often with lamentable results, but there seems 
more hope in their work of the gradual elimination 
of mere caprice and oddity and the ultimate 
discovery of really vital and expressive forms. 
The mere fact that they continue to experiment 
is all in their favour, however little we may be 
able to approve their actual achievement. 

The same conditions hold also in the matter of 
textiles and wall papers — one must except indeed 
the attempt at modernity made by the firm of 
Morris in reproducing in tapestry a picture by 
Byam Shaw. Shades of Morris and Burne-Jones! 

But the rest are copies of old cretonnes or new 
designs made to look as much like them as possible. 
Here, too, it is not the artist, but the well-trained 
South Kensington student who knows his wayabout 
the museum that the British manufacturer employs. 

The great exception to this lack of enterprise is 
in the pottery department. Here the shapes and 
colours and the combinations of them are even 
bolder and more audacious than is altogether 
desirable, and here it would seem that the chemist 
rather than the artist is directing the experiments. 
Mr. Bernard Moore's exhibits show how far the 
chemist can go in the rediscovery of secrets of 
the craft, and certainly his Jlamhc colours are in 
themselves superb. If this consummate scientific 
skill could only be complemented by an equal 
degree of artistic control we might rival in new 
forms and designs the finest output of the Kang 
Hsi kilns. As it is, it is deplorable to see prints 
of village churches and the Grand Canal under- 
lying a splendid saiii^ cle btviif glaze. 

On the whole one must admit as a result of this 
comparative survey, that the French have made 
the most serious attempts to combine art with 
modern commercial production. The Munici- 
pality of Paris has a separate building for the 

exhibition of tapestry and Sevres. The Gobelins 
have at least found out that it is useless to imitate 
Salon paintings and have got as far as deceptive 
imitations of Ch^ret's pastels, in which the 
crumbled technique is so exactly imitated that 
one imagines it possible to rub it off. This 
certainly indicates more industry than discretion. 
The most satisfactory interior scheme is that of a 
small octagonal pavilion decorated in a light and 
tender colour harmony and including paintings 
by Degas, Maurice Denis, Vuillard, etc., and 
sculptures by Maillol. In spite of faint suggestion 
of art iioiivcnu about the furniture the whole 
effect shows a better attempt at a logically 
thought out modern interior than anything else in 
the exhibition. 

Messrs. Ciiatto and Windus have recently 
published the "Notes on Pictures in the Royal 
Collections " which Mr. Lionel Cust has contributed 
to The Bmliiigtou Magazine during the last few 
years. The late King Edward VII granted this 
permission to Mr. Cust when he was Surveyor of 
His Majesty's Pictures ; and his present Majesty, 
King George V, has been graciously pleased to 
give his consent to the present publication. 
Specially bound copies of the volume have been 
accepted by His Majesty King George V, by Her 
Majesty Queen Mary and by Her Majesty 
Queen Alexandra. 

As these sheets are passing through the press we 
have received, with deep regret, the news of the 
death of anew but highly distinguished member of 
our consultative committee, Dr. Hugo von Tschudi. 
Dr. von Tschudi's death is a loss to art which will 
be felt all over Europe. He was a man of strong 
and independent character, undeterred by continued 
ill-health and powerful opposition from carrying out 
his own views, which generally had, in our opinion, 
the supreme merit of being right. Compelled for 
this honourable reason to relinquish the directorate 
of the National Gallery at Berlin, he was appointed, 
a little more than a year ago. Director of the Royal 
Bavarian Collections. In the short time which 
elapsed before his death at Munich he had 
rearranged many of the pictures to the immense 
improvement of the Gallery. 



Dr. RiEFFEL writes on the Holzhausen collection, now on loan 
at the Staedel Institute at Krankfurt-am-Main, the most 
interesting portion of which consists of family rortraits, especially 
noteworthy for the history of Frankfurt portraiture from the 
beginning of the i6th century to the 19th century. The collec- 
tion comprises the following: the so-called "Diirer Portrait" 
well known in the histiry of art and closely connected with 
Baldung though on a lower level — the writer suggests the 
designation " Mcister des Mainzcr Dreikoiiigsbildes" for the 
author of this much-disputed portrait, who is also the painter 
of the Mainz altar-piece (not later than 1505), and of pictures 
at Frankfurt and Munich— the interesting portraits of Katharina 

von Holzhausen by an unknown master ; of Hainan, her 
husband, and of Gilbrecht and his wife (the last three signed 
with a monogram which has been interpreted as Conrad von 
Creuznach) ; and of Justinian Hol/haustn and his wife — 
evidently by the same hand though not signed — and a very 
remarkable little picture by Philip Uffenbach, signed with his 
mr nogi am at d dated 1588, The Exaltalion of the Cross tin the back- 
ground of the picture) with a group of the holy women and 
S. John, overcome with grief, as the chief composilion in the 
foreground. Dr. Hibner studies the" Codex Berolinensis ", 
in the Print-room at Berlin, and believes it to be the remains 
of a collection of drawings from antique (and in some cases 
more modern) originals, many of the drawings being by the 


German Periodicals 

collector himself. The writer believes them to be by the same 
hand as a series of drawings in the Uffizi, both being the 
remains of one collection. He proves conclusively that the 
author of nearly all these drawings was the Florentine Giovan. 
Antonio Dosio, and that between 1561 and 1565 he made about 
100 drawings of the antiquities of Rome and later (before 1569) 
revised the entire collection, adding a few examples by other 
draughtsmen, including one by Girolamo Ferrari of Genoa,whose 
name appears on the back of one of the drawings, which diflers 
altogether in style from the work of Dosio. Dr. B. H.^ENDCKE 
has a short but suggestive note entitled " Die wirthschaftliche 
Lage der Bildenden Kiinstler in der Keformationszeit und die 
Entwicklung der Kunste.— Eine Wirthschaftlich-Kunstgeschicht- 
liche Studie ". Under " Miszellen " Dr. Nasse notices a picture 
in the collection of Freiherr von Hissing at Munich which he 
believes to be a good replica of a picture in a private collection 
at Copenhagen t)earing the signature of A. Victorins, though 
Dr. Freise (Monatsheft Vlll, 1910) ascribed it only to his 
school. The Munich picture was acquired as an "A. von Ostade''. 
September.— Dr. Koegler, under the title cf " Kleine Beitrage 
znm Schnittwerk Hans Holbeins D. J.— der Meister C. S.', 
makes a most valu;ible contribution to this side of Holbein]s 
artistic activity and to the subject in general, on which he is 
a specialist of authority. Among many interesting new points 
we note the fact that the date of the E.\-libris with the arms of 
the Chussen family is .almost certainly proved to be 1520. Much 
new information is given relating to the numerous users of the 
Monogram " C.S. ", and more especially to the illustrator of the 
1552 edition of the " Notitia dignitatum ", whose work was cer- 
tainly executed years before the publication of the book by the 
Froben Press, and probably in 1536. The writer enumerates a 
few of his more important woodcuts which appeared at Basle (a 
theme with which he proposes to deal exhaustively later) and puts 
forward the suggestion that he may be identical with Conrad 
Schnitt, of Constance, who worked at Basle from 1519 up to the 
time of his death in 1541. Dr. Peltzer writes on the represen- 
tation of •' Dinanderies '' in pictures of the Netherland<, the study 
of such details furnishing valuable data for the history of the 
Arts and Crafts. The chief seat of the industry — Dinant on the 
Meuse — was levelled with the ground in 1466, and though the 
" Batteurs " and " Copper-masters" transferred their foundries 
to other cities, the designation " Dinanderies" has always been 
retained. The remarkable development of the art of the metal- 
worker in what was once the Duchy of Burgundy explains the 
prevalence of these accessories in paintings of the Netherlands, 
and the writer refers to a great variety of such objects in pictures 
from the time of the Van Eycks onwards. In early German 
pictures, always excepting those ol the Lower Rhine, Dinan- 
deries are not met with. Under " Miszellen" Dr. Voss writes 
of a S. Uichad which aroused great interest as a work of the 
School of Avignon of c. 1500 in the French Primitives Exhi- 
bition of 1904. The Annunaaiion on the reverse was less 
noticed ; the writer t>elieves that the whole formed part of a 
large altar-piece which contained episodes from the Life of the 
Virgin and suggests that a Visitation in the Brussels Museum 
and a series in the Johnson collection at Philadelphia may 
have formed part of the same altar-piece, which he ascribes to 
an anonymous Provencal master of the early i6th century. Dr. 
Singer has a short note on Durer's portrait-drawing of King 
Christian 11, which he identifies with a drawing in London 
(reproduced by Lippmann III, No. 288) as a portrait of the King 
which Dvirer drew on 2 July, 1521, at Antwerp. The portrait 
in oils (probably of small dimensions) which he executed at 
Brussels (whither he followed the king for the purpose and 
remained eight days and one night in addition) has not as 
yet come to light. Dr. Kehrer reproduces ttie only known 
drawing by II Greco (documents have recently proved that 
150 drawings were among his possessions at the time ol 
his death), a S. John the Evangelist, a study with some 
differences, for the figure in the retablo of S. Domingo el Antiguo 
at Toledo of 1578 ; the saint is represented, according toByzan- 
tine formula, as an aged man. The drawing is in the National 
Library at .Madrid. Dr. Gebhardt refers to the recent discoveries 
in the Deutschordenskirche at Sachsenhausen.asuburbof Frank- 
furt-on-the-Main,and treats of them in their proper proportions, 
proving that the compositions are mostly copies or imita- 
tions of well-known compositions by Diirer. The inscription, 
which led some to assume that they were by Diirer himself, is 
shown to be a literal copy of the inscription on the " AUerheili- 
gen ' ' altar-piece. Of importance is Dr. Gebhardt's classification 

of the work of a painter whom he calls "Der Meister der 
Frankfurter Kreuzigungen",an artist of Frankfurt, author of the 
Crucifixion in the Stadel Institute, of another in the Weiszfrauen- 
kirch'e, and of a very fine predella in the Deutschordenskirche. 
Dr, Baum notes that the reliefs belonging to the inner shatters 
of the Wettenhausen altar-piece, formerly in the Burg at 
Niiremberg, have now been brought to Munich and united to 
the paintings by Schafiner, with which they originally formed 
one work, as discovered by Dr. Br.iune. 

October.— Dr. Martin contributes notes on the Loan 
Exhibition of Old Dutch pictures from private collections in 
Paris, organized last summer by the periodical "L'ArtetLes 
Artistes'' under the patronage of the Queen of Holland. Da. 
Graff writes on " Die Wiederherstellung des Johannes-altars 
von Burgkmairin der Alten Pin.akothek ", the component panels 
of which were hitlierto dispersed between Schleissheim and 
Burghausen. The work, originally a triptych, has now been 
restored with the utmost skill, and the surprising results of Dr. 
Kinkelin's work upon it are detailed in this article ; the quality 
and beauty of the colour-effects and of the composition combine 
to make it one of the most magnificent works in the Gallery by 
a painter, whom the writer styles " one of the greatest German 
masters of the Renaissance". Dr. Wallerstein' notes the 
acquisition by the Germanisches Museum at Niiremberg of an 
Annunciation by Konrad Witz. Prof. Lohmeter refers to the 
designs, discovered by him in the State Archives at Karlsruhe, 
made by Nicholas de Pigage for the Palace at Karisruhe when 
the Markgraf Charles William determined on the reconstruction 
of the building in 1749. The designs of Pigage were not 
adopted and subsequently came to be erroneously regarded as 
designs for the Palace at Mannheim. Dr. Lilienfeld corrects 
a statement made by Dr. Burg in Heft 7 of the " .Monatshefle " 
that a portrait in the possession of J. Bohler at Munich was by 
A. Palamedesz and represented Palamedes Palamedesz. The 
writer holds that it is a typical work by H. G. Pot, and that it is 
not the portrait of Palamedes. 

November.— Dr. St?bel, under the title " Der jiingere 
Canaletto und seine Radierungen ", makes an interesting con- 
tribution to the history of the lite and work of Bernardo Belotto, 
gives much new information drawn from the state archives in 
Dresden, and rectifies mistakes made by former writers on this 
artist. attention is paid to the master's etchings, some 
good examples of which are reproduced, and a complete list is 
given of his etched views of Dresden. Dr. Martin has a 
second illustrated notice of the Loan Exhibition of Old Dutch 
Masters in Paris. Under "Miszellen " Dr. Liliesfeld writes 
on art treasures in Sweden, with reference to a recent publica- 
tion, " Inventaire General des Trevors d'Art en Suede". In 
addition to many good pictures by celebrated masters which 
are referred to by the writer, some interesting examples by 
little-known painters are mentioned ; among them may be 
noted a signed work by Hendrik Acrts, dated 1602, which has 
now passed from Sweden into the Ryks Museum at Amsterdam; 
a unique example by Swinderswyk, a painter traceable at 
Haarlem — it represents a river-landscape, and shows some 
connexion with Salomon Ruysdael ; a signed portiait by the 
Polish court painter, Peter Danckers de Ry, dated 1643, of great 
importance for the light it sheds on the development of this 
painter, by whom only three portraits have hitherto been 
known ; an example by that extremely rare painter, G. Donck, 
of c. 1635; an expressive portrait ascribed to " H. Dome" — 
this the writer suggests may be a mistake for L. Doomer, with 
whose only known portrait, at Devonshire House, the work in 
question shows some connexion ; a composition signed " Daniel 
van Geel", and dated 1635, proves that this rare master must 
have worked at H.aarlem. Numerous signed examples by 
G. D. Camphuysen, who worked in Sweden for eleven years, 
and is sometimes confused with Paul Potter, are cited, and 
one by the less known Raphael Camphuysen, who as a rule 
works in the manner of A. van der Neer, but in this instance 
shows himself an iraiutor of J. van Ostade. Dr. Leoxhardt 
writes on " Multschers Kargaltar und das Grabsteinmodell fiir 
Herzog Ludwig den Gebarteten ", and proves almost con- 
clusively that Hans Multscher is the author of the celebrated 
model for the tomb of Duke Ludwig of Bayern-Ingolstadt, now 
in the National Museum at Munich, and that he executed it at 
Ulm in 1435. The writer reproduces the inscription of the 
Kargaltar, the wording of which shows considerable analogy 
with the much-defaced inscription of the tombstone ; this .also is 
reproduced by the writer, who has succeeded in deciphering it. 


German Periodicals 

Der CicERON-E. Heft 20. October, igii. 
Dr. Muxdt discusses the new acquisitions in the Kunstgewerbe- 
Museum at Leipzig, among them two painted glass windows 
from designs by the Severins-Meister, formerly in the Abbey of 
Altenburg ; a plastic altar-piece of c. 1500, by a Master of 
Altenburg ; a tine group (S. Anne xcilh the Virgin and Child) in 
can-ed wood, with reminiscences of Riemenschneider, which 
the writer designates " Sachsischfrankische Arbeit " of the early 
i6th century ; and another plastic work, a compoiition in two 
divisions, The Finding of the True Cross, very accomplished in 
technique, which Dr. Mundt ascribes tentatively to the school 
of Alsace, owing to the connexion which it shows in some 
particulars with the Kaysersberg altar-piece commissioned in 
1518 from "the sculptor Hanssen in Colmar". Dr. Bombe 
reproduces some of the highly important fragments of fresco, 
The Triumph of Death, recently discovered in Santa Croce at 
Florence, and ascribed by Vasari, Lorenzo Ghiberti and the 
"Anonimo Gaddiano", to Andrea Orcagna. The writer makes 
some interesting remarks at the end of his article on the sources 
whence Orcigna and the Unknown Master of the same subject 
in the Campo Santo at Pisa dtrived their inspiration. 

GUTEN-BERG Gesellschaft. Zehnter Jahrcsbericht. Mayence, 

June, 1911, 
The annual report of this very meritorious society, which 
concerns itself with matters pertaining to the history of 
typography, contains a reprint of the paper read by Dr. Koegler 
of Basle at the General Meeting of the Society (25 June) on 
"Book Illustration in the first decades of German Printing". 


ELIX ZIEM, whose death was pre- 
maturely announced about a year ago, 
died at his house in the Rue Lepic, on 
the heights of Montmartre, on loth 
November. After Harpignies, he was the 
oldest French artist, having been born at Beaune in 
1821, only two years later than Courbet and four 
years later than Daubigny. Manet, who died twenty- 
eight years ago, was his junior by twelve years. 
The death of Ziem leaves Harpignies the sole con- 
temporary of the Barbizon painters. Ziem himself 
did not belong to the Barbizon, nor indeed to any 
school. His earlier — and best — works show 
Barbizon as w-ell as Dutch influence ; a certain 
Dutch landscape, which was in the Paris market 
a couple of years ago, is a picture with great 
qualities, and, had he continued on the same lines, 
he would have been a greater painter than he was. 
Unfortunately, he hit the public taste with the 
showy pictures of Venice and the East, to which 
he had almost entirely devoted himself for many 
years before his death, and which were the out- 
come of a corrupt following of Turner. Such 
was his facility that he turned them out as rapidly 
as his admirers snapped them up, and they brought 
him fame and fortune. Few artists have obtained 
during their lifetime such reputation and such 
material success as Ziem, but posterity will hardly 
confirm the verdict of his contemporaries. His 
reputation must inevitably suffer from the 
appalling number of pot-boilers which he pro- 
duced ; his output was enormous and he 
continued to paint long after his powers had 
failed. He himself, if report is to be believed, 
took a somewhat cynical view of his art. It is 


The lecturer dealt more especially with the woodcuts published 
bv Basle printers, treating his subject not so much from the 
historical and critical standpoint as from that of the mental 
.ittitude of the draughtsman towards the contents of the book to 
be illustrated and of the spirit in which he approached his task. 
Dr. Koetier chose for illustration a few typical 15th century 
examples issued by presses at Basle, a place of great importance 
in the annals of the first centuries of printing — such as"Streit der 
Seele und des Korpers " (M. FUch 1473) ; the tale of the 
mermaid Melusine, the " Speculum " and tfie travels of Monta- 
viila (all printed by B. Richel 1474, 1476 and 1480). The lecturer 
touched upon the wonderful illustrations of Sebastian Brant's 
" Narrenschitf " and emphasized their great importance, though 
reserving for another occasion the discussion of the mach- 
disputed question whether the author of the principal woodcuts 
could have been the youthful Diiier. The last reproduction 
given is Holbein's illustration to the clause " Thy Will be done '' 
in the " Precalio dominica " of Erasmus (Basle, Froben 1523-24), 
a composition of the utmost beauty and one of the most striking 
" Stimmungshilder " by this artist. The Society issues this year 
two highlj; important publications — /.c, a " Catalogue raisonne 
des premieres impressions de Mayence ", by Mr. Seymour de 
Ricci ; and Prof, Zedler's researches into the history and 
activity of Albrecht Plister of Bamberg. The " 36-lined Bible ", 
long attributed to Pfister, is proved to be by Gutenberg himself 
and printed by him at Bamberg after August, 1457 ; but owing 
to the great expense of the work and the many debts incurred by 
him, Gutenberg 1 was forced to abandon it with his press to his 
creditors, and to return to Mayence. 

said that he once remarked : " I have painted 
fifty good pictures in my life and Heaven help the 
fools who buy the others". Possibly, if this story 
be true, he exaggerated the number of his really 
good pictures, but he deserves to live by the best 
works of his earlier years, those landscapes of 
Holland and France whose luminosity and colour 
reveal a true artist with a poetic view of nature. 
Ziem, like Corot, was spoiled by success, but 
when the mechanical and vulgar productions of 
his later years are forgotten, there will remain a 
sufficient artistic output to justify his inclusion, 
not indeed among the great masters, but among 
artists worthy of the name. Even so the true 
greatness of Corot will become apparent when 
it is recognized that his personality is revealed, 
not by the theatrical and insincere productions of 
his now expensive period, but by his earlier works. 
Madame Ziem proposes to offer all the studies 
left behind by her husband to various provincial 
museums, including those of Beaune, Dijon, 
Marseilles, Nice and Martigues. This generous 
gift will be much appreciated, for the studies of 
a painter of such talent are of great interest. 
Ziem himself had already presented to the Petit 
Palais, five years ago, his paintings and water- 
colours still in his possession, together with a 
number of albums containing drawings. 

The loss of La Jocomlc will be discussed in the 
Chamber of Deputies, probably before this number 
is published, for M. Dcnys Cochin has given 
notice of an iittcrpcllalion on the subject. It is to 
be hoped that the whole question of the management 
and organization of the Louvre, and of the 

Art in France 

Administration des Beaux Arts, will be thoroughly 
gone into. It is to be hoped also that the Chamber 
will vote sufficient credits to enable the Louvre to 
be re-opened to the public. At present most of it 
is usually closed. It would be bad enough if the 
regulations which were announced here two months 
ago were strictly adhered to, for who can be 
e.Kpected to remember what department is open on 
a particular day of the week ? But, in fact, there is 
no certainty that one can see anything on any day. 
On a Sunday afternoon, a few weeks ago, I went 
with some friends to the Louvre to see the new 
Poussin, and found that the whole French School 
was closed, although it had been ofificially 
announced, as was stated here, that the whole 
Department of Paintings, with the exception of the 
Thomy Thierry collection, would be open every 
day. A courteous attendant informed me that the 
inadequacy of the staff was the cause of the 
closure and added that I must never be sure of 
finding any particular gallery oi^en. It is surely 
time that a great nation like France should supply 
its national museum with an adequate staff of 
guardians. What is to be thought of an Admini- 
stration of Fine Arts which has allowed such a 
state of affairs to continue for \-ears with the 
result that France has lost a masterpiece ? M. 
Homolle has been deposed ; several guardians of 
the Louvre, who had been proved after proper 
inquiry to have neglected their duty, have rightly 
been dismissed ; but what about the heavy respon- 
sibilities in higher quarters ? Has the responsible 
Minister asked Parliament for the necessary 
credits, and if not, why not ? 

Many people are beginning to ask whether, after 
all, it was an improvement when a political L'nder- 
Secretary of Fine Arts was substituted for a 
permanent Director, and whether it would not be 
advisable to return to the old system. A per- 
manent Director of Fine Arts would certainly be 
less open to influences and considerations from 
which no politician can be free. He would not, for 
instance, be tempted to buy a picture in order to 
gratify an elector (I do not say that a political 
Under-Sticretary must necessarily yield to the 
temptation), nor to take into account the political 
opinions of an artist. There is at least one great 
artist in France who believes, rightly or wrongly, 
that his political opinions (from which I personally 
profoundly dissent) account for the fact that no 
work of his has ever been bought by the State, 
although, thanks to private generosity, the nation 
is now amply provided with e.xamples of his art. 
Moreover, the qualities which fit a man for a 
political career are not usually combined with a 
great knowledge of art, and it would be far easier 
to find the right men to preside over the artistic 
organization of France if the choice were not con- 
fined to members of the two Houses of Parliament. 
At present there is no permanent head of the 

Administration of Fine Arts ; his place is taken 
by the (Jnder-Secretary of State, who is, for all 
practical purposes, the Minister of Fine Arts, 
although the Minister of Education still has that 
title. If there were a permanent Director of Fine 
Arts, an Under-Secretary would be unnecessary. 

In any case, far more autonomy ought to be 
given to the Louvre, and to the other national 
museums. The direction of the Louvre is quite 
enough for any man, whereas, at present, the 
Louvre has no Director of its own. M. Homolle 
was and M. Pujalet is Director of all the national 
museums. Each museum should surely have a 
responsible Director of its own and should be 
autonomous. The head of the national artistic 
organization, under the Minister for the time being, 
should be the permanent Director of Fine Arts, but 
the Administration of Fine Arts might, with 
advantage, devote itself to theatres, architectural 
matters, the preservation of ancient buildings and 
similar work of great value which it can do 
much better than the purchase of works of 
art. The latter is the business of the Director and 
Keepers of each museum. The present system of 
purchase is contrary to common sense. The State 
buys at random modern pictures and sculpture 
in the various exhibitions ; the purchases are 
stored in the Grand Palais, where they sometimes 
remain for a long period until they find a home in 
some unfortunate provincial museum. I say 
" unfortunate '' advisedly, for I once visited the 
store-room in the Grand Palais. It would pro- 
bably be better if the credits now wasted, for the 
most part, in the purchase of bad pictures were 
distributed to the various museums in Paris and the 
provinces ; the Directors of the provincial museums 
know what they want and would probably make 
a better use of the money ; they could not 
make a worse. But if such complete decen- 
tralization were considered too drastic, the 
State purchases for the provincial galleries might 
be made by a permanent Director of Fine Arts, 
with the assistance of the two General Inspectors, the 
national museums being left free to make their own. 
In a sense the national museums are free now ; 
that is to say, the Administration of Fine Arts 
does not buy for them. Naturally it does not buy 
for the Louvre, as the credits of the Administration 
are spent, quite rightly, exclusively on contemporary 
art. Whether any of the purchases made on 
behalf of the State by the Administration of Fine 
Arts ever find their way into the Luxembourg I 
do not know, but the ordinary purchases for the 
Luxembourg or for V'ersailles or any other national 
museum are all effected in the same way as those of 
the Louvre. The system is as bad as the other. 
In the first place any work of art is submitted to a 
committee composed of all the Keepers of all the 
national museums under the presidency of the 
Director, on the proposition of the Keepers of the 


Art in France 

particular museum or of the particular department 
of the Louvre concerned. Except that it seems 
absurd that the Keepers of Versailles should vote 
on a purchase for the Louvre, or vice versa, this is 
not altogether objectionable. A Keeper of one 
department of the Louvre may sometimes give a 
valuable opinion in regard to an object proposed 
for another department, and the sense of the 
committee provides a sort of public opinion. 
Nevertheless, so large a committee is rather un- 
wieldy, and, if a purchase is approved by the 
Keepers of the department concerned and by the 
Director, that should be amply sufficient. It would 
always be possible to take the opinions of colleagues 
in other departments. If, however, the decision of 
the committee were final, this system might pass. 

That, unfortunately, is not the case. After the 
purchase of the work of art in question has been 
approved by the majority of the committee and by 
the Director, it has to be submitted to the Conseil 
lies Mtisees nalionaiix, composed of gentlemen un- 
connected with the museums and appointed by the 
Government. And here comes in the most absurd 
part of the present system. Not only does the 
final decision rest with a council, the majority of 
whom are not experts, but the experts are not even 
allowed a voice in its deliberations. The Keeper 
of the museum or department concerned proposes 
to the Council the purchase already approved by 
the majority of the committee and then retires. 
He not only has no vote, but is not in a position to 
answer any objections which may be made in the 
course of the discussion. This appears to be 
contrary to the provisions of the Decree which 
established the Council, but it has become the 
habitual practice. It is time that it were altered. 
Indeed, the purchases for the national museums 
can never be satisfactory so long as the decisions 
of the whole body of museum officials can be over- 
ridden by a Council whose members, in the nature 
of things, are much less quaiilied to decide. After 
the Council has decided on a purchase, the approval 
of the Minister is necessary, but that is very rarely 
refused, although not very long ago it was refused 
by a predecessor of the present Minister in the 
case of a purchase of the greatest importance to 
French Art. 

The enormous time occupied by these successive 
meetings and formalities is in itself a condemnation 
of the system. It is often essential to buy quickly, 
and the inability of the Louvre to do so is a grave 
obstacle to the acquisition of important works. 
Moreover, the chances of purchase, when a work of 
art has to run the gauntlet of two large bodies and 
obtain a majority of votes on eacli, are not great. 
There can be no doubt that the Louvre loses much 
because owners are unwilling to offer works to it 
under such conditions. The results of the system 
are only too apparent, both at the Louvre and at 
the Luxembourg. It will be understood why the 


representation of the Impressionists in the Luxem- 
bourg is confined to the Caillebotte bequest and why 
new movements in art are ignored in the national 
museum. As for the Louvre, the tale of the pic- 
tures rejected by the Council is too long to be 
told now ; some day a complete list of the pictures 
which it has lost to the Louvre ought to be published, 
with the prices at which they were offered and the 
pricesatwhich they have since been sold. One glaring 
instance is that of Turner's Rockets and Blue Lighti, 
which the Council refused, if I am rightly informed, 
at 80,000 francs, and which has since been sold at 
auction for ^27,000. The Council has since sup- 
plied the omission by accepting as a gift a Turner 
which Turner never painted. An important pic- 
ture of the French primitive school, which the 
Council refused at £(^00 in 1903, has since been 
secured for the nation by the generosity of a private 
collector who has had to pay ;4's,ooo for it. 

M. Steeg, the present Minister of Education and 
Fine Arts, is a man of great ability and culture. 
Naturally he has very little time to spare for 
artistic affairs, which are entrusted to a special 
administration of which he is little more than 
nominally the head. If, however, he could spare 
the time to look into the questions of the 
Administration of Fine Arts and the organization 
of the national museums, he might perform an 
invaluable service to the nation. For, if he did 
inquire into these matters, he would hardly leave 
things as they are. 

The recent election to fill the vacancy in the 
section of engraving at the Academic des Beaux 
Arts was a striking instance of the fact that 
academies e.xist in order to discourage art and 
literature. Forain was a candidate, but he with- 
drew in favour of Bracquemond, who remained by 
far the most distinguished candidate. Naturally he 
was not elected. On the other hand one is 
pleased to be able to announce that it has at last 
been discovered in official circles that Renoir is a 
great painter ; he has just been nominated an 
officer of the Legion of Honour. One thinks of 
other painters who have been officers and even com- 
manders for years past. Naturally Renoir is not 
a member of the Acadcmie des Beaux Arts, but 
perhaps even that will come — if he lives to be a 
hundred — always supposing that he were willing, 
as is highly improbable. I heard an amusing and 
true story in connection with his decoration. Some 
little time ago a deputation of artists and critics 
waited upon the Minister of Education and Fine 
Arts (who was not M. Steeg) with a view of obtain- 
ing some official recognition of Renoir. The 
Minister, who seemed never to have heard of 
Renoir, said that he would look into " Monsieur " 
Renoir's dossier. A member of the deputation, 
irritated at the ministerial attitude, exclaimed, 
" Monsieur le Ministre, on ne dit pas M. Renoir, 
on dit Renoir ". R- E- D. 




HE publication of Mr. 
Witt's book under the 
above title (Heinemann, 
IS. net) brings into pro- 
minence once more a 
subject to which The 

Burlington Magazine has persistently called 
attention. By his lucid examination of 
every aspect of the question Mr. Witt 
has brought nearer to some solution the 
question of how to save the remaining 
great masterpieces of art in this country 
from exportation, and has, we believe, 
brought definite action in the matter 
within the range of possibility. He sets 
out the problem clearly, and shows how 
rapid and constant the drain upon our 
national art treasures has been of late 
He deprecates, as we have always 


done, any high-handed legal interference 
with the owner's right to dispose of his 
property in works of art, on the ground 
of its futility, its irksomeness, and its 
tendency to alienate from the public 
interest those great proprietors to whose 
generosity in the past we owe much of 
the excellence of our public museums, 
and whose co-operation in the future we 
greatly need. He discusses with approval 
the suggestion (frequently made in The 
Burlington Magazine) of a tax of ten per 
cent, on all important art sales. He 
considers this tax would bring in ^^50,000, 
which should go to increase the grants to 
museums and galleries. Finally he upholds, 
as we have always done, the idea of 
devoting a large sum in the near future to 
the ransom for the nation of a certain 
selected list of supreme masterpieces in 
preference to merely increasing the annual 
grant to the National Gallery; or, rather, he 
proposes it in addition to this increase. In 
case this should be trying the temper of the 
average British tax-payer too far, we would 

Thb Buruxgton Magazine, No. io6. Vol. XX.— January, 1912. 

suggest by way of compromise some such 
scheme as the following; let us suppose it 
to be agreed, as seems reasonable, that the 
grant in aid of the National Gallery ought 
to be raised to at least ^25,000 a year, 
instead of ,^5,000 as at present. Let this 
increase be voted as an annual increase to 
jTi 0,000, and in addition to this a lump 
sum of )r5oo,ooo bearing interest at three 
per cent., with he understanding that 
this capital sum may be drawn upon for 
the purchase (preferably in the near future) 
of a certain selected list of masterpieces. 
When this sum is used up the income of 
the National Gallery would fall back to 
twice its present amount ; but in expending 
the lump sum it is to be hoped that the 
greater part of the supremely important 
masterpieces of early art in the country 
would have been acquired, and the remain- 
ing jCiO'Ooo a year might well suffice for 
the building up of that much needed 
collection of masterpieces of nineteenth- 
century art which is badly needed for the 
inspiration and guidance of artists in this 


'E announce with the deepest 
•regret the death of M. 
jAlphonse Legros, formerly 
' Slade Professor and Director 
of the Art School at University College, 
London. The importance to this country 
of the work done by M. Legros deserves 
special notice, which we hope to be able 
to give in a future number. It is sufficient 
at present to state that in our opinion the 
residence of M. Legros in London was one 
of the landmarks in the history of the Fine 
Arts in England during the latter part of 
the nineteenth century. 



( BOUT a year ago there was acquired 
for the Victoria and Albert Museum a 
, marble bust of Charles I of very 
■ exceptional interest, which had been 
^discovered in a collection somewhere 
m Holland. The bust, which is life-size, shows 
the king in armour, which is richly decorated with 
a flowing floriated pattern engraved in relief on 
the armour, on the shoulder-plates and the breast- 
plate, in the centre of which is a grotesque head 
with' protruding tongue. Over the left shoulder 
there falls a sash across the breast, which is 
fastened by a large circular brooch on the shoulder. 
Beneath the sash is seen the small jewel of the 
Garter, apparently suspended to a ring in the 
breastplate itself. The gorget, which is separated 
from the breastplate by a thick braiding, is also 
engraved with a floriated pattern, and over the 
gorget on the shoulders is a broad white flat 
collar. The King's long hair falls in straight 
curls on his left shoulder. The face has a monu- 
mental look, the hair somewhat mechanically 
treated, the eves vacant, the moustache brushed 
up so 'as to expose the mouth, the lips slightly 
open, with a slight imperial above a small pointed 
beard [PLATE 1, page 190]. 

The bust stands upon an ornamental pedestal 
inscribed in front: CAKOLVS REX | ^TATIS 
SV^ 1 AN. XXXI ; and on the back is a 
cartouche: HVBERTVS 1 LE SVEVR | 
FACIEBAT; and in a cartouche below: 1631 
[Plate II, d]. . . 

This bust resembles in many ways, especially in 
the somewhat lifeless and wooden treatment of 
the face, the portrait bust of Charles I, which is 
well known through many bronze casts, such as 
may be seen in the National Portrait Gallery, in 
the Bodleian Library, and at Windsor Castle 
[Plate II, b]. There are, however, certain 
distinct differences between the marble bust and 
the bronze casts, which show that, though they may 
have originally come from the same workshop, 
they are distinct works in themselves. In the 
bronze casts the armour is more obviously 
classical and derived from Italian sources, the 
shoulder-plates end in lions' heads, on the 
shoulders the armour is plain, on the gorget and 
round the body the floriated ornament much less 
in use, the hair is treated differently, and the 
whole treatment of the bust is so conventional 
that it had seemed hardly fair to ascribe the 
original model to such accomplished artists as 
Hubert Le Sueur or Francesco Fanelli, the Floren- 
tine, to whom the bronze busts have sometimes 

been ascribed. , , u . t *u- 

The discovery, however, of a marble bust ot this 
description, signed by Hubert Le Sueur in 163T, 
makes it necessary to review the whole situation. 
Notices of Hubert Le Sueur, with extracts from 

documentary evidence, have already been pub- 
lished, and need not be repeated here.^ It will be 
sufficient to sum up what is known about his 
early life up to the date of this marble bust. It is 
stated by Henry Peacham, a contemporary autho- 
rity, in his "Compleat Gentleman " (1634), that 
Le Sueur was a pupil of Giovanni Bologna at 
Florence. In 1610 he was employed in Paris, assist- 
ing Pietro Tacca, a fellow-pupil under Bologna, 
in making the bronze statue of Henri IV on the 
Pont Neuf. In that year he was already married 
to Noemi Le Blanc, and the father of a son, at 
whose baptism in S. Germain I'Auxerrois, the 
sponsors were one of the King's secretaries and 
the daughter of another. Le Sueur is described 
as " Sculpteur du Roy" on this occasion, so that 
he must have attained some age and distinction. 
In 1628 Hubert Le Sueur was residing in London, 
as appears from the registers of the French Church 
in Threadneedle Street, which shew that he was a 
leading member of the French Reformed Church 
in London. He was now the husband of Marie 
La Seine, and a son, Isaac, was born in 1630. 
From the returns of strangers resident in London 
it appears that he resided in the parish of Great 
S. Bartholomew, Smithfield, where he had a 
house of some considerable size. Neighbours of 
his were the French sculptors, the brothers Maxi- 
milian and Jean Poutrain, alias Colt, of Artois, 
who made the tomb of Queen Elizabeth in West- 
minster Abbey, and were connected with the 
families of the painter John De Critz, the King's 
serjeant-painter, and Marcus Geeraerts. Le Sueur, 
who in 162915 styled "Sculpteur du Roy "(ap- 
parently the French King), seems to have been 
recommended, perhaps by Balthasar Gerbier, to 
Richard, Lord Weston, Lord High Treasurer, who 
was the chief adviser of King Charles I at this 
time in finance and politics, and a vigorous sup- 
porter of a pacific policy at home and abroad. In 
1629 Le Sueur was sent over to Paris to obtain 
casts of certain works in sculpture, and in 1630 he 
had already received a commission from Weston, 
apparently through Gerbier, to make and cast an 
equestrian statue of King Charles I (Carolus 
Magnus), to be completed in eighteen months, 
at a cost of :^6oo, and set up in the Lord High 
Treasurer's house at Roehampton. 

The commission was duly carried out in the shape 
of the famous equestrian statue of Charles I, which, 
after escaping destruction during the Civil War and 
the Commonwealth, was finally erected at Charing 
Cross in 1678. The left fore-foot of the horse 
bears the inscription: HVBER LE SVEVR 
[FEJCIT* 1633. In January, 1631, Le Sueur was 
receiving an annual grant of £100 from the 
Treasury for rent of his house. From this date he 

'See Dictionary 0/ Notiotinl Bicgiafhy ; and Proceedings 0) 
the Httguemt Society of Loudon, Vol. VII. 






^^i ^^ 

\ \ 

4 « 

1 s: 

i '^ 

A Marble Bust of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur 

seems to have been constantly employed by the 
King to make casts and copy in bronze antique 
busts and statues, such as the " Borghese " 
Gladiator, which, after standing in S. James's 
Park and at Hampton Court, is now placed in the 
garden on the East Terrace at Windsor Castle. The 
fine works in bronze by Le Sueur in Westminster 
Abbey, Winchester Cathedral, and at Oxford have 
been frequently described, but are of later date 
than the bust at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

During the Civil War Hubert Le Sueur left 
England for Paris, where he was residing in 1165. 
At Paris probably a medallion portrait of Le Sueur 
was executed by his friend and brother-artist, 
J 11 Warin, on which Le Sueur is described as 
" DuorumRegum Sculptor" [Pl.^te II, c]. 

Returning to the bust of Charles I at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, the principal fact of 
importance to be noted is that it is the only work 
in marble by Le Sueur which is at present known 
to exist. The fact that the work on which Le 
Sueur was employed in England was apparently 
exclusively in metal, and therefore cast from 
models, does not preclude the possibility of the 
sculptor having worked in marble himself. The 
portrait of Charles I as given in Le Sueur's statue 
at Charing Cross, in the marble bust, and in the 
bronze casts with the lion's head armour, belongs 
to the period before Van Dyck arrived in England, 
and is therefore clearly to be distinguished from 
the later type in the bust executed by Bernini. 

In view of its isolation among the works of 
Le Sueur, the authenticity of the marble bust has 
been called into question. The bust has a wooden, 
conventional aspect, such as might be expected 
from a professional tomb-maker like Maximilian 
Poutrain or Gerard Jansen, whose bust of Shake- 
speare at Stratford-upon-Avon has something of 
the same treatment in the moustache and mouth. 
In the case of the marble bust, it is important to 
notice the presence of two points like warts on 
either cheek. These are not natural in any way, 
and do not occur in any other portrait. Their 
presence seems capable of explanation as being 
originally the ends of the King's moustache, 
which should be brushed up to end in two points. 
The thin ends of the moustache have at some 
time or other been broken, and the broken edges 
cut down and polished, leaving the points in this 
peculiar position. This must have been done at 
some early date, as the points on the cheeks 
and the ends of the moustache are worn with 
age. It may be surmised that as this marble 
bust has remained unknown in this country, it 
was made by Le Sueur for the French King, in 
whose service Le Sueur seems to have remained 
even after settling in England. 

Another possible but less likely explanation of 
the two points on the face would be that the 
bust was a model from which casts were made, 
and that the two points were made to keep the 
m\sk of the cast in proper position. 


'HE John the Baptist by Titian and the 
Chinese Saint Monjn ascribed to Ma 
Lin, a painter of the Sung dynasty, are 
I here reproduced [Plate], so that the 
'reader may follow the comparison I 
propose to make between them. That comparison 
may seem unfair, because the John the Baptist is 
one of Titian's failures and the Chinese picture is 
a masterpiece ; but my object is to discover the 
causes of Titian's failure and Ma Lin's success. 
Titian, at any rate, did not fail for want of skill 
or pains. The landscape is beautiful and the 
whole picture carefully painted. It belongs to the 
same period as the Yonng Englishman and other 
fine portraits, an d here was an opportunity for the 
great master of portrait-painting to produce an 
ideal portrait of a saint, making him seem as real 
as any of the living men whom he painted. This 
would be difficult but not impossible, for Ma Lin 
has done it ; but Titian has not even attempted it. 
His John the Baptist belongs to the studio, and 
could not exist anywhere else. The vague gesture 
of his right arm shows that he is supposed to be 
preaching; but he does not look as if he had 

anything to say or as if he could do anything 
except pretend to be what he is not. He has 
evidently put on his skins so that he may be 
painted in them, for they would slip down if he 
did not hold them with his left hand as modestly 
as if he were a Grceco-Roman Venus holding her 
draperies. His whole attitude is one which a 
model would naturally take if he wished to look 
impressive, while standing for a long time in one 
position ; and his face has an expression familiar 
to us in the photographs of people who try to 
appear more interesting than they are. The 
sleeping lamb near his right leg seems to be 
painted from a dead animal. It has no character 
of its own and no connexion whatever with the 

Ma Lin, as I have said, has painted an ideal 
portrait. It is the portrait of a Bodhisatva — that 
is to say, of a man who, by means of a course of 
right living pursued through many existences, will 
at last become a Buddha. Thus we may call him 
a saint ; and these Bodhisatvas are treated in 
Oriental painting much as our saints are treated 
in Western painting, sometimes assupernatural, 

Chinese and European Religious Art 

sometimes as human. This saint, but for his halo, 
is entirely human. The artist's aim has been to 
represent him as a man who is living in such a 
way that he will at last attain to salvation ; and 
everything in the picture is subordinate to this 
aim. It is a picture of a state of being, and, 
compared with it, the S. John is a picture of 
nothing. He stands to be looked at in a rigid 
and unnatural posture like a figure in a tableau 
vivaiit; but the Chinese saint sits in an attitude 
quite natural, and expressing the same weariness 
and contentment which we see in his face. He is 
triumphing over life, not easily or externally or by 
means of his power and beauty, but by right living 
and thinking, and his triumph is lonely and with- 
out arrogance. Though he is an Eastern Eremite, 
ugly and weatherbeaten, with strange ear-rings 
and long, unkempt hair, and though he belongs to 
a mythology which we call heathen, yet he does 
not look like a barbarian fanatic to whom the 
problems of life are simpler than they can be to 
civilized men. He was painted by a civilized artist, 
who has expressed through him his own idea of a 
desirable state of being and of one possible to men 
like himself. So even we, in spite of all differences 
of time, race and creed, recognize him as a modern 
man, as one who uses his mind freely and disin- 
terestedly, and whose faith would not restrain him 
from any audacities of speculation. He looks as 
if he had experienced thought as much as emotion, 
and as if any troubled spirit of our time could 
consult him without being tantalized by obsolete 
wisdom. He has his secret, but makes no mystery 
of it, and there are two sayings of Lao Tzu which 
might be applied to him : — 

"It is the way of Heaven not to speak, yet it 
knows how to obtain a response ". 

"All things in nature work silently : they come 
into being and possess nothing : they fulfil their 
functions, and make no claim", 

Mr. Okakura tells us that in the Sung period, 
as at our Renaissance, there was a general emanci- 
pation from the old stereotyped forms of art. But 
this Chinese emancipation was accompanied by 
new religious ideas and emotions. In this picture, 
Mr. Okakura points out, there is no attempt to 
make us worship the Bodhisatva by representing 
him as beautiful, but a very real attempt to express 
wisdom and holiness. And the artist's conception 
of wisdom and holiness is his own, drawn from 
his own experience of life and not inherited with 
any mythological tradition. The elephant belongs 
to mythological tradition ; but notice how he 
treats it. In earlier Chinese art, as we know from 
Japanese imitations, gods and saints were repre- 
sented as riding upon elephants and other beasts, 
and in this manner their power and majesty were 
expressed. For Ma Lin religion is not concerned 
with power and majesty, but with a way of life 
that will lead to perfect holiness. So he puts the 


elephant to another use and makes him also 
illustrate that way of life. He shows us that he 
and the saint are old friends. They have travelled 
far together, and the elephant is pleased to bear 
the weight of the saint and proud to be the 
stronger of the two. The intimacy between them 
is expressed so naturally that there seems to be 
nothing outlandish in it. It is not a mythological 
detail, but a beautiful part of the character of the 

Titian's lamb is a mythological detail and the 
S. John himself is only a mythological figure. 
That is the secret of his failure and of the failure 
of so many religious pictures of the high Renais- 
sance and later times. The emancipation of the 
art of the Renaissance was not generally accom- 
panied by new religious ideas and emotions. Indeed 
very few artists of that time or since have in relig- 
ious pictures expressed their own conceptions of 
wisdom or holiness, drawn from their own expe- 
rience of life. They have rather tried to express 
the conceptions of the past by means of an 
incongruous modern treatment. So their works 
are anachronisms and seem offensive to us 
because of their modernity, whereas really it is 
the obsolete conception which offends us. Just 
as Shakespeare's character of Caesar is a failure 
because it expresses, not his own idea of a great 
man, but what he supposed to be a Roman 
idea, so Titian's S. John is a failure because it 
expresses, not his own idea of the saint, but what 
he supposed to be some primitive idea. Hence an 
unreality which is only increased by his powers of 

It is commonly supposed that our modern ful- 
ness of representation is unsuited to religious 
subjects. It is only unsuited to the representation 
of unrealities, for to unrealities all facts are irrele- 
vant. Rembrandt in certain religious pictures, 
Velazquez in portraits, Chardin in genre, many 
artists in landscape have proved that imaginative 
elimination is possible in all kinds of modern 
painting. All that is needed is imagination, by 
means of which the artist's own experience can 
be adjusted to his own conception. If a painter 
tries to express some obsolete conception through 
the representation of a saint, he will make that 
saint look obsolete ; and most of the saints of our 
modern religious art do look obsolete. They 
weary us with their emotional importunities as if 
they were professional beggars, and we hurry past 
them when we see them in galleries. 

No artist can use his intellect upon an obsolete 
conception, or adjust his own experience to 
it. When once he is committed to that, the 
best he can do is to make a plausible picture 
of it, a picture which may satisfy the eye provided 
the mind is asleep. It was the effort to make 
plausible pictures which produced all the rhetoric 
of our later religious art ; for rhetoric is the 

Chinese and European Religious Art 

symptom of an artist's effort to persuade himself 
and his pubhc that he is in earnest when he is not. 
It is a kind of bluff which no painter has ever 
practised so confidently as Rubens. Titian has 
tried to bluff us with his single figure of S. John 
the Baptist, and has failed completely. His 
S. John is simply a bad actor who has learned a 
few tricks very imperfectly. But Rubens, in his 
altar-piece in the Church of S. Augustine at 
Antwerp, gives us a number of brilliant actors 
who can play all their tricks perfectly, and who 
would delight us if we did not ask what they were 
playing. This altar-piece represents the Virgin 
and Child enthroned among a multitude of saints. 
Rubens might have made a credible and moving 
picture if he had exercised his intellect upon the 
subject. He might have represented a happy mother 
surrounded by great men and women, all of them 
having this in common — that their warfare was 
accomplished— and all expressing quietly the nature 
of the experience they had undergone. But he still 
keeps to the most primitive conception of a saint as 
one who is to be known by his association with 
some legend or by some traditional action, not 
by the beauty of his mind and his way of life. So 
what he gives us is a kind of celestial variety enter- 
tainment. He has no interest in his saints as 
human beings ; for him they are merely parts of a 
puzzle ; and the puzzle is to tit them with all their 
appropriate tricks and properties into a picture 
which shall please the eye, and, if possible, confuse 
the mind with the energy of its rhetoric. Thus S. 
George in the foreground tramples on his dragon 
and at the same time converses earnestly with S. 
Sebastian, who is almost nude and combines the 
robustness of a butcher with the ecstasy of a 
Magdalene. Other saints point or clutch towards 
the Virgin from the foot of the throne. They can 
be recognized by their properties, but not by 
their characters. S. John the Baptist, being of a 
higher sacred station, must be nearer to the 
throne ; but since he is a preacher he must preach 
wherever he is. He therefore preaches to the 
Virgin ; but she pays no heed to him since she is 
waiting to be crowned by a baby angel which flies 
down from a curtain above, while the infant Christ 
celebrates the mystical marriage with S. Catherine. 
Now it cannot have been natural to Rubens to 
conceive of S. John as a saint who must be always 
preaching wherever he might be, or of S. George 
as one who must incessantly trample upon his 
dragon. This kind of symbolism is both rational 
and natural where, in primitive art, saints are 
represented in complete isolation ; but it is neither 
where they are represented as members of a celestial 
society and where every pictorial art is used to 
persuade the spectator that he is looking at a real 
scene. Those very devices of gesture and pose by 
which Rubens tries to give pictorial unity to 
his altar-piece deprive it of all rational unity. We 

see at a glance that he is a modern exploiting 
primitive conventions and reducing them to 
absurdities so that he may make his picture the 
easiest possible way. Very likely he thought these 
conventions were fundamentally absurd, the 
inventions of childish and ignorant minds, and 
that he was displaying his modern intelligence by 
putting them to so skilful a use. In that case he 
was like those writers who try to exercise their 
literary skill upon old stories which mean nothing 
to them. No one can tell a story well unless, 
however old, it is new to him because it expresses 
some experience of his own ; and no painter can 
treat a religious subject well unless it also expresses 
some experience of his own, however indirectly. 
This fact was thoroughly understood by the 
painter of our Chinese picture ; but it has not been 
understood by many modern European artists or 
by the public. The Italians set the example of 
expressing emotions which thej' did not really feel 
but which, it was generally agreed, everyone ought 
to feel, and this example was followed everywhere. 
Naturally the expression of unreal emotions led to 
the representation of unreal people ; and this very 
unreality was mistaken for a symptom of religious 
emotion and also for a necessary element of beauty, 
since there is always something agreeable in empti- 
ness to those who like to enjoy art lazily. So 
religious art was affected by a curious prudery to 
which any kind of precise statement, any reference 
to real experience, seemed profane ; and this 
prudery prevailed among Protestants just as much 
as among Catholics. Indeed, the first of many 
revolts against it was the revolt of the Catholic 
Neapolitan School. But this revolt, like all the 
others, missed the point. Its aim was the repre- 
sentation of real things, not the expression of real 
emotions, and so its naturalism was usually 
irrelevant to its subject matter. The one problem 
of the religious artist is to express his own 
religious experiences ; if he succeeds in doing that 
there is sure to be enough reality in his work. But 
he cannot do it by representing people in whom he 
is interested only because he thinks of them as part 
of a devout and beautiful past. If he paints a saint 
he must paint him from men whom he has known 
and admired himself, and he must make whatever 
he represents expressive of what he admires in 
them. For this he has no need of what we call 
realism, whether contemporary or archaeological. 
One great problem of imaginative art is to elimin- 
ate irrelevant facts ; and it has always used 
conventions of all kinds mainly for this purpose. 
Thus a modern artist, if he wished to make John 
the Baptist real to us, need not clothe him in 
trousers, for they are irrelevant to any conception 
of a saint. But he must express his own idea of 
the prophet of a new faith in a visible form, and 
he could do that only from his own experience 
and understanding of men. Picturesque models 


Chinese and European Religious Art 

would be useless to him, for they seem picturesque 
only because they resemble some hackneyed 
pictorial type. If he would represent the saint 
preaching, he must do so from his own memory of 
a preacher who has moved him, not from a model 
whose pose is sure to be meaningless because the 
model himself means nothing by it. In fact, 
religious art, like all art, should be based upon 
knowledge which is not crammed for a particular 
purpose, but is ready and clear in the artist's mind 
because it is the result of his own emotional 
experience. That is the kind of knowledge which 
has made our Chinese saint so real without any 
realism. His sanctity reveals itself not in proper- 
ties or actions, but in being. He needs no 
scenery to convince us of his reality, because he 

was real to the artist who painted him. The 
practice of painting unreal saints set a fashion of 
picture-making in European art which has spread 
to all subjects and prevails to this day. A nude 
is just as unreal as Titian's S. John, if 
it is painted from a model and expresses no 
emotional experience of the artist, so is a landscape, 
and so is a genre picture. The naturalism of 
Bastien Lepage is as futile as the idealism of Guido 
Reni, for both attempt to represent what has no 
emotional significance for the artist. We cannot 
say whether our Chinese picture is naturalistic or 
idealistic. We only know that it expresses in 
visible form, without irrelevance and with extreme 
precision, the artist's idea of a saint ; and therefore 
it is a great work of art. 




THE Use of Medals by Bookbinders. 

MONG the portraits of Federigo, Duke 

of Urbino, enumerated by Dennistoun 

\ in his " Memoirs",' is one which seems 

to have quite escaped the notice of 

, writers on medals. It is true that 

Dennistoun describes only impressions in leather, 
and not an actual medal ; but the object claims 
nevertheless a distinct place in the list of medals by 
Gianfrancesco Parmense, called Enzola. 

The impressions [Pl.\TE I, a] are preserved in 
a case in the Vatican Library, among the Urbino 
MSS. - On the obverse is the bust of the Duke 
to the left, in armour, with the inscription (on a 
scroll surrounding it) FEDERICVS • DVX • 
the reverse the Duke, in full armour, rides to left, 
holding his baton in his right hand. His helmet 
is crested with a demi-eagle, crowned.' Below his 
horse's feet is a prostrate soldier, attempting to 
protect himself with his shield ; another runs away 
to the right. The Duke is preceded by two figures 
who move rapidly to the left ; they are Mars, 
wearing a horned helmet, a long sword at his 
side, and carrying a tiny cuirass at the end of a 

• For the previous article see nnrliiifllon il/<i;'i7^//((', Vol. X\X, 
p. 138 (June, 1911), where will bi found a full list up to that 

'II, p. 272 (ed. Hutlon). 

*No. 141S. I have to thank Mrs. S. A. Strong for procuring 
mt the excellent photograph by Cesare FaragUa. 

^ Both this crown and that on the helm, from which the crest 
rises, are, I suppose, meant to be ducal ; but if si, Encol.i has 
not been accurate in his details. On Federigo's st ill-plate as 
Knight of the Garter at Windsor his crest is a complete eagle 
(or) not c-owned (W. H. St. John Hope, Stall-t'lalci of the 
KniihU of the Order ojthc Garter, PI. LXXXI). 

lance (adapted from the trophy-carrying Mars of 
Roman coins), and Victory carryinga palm-branch. 
In the background, to left and right, are seen troops, 
and on the right also the towers of a city. Round 
the upper margin is the inscription CAEDERE 
and, on a scroll bslow the first words, the date 
M-CCCC LXXVIII. Below, in the exergue, the 
signature • 10 • FR • PARMEN3IS • OPVS • The 
diameter of the original medal must have been 
92 mm. or more.* 

The reverse is treated in Enzola's most character- 
istic style, showing his delight in fantastic armour 
and other curious details. Notice, for instance, 
the absurd way in which the horse's tail is rendered, 
and the equally unreal representation of the wing 
of Victory (seen between the heads of Mars and 
herself). The portrait is vigorous and carefully 
studied ; it was easy to make a good thing out of 
the Dtike's characteristic features. The medal was 
evidently, as Dennistoun says, made to com- 
memorate Federigo's successes when he was 
fighting for Sixtus IV against the Florentines. 

These impressions in leather have probably been 
cut from a bookbinding, or may even be trial 
impressions supplied by the binder to the Duke, 
who had them preserved in his library. 

A certain number of examples of the use of 
medals, or impressions therefrom, for the decora- 
tion of bindings are forthcoming, chiefly from Italy. 
To take first the use of actual medals : it has been 
noticed by Venturi that, among the choir-books 
in the cathedral of Ferrara, one of the bindings is 
decorated with a work by the same artist who 
made the medal of Federigo of Urbino described 

* The two impressions are slightly oval, and of different sizes. 
This maybe p.artly due to the shrinking of the leather. Judging 
from the photograph, which 1 am assured is true to scale, the 
obverse measures 90 by 85 mm., the reverse 92 by 90 mm. 

^Archivio Star, dell' Arte, 1 p. 91- 


Notes on Italian Medals 

above ; it is a plaquette, with S. George and the 
dragon. Other bindings in the same collection 
have copies of the same plaquette, signed by one 
Giuliano de' Apollini, a goldsmith who is known 
to have worked at Ferrara from 1476 to 1494. 

In the British Museum is a fine MS. Gospels 
(Burney 18) bound in velvet, into which have been 
let two late si.xteenth-centuryplaquettesof bronze (?) 
gilt, representing the Adoration of the Shepherds and 
the Adoration of the Magi. The plaquettes appear 
to me to be of Italianate Netherlandish work, but 
so far I have not been able to identify them. They 
may be, as Mr. C. F. Bell suggests to me, casts from 
repousse work, rather than true plaquettes. 

In elaborate metal bindings, in which for instance 
silver replaced leather, it was but natural to use 
medals, or casts of medals, for decorative purposes. 
Of this form of binding I cannot adduce any 
example from Italy. The classical instance ° is the 
Silver Library of Albrecht, Duke of Prussia, in 
which, about the middle of the sixteenth-century, 
German goldsmiths inserted in the silver bindings 
reproductions of medals of the Duke and his wife, 
or Flotner plaquettes, and even of an Italian 
plaquette, the sleeping Amor of Fra Antonio da 

Much more interesting than these inlaid medals 
are the impressions on the leather bindings from 
stamps of medallic character, either made expressly 
for the purpose, or simply moulded on existing 
medals. The best known instance of these " cameo 
bindings ", as they are called, is probably one in 
the British Museum, which bears the head of Julius 
Caesar impressed on it.* In this case we are 
fortunate in being able to produce [Plate I, c] an 
actual binder's stamp corresponding exactly to the 
impression in question. It is in the British 
Museum (Dep. of Coins and Medals),' and beside 
it lie two casts (one in bronze, one in silver) from 
impressions made from it." The stamp has no 
attachment at the back, but could doubtless have 
had a handle fixed to it with wax for practical 
purposes. It differs from the ordinary in cavo 
reproductions of medals in having its face consider- 
ably convex instead of flat. Impressions made 

'References to which I owe to Geh. Friedensburg and 
Dr. Menadier. 

'P. Schwenke u. K. Lange, Die Silber-Bibliothek Herzog 
Albrichts von Preiissen (1894). 

8H. P. Home, The Binding 0/ Books (1894), PI. V and p. 94. 
The book is Bonini's Enchiridion Gramtnalices, Florence, 1514, 
and is exhibited in Case XXXII (No. 5) of the British Museum 
exhibition of bookbindings. In Mr.Horne's collection in Florence 
is another impression from the same or a similar stamp on a 
piece of leather, evidently cut from a binding. For much 
information on the subject of these "cameo-bindings" I have 
to thank Mr. A. W. Pollard and Mr. Cyril Davenport ; the 
lalter's work on this class of bindings appeared alter this 
article was in type. 

'Another is in the Berlin Museum (No. 578. PI. XXXVIII, 
of the Catalogue of Italian Bronzes). 

'" Such impressions are common ; one is figured in the Berlin 
Catalogue of Italian Bron?es, No, 577, on PI. XXXVIII. Cp. 
Molinier, Les Plaquettes, p. 28, No. 55. 

from it are therefore cup-shaped, or scyphate, as 
numismatists say ; and supposing the stamp itself 
to have been made from a medal, that medal would 
also necessarily have been scyphate. But as that 
shape is all but unexampled in medals of the 
period," it is most probable that this particular 
stamp, with its convex or bombe face, was 
not simply made from an ordinary medal, but 
expressly designed for the purpose of stamping 
leather or other material.'" It will be obvious to 
anyone who makes experiments that a stamp with 
such a surface is more practical than one with a 
flat surface, the whole of which has to be driven 
into the binding to a uniform depth. Such convex 
stamps were also used for the binding of the 1494 
Greek Anthology in the British Museum, which is 
exhibited in the same case with the Bonini ;'^ here 
the types are the heads of Philip of Macedon and 
Alexander the Great (ultimately derived, perhaps 
via Cesati's medal," from the head of Athena on 
Alexander's gold stater). 

Flat-faced tools, on the other hand, have been 
used for the binding of a MS.histor\- of the " Cigni " 
(Schwanen) family in the British Museum.'^ The 
medallions are unfortunately much worn. That on 
the upper board seems to be meant for Charles V, 
whose arms appear in one of the first illuminated 
pages of the book. On the lower board is a head 
which it is possible to identify, worn as it is, with 
the head of Alexander the Great as represented on 
a known Italian plaquette.'^ The plaquette, it is 
true, is oval, and bears the inscription ALI SAN DRO 
in front of the head, whereas the medallion on the 
binding is circular and shows no trace of the in- 
scription ; but the diameter of the medallion and 
the greater diameter of the plaquette are the same 
within a few millimetres, and certain details in the 
helmet and the hair leave no doubt that the same 
model was used for the bust in both. 

Closely allied to these medallic stamps are those 
which represent plaquettes, of which the stamps on 
Grolier's 1497 Celsus in the British Museum are the 
most famous example." These are made from 
plaquettes by Giovanni delle Corniole." 

In almost every collection of medalsand plaquettes 
will be found reproductions in cavo, which we may, 

" The obverse of the well-known medal of Sannazaro (" Actius 
Syncerus") has this concave form. 

'■^ The conve.x surface would, of course, not be inconsistent 
with its being a reproduction of an engraved gem in the first in- 
stance. There are many gems with the same tyre (head ofCssar 
between lituus and star), but all seem to be oval in shape. See 
S. Reinach, Recueil de Pierres Gravies, PI. 109, No. 3, etc. 

"Home, op.cit. pp. 93 f. 

"See Burlington Magazine, Feb., igii, p. 268. 

'' Stowe, 657. Mr. Robin Flower kindly called my attention 
to this binding. 

'*£.^. Berlin Catalogue of Italian Bronzes, No. 570. Another 
oval specimen, with the field cut away, is in the Rosenheim 

I'Horne, p. 91 ; Fletcher, Foreign Bookbindings, PI. 9 ; Biblio- 
grafhica. I (1895), Plates I and II (coloured). 

"Molinier, Nos. 137 (Codes) and 1 39 (Curtius). 


Notes on Italian Medals 

for brevity's sake, speak of as matrices. When the 
medal corresponding was a piece struck from dies 
(like that of Alfonso d'Este mentioned below), the 
matrix was just like the original die, and could 
indeed be made by casting from such die if it were 
available ; otherwise it must have been made by a 
double process of moulding from the medal itself. 
However made, such matrices could be used as 
stamps for leather or any other soft substance. 
Mr. Whitcombe Greene possesses a fine specimen 
of a Savonarola medal in this form,'" and in the 
Museo Nazionale at Florence are several other 
examples.* These pieces naturally have no 
reverses; but an exception is to be found in an 
example of the French medal issued at Vienne in 
1494 in commemoration of the birth of the Dauphin 
Charles-Orland, in which both obverse and reverse 
of the original medal are reproduced in cava 
back to back.-' 

That such matrices as I have described were, 
however, regarded as objects worth perserving, 
apart from any practical use to which they might 
be put, is indicated by an entry in the inventory of 
the Este wardrobe of 1494,- where we read : " Una 
medaglia pichola tonda cum la testa del Duca 
Francesco in cavo in ottone dorato ".*' 

The same inventory-' contains three entries of 
" medals " which 1 take the opportunity of 
mentioning here, in the hope of obtaining further 
information on the subject. The material of which 
they were made is called " corno ", or " corno 
rosso ", and they are described as being " stampate 
in cavo ", and mounted in gilt or brass. They 
seem, then, to be impressions made in horn from 
actual medals. Possibly " corno rosso " may be a 

" Similar to Armand III, p. 33. Armand regards this med;il 
as a work of the i6th century. 

2»Thus in the Carrand Collection : No. 581, the oval medal of 
Paul II, as No. 27 of my list in Xtinitstn. Cliioii., 1910, p. 349, 
but measuring only 40 by 33 mm. No. 582, Alfonso I d'Este, as 
Armand II, 90, 4. Also various plaqueltes in the general col- 
lection. Supino in his catalogue of the Museo Nazionale (p. 275) 
describes No. 581 as a reproduction of an engraved gem ; and 
such a gem may, indeed, have been the original of the medal. 

^ British Museum. Dept. of British and Medixval Antiquities ; 
see Archaohgiii, Vol. LXII, p. 185, note on Table XL, No. 4. 

«= Published by G. Campori, Raccolta di Calaloghi cd Inventarii 
incditi (Modena, 1870), p. 29. 

^ I must confess to some doubt whether " in ottone dorato " 
does not refer merely to the mount in which this medal was set, 
seeing that this entry occurs in conjunction with those quoted 
in the next footnote describing medals of horn. The scribe 
may in this case have omitted the words "di corno" and 

»* Pp. 29, 30 : " Una medaglia di corno stampala in cavo de la 
testa del Duca Borso quand' era zovene fornita de ottone 
dorato. . . . L'n' altra medaglia di corno rosso cum la figura 
del Duca Borso in cavo incassata in ottone dorato cum una 
letera interno dal cerchiello a niello. , . . Quattro medaglie in 
corno rosso stampate cave fornite in ottone dorato de le quale 
gie ne sono due che hano leltcre intorno al cerchiello aniellato 
ef due senza, una il Duca Borso, I'altra il Co. Lorenzo, I'altra il 
Marchese Nicolo, et I'altra una Damisella''. There is only one 
medal of Borso as a young man extant, and that is the well- 
known piece by Amadeo da Milano. Similarly the Marchese 
Nicold is only represented by the medals which were discussed 
in this magazine (Dec., 1907, p. 147) in connexion with 

popular name for tortoise-shell. I am not aware 
whether any such objects exist of so early a date. 
But that the art of stamping horn, which was 
developed for purposes of portraiture in the seven- 
teenth century, was known as early as the fifteenth 
century is evident from an ink-horn of English 
workmanship exhibited in the Mediaeval Room at 
the British Museum.^ 

GiAN Marco Cavalli at Hall. 
The pretty medal of Maximilian I illustrated on 
Plate I, b, was acquired for the collection of 
Messrs. Max and Maurice Rosenheim some months 
ago. There was already in the collection a worn 
specimen — since presented to the British Museum — 
but the excellent preservation of the newacquisition, 
which has sufTered little since it left the dies, 
made it possible to recognize, what was not obvious 
before, its resemblance in style to the work of 
Gian Marco Cavalli. The treatment of the relief 
and the arrangement of the bust clearly betray 
the hand of the artist who made the testoons 
of Maximilian at Hall in 1506.-° The. last 
letter of the inscription on the obverse of this 
medal (MAXIMILIANVS • D • GRA • REX • F) 
was difficult to explain until, in searching in the 
British Museum Collection amongst other medals 
of the period, I came across the companion 
portrait of Maximilian's father, Frederick III, 
which is reproduced in Plate I, D. This is 
Obviously P and F mean Pater and Filius, and as 
obviously the two portraits were made at the same 
time. The portrait of Frederick, since he was dead, 
was doubtless copied from some painting ; the 
artist also may have had Bertoldo's medal of 1469 
to help him. The technical details — as seen in the 
border of short strokes, the faint lines ruled with 
compasses to guide the inscription, etc. — are the 
same in both pieces. Only the portrait of 
Frederick suffers somewhat by comparison with 
the other from being a cast — an early one, be it 
said — from the struck original, whereas the Rosen- 
heim Maximilian is itself struck. 

The reverse of the latter represents the Emperor 

"'Col. Croft Lyons calls my attention to the existence of 
moulds in horn made from med.ils, apparently for the purpose 
of reproducing them in some soit material ; but the extant 
specimens do not seem to be very early. Among a number in 
the possession of Mr. C. H. Read, made from French and 
German medals, the earliest piece represented is a large 
multipIe-thaler of Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick, 1647 ; and 
there is little means of judging when the mould was made. 
But it is not unreasonable to suppose that such moulds belong 
in general to the period when O'Brisset's invention made 
portraiture in stamped horn or whalebone popular. 

^ We are not here concerned with the question of the 
authorship of the large cast model for a testoon, which some 
attribute to a copyist of Cavalli, some, with more reason, I 
believe, to Cavalli himself. And we may also leave aside the 
question of the attribution to Cavalli of the medals of Battista 
Spagnoli and Francesco Bonatli, for which the grounds seem to 
be insecure, so far as their style is concerned. 


^a D 






riding, accompanied by Mars, Justice, and Good 
Faith (Marte favente, lustitia Fideque comitanti- 
bus). Now, this reverse has hitherto been known " 
as attached to another portrait of Maximilian, with 
bare head, wearing armour, and having the 
ATOR (in ROMNO, evidently, the bar across part 
of the M, making it read ROMANO, has dis- 
appeared owing to faulty striking or casting). This 
is the identical portrait which is found attached as 
reverse to the portrait of Frederick III in Plate I, D. 
Thus all these three of Frederick I II and 
two of Maximilian, are closely connected with each 
other. The minor technical details in the bare- 
headed portrait of Maximilian are similar to those in 
the two other pieces ; we may note the border, and 
the way in which the bust is truncated. In relief, 
however, it is a little higher, less like the work of 
a die engraver. This difference may be due to 
the artist's having, with practice, attained a 
somewhat bolder style. At least we may regard 
it as fairly certain that, the two portraits of 
Frederick and Maximilian as father and son having 
been engraved by the same man, presumably 
Cavaili, at Hall in 1506, the other portrait of 
Maximilian was done either by him or by some one 
who had been directly trained by him. 

The identification of the little medal of Maxi- 
milian as the work of Cavaili was typical of the late 
Mr. Max Rosenheim's acute perception of style. 
The writer of these Notes cannot leave the subject 
without recording his deep sense of the loss of one 
of the most generous and sympathetic personalities 
which it has been his fortune to encounter. 

Antomo della Torre, by his father Giulio. 
An amiable feature in the character of the Veronese 
dilettante Giulio della Torre is the pleasure which 
he took in portraying the members of his own 
family. He has left us medals, which have long 
been known, of his brother Marcantonio, of his 
sons {Francesco and Girolamo, of his daughter 
Beatrice ; and one of a daughter-in-law, Diamante 
Bevilacqua, wife of Antonio della Torre, is mention- 
ed by Cicognara, though no specimen of it seems 
to be known at the present time. As some com- 
pensation for the lack of the portrait of Diamante, 
it may be worth while to make known the portrait 
of her husband — an apparently unpublished piece 
in the British Museum (diameter 66'5 mm.) 
[Plate I, e]. The obverse has the downright un- 
assuming character of most of the medallist's work; 
he makes no pretence at composition, but the 
evident sincerity of the portrait has its attractive 
power. So has the quaintly simple inscription : 
QVI FECIT OPVS. The reverse, with the 
inscription VIA INCERTA, shows Antonio, in 
^Van Mieris, I, p. 420; Armand, H, 131, i. 

Notes on Italian Medals 

allegoric nudity, seated at the foot of a tall cliff 
by the sea-shore. Pensively resting his head on 
his hand, he stretches out his left foot to a 
dragon, which approaches, and appears about 
to lick it in a friendly way. On the sea is a 
three-masted ship, with sails furled ; above, near 
the top of the cliff, is what looks like a bird flying 
upwards. I have not the least idea what exactly is 
meant by this design, but itdoubtless conceals some 
commonplace about the necessity of a heavenly 
guide in the uncertain ways of this life, like the 
guardian angel, MEVS DVX, on the beautiful 
reverse of the artist's medal of himself. 


Lelio Torelli, by Francesco da Sangallo. 
In addition to the signed medals of Francesco 
da Sangallo, one or two pieces that bear no 
signature have been attributed to him. Of these 
some, such as the bold portrait of Leo X, do not 
carry conviction as to his authorship.^s That, 
however, will hardly be said of the piece ^ repro- 
duced in Plate II, F, a piece which is apparently 
unique and unpublished, though it has been in 
the British Museum for many years. It represents 
the jurist, Lelio Torelli, of Fano, and is dated 1551. 
On the reverse, within a wreath, is the somewhat 
schoolboyish couplet : 

Vera fides reruraque scientia magna, Torelle, 
Tam charum Cosmo te facit esse duci. 

Torelli was born at Fano in 1489 ; he dis- 
tinguished himself as a citizen of that city, but 
eventually settled at Florence, where he became an 
important man of affairs, serving Cosmo I as 
uditore, chancellor and privy councillor. He died 
in 1576. A medal of his little grandson, also 
named Lelio, was made by Pastorino of Siena in 


This work has all the marks of Sangallo's style, 
though one of them, his coarseness of conception 
and characterization, is happily mitigated ; the 
portrait has more dignity and less brutality than 
most of those which we owe to him. The treat- 
ment of the beard and of the wreath is especially 
characteristic, as may be seen by comparing the 
artist's two portraits of himself, dated respectively 
1550 and 1551, on which a similar wreath appears. 

Bernardo Nasi. 
The fine medal of this person in Mr. Oppen- 
heimer's collection, which was recently reproduced 
in this Magazine, '" remains, I believe, for the 
present unique. But it is perhaps worth while 
to place on record the fact that another medal of 
the same man exists, although it has hitherto passed 
under another name. It is in the Museo Nazionale 

^See Bode, in Zeitschr.f. bild. Kiiitsl., XV, p, 41. 

^Diameter 95mm. 

™ Vol. XLX (June, 1911), p. 139. 


Notes on Italian Medals 

at Florence," and undoubtedly from the same 
hand as the large medal ; but instead of bearing 
Nasi's full name, it has merely the initials B.N.V. 
P.M.Q.M. The portrait is a close reproduction of 
the larger one on a small scale, the diameter being 
34mm. On the reverse is a figure of Mercury 
standing to left, carrying caduceus in left and purse 
in right, with the inscnption XVNTIVS PACIS. 
Arraand, not having the large medal before him, 
ingeniously identified the person as Bernardo 
Navagero (1506-1565), and consequently dated the 
medal in the third instead of in the first quarter of 
the sixteenth century. The first four letters of 
the inscription may now be interpreted, in the 
light of the large medal, as " Bernardus Nasius 
virtute preditus"; but for M.Q.M. I have no 
explanation to offer. 

Giov. Battista Capocaccia. 
In his"Diporti Notturni", published in 1579, 
Francesco Ferretti makes mention of " il Capo 
Caccia M. Gio. Battista " as an artist distinguished 
by his skill in modelling in "stucco" not only 
portraits (immagini private) but whole "historic'. 
Vasari, on the other hand '-in speaking in his 
second edition of Capocaccia's portraits in 
stucco, gives him the baptismal name of Mario, 
Neither writer mentions the man as medallist. 
Indeed, his medallic work is of small artistic value, 
but seeing that it has survived, whereas apparently 
his stucco portraits have not, there is no harm in 
attempting to find out the truth about his medals. ^ 
One signed " Opus Capocacciae " has long been 
known [Plate 1 1, H, the British Museum specimen] ; 

" Armand III, p. 270 V ; Supino, p. 235, No. 798. 

»2Ed. Milanesi, VII, p. 544. 

This I have endeavoured to state briefly in Ttiieme's 
k'unstkr-Lcxikoii (s.n. Capocaccia) ; but where illustrations are 
not possible only a bare statement of opinion can be made. 

it is dated 1581 and commemorates the restoration 
of a tower at Ancona. On the obverse are the 
arms of Ancona ; on the reverse, the statues of SS. 
Cyriacus, Liberius and Marcellinus.'' This piece, 
hitherto the only extant work attributed to 
Capocaccia, throws no light on his baptismal 
name. But there is another medal,'^ representing 
Guidubaldo II della Kovere as fourth Duke 
of Urbino, which bears the signature G. B. 
CAPO. The Vienna specimen is illustrated in 
Plate II, g. The obverse is in somewhat higher 
relief than the reverse, or than either side of the 
Ancona medal, but that is doubtless due to the fact 
that it represents an " imagine privata ", whereas 
the others are concerned with " historie ". Between 
the flat handling and overcrowded treatment of 
the latter subjects I see considerable resemblance ; 
at least, nothing to prevent our assigning them to 
the same hand. 

If so, P'erretti's name for Capocaccia is confirmed 
as against Vasari's ; and, considering Ferretti's 
local knowledge, he is the more likely of the two 
to be right. Guidubaldo was born in 1514 ; on 
this medal he may well be fifty years old, which 
would bring its date down to about 1564.^^ 
Vasari's mention of the artist, as having made stucco 
portraits of Pius V and Cardinal Bonelli, shows 
that he was already famous before 1568, so that 
there is no improbability in his having been 
employed by the Duke of Urbino some years before. 
What Vasari was thinking of when he called him 
Mario it is impossible to say ; but he may have 
confused him with the goldsmith and medallist 
Mario of Perugia, who was beginning to make a 
name about 1561. 

"Armand I, p. 283; Trcsor dc Num., M6d. ital. II, XX, 2 ; 
Keary, Brit. Mus. Giiiile (0 Ital. Med., No. 220 ; Regling, 
Samwluiig Lanna, No. 252, PI. XVI. 

3=^ Armand III, p. 81. 

36 Armand dates it about 1555 ; I do not know precisely upon 
what grounds. 

BY D. S. MacColl 

>OME years ago Reuben Townroe 
^showed me a copy he had made from 
' a portrait painted by Stevens. He told 
' me Stevens had set great store by this 
_ _ Jportrait, and carried it always about 
with him, as he did his design for a bronze door 
at the Geological Museum in Jermyn Street, the 
drawing now at South Kensington. He also told 
me that he thought that the picture had been 
bought at the sale of Stevens's effects by a Mr. Eaton 
who was connected with Norwich. In the summer 
of last year, I went to Norwich to search for the 
picture, and without much difficulty found it in 
the hands of Mr. Eaton's widow. It is now at 
the Tate Gallery Exhibition. Mr. Gamble seems 


also to have made a copy, for a version is in Mrs. 
Gamble's possession. In the sale catalogue the 
picture appears as No. 20, "a portrait of Mr. Tobitt 
{sic) by Alfred Stevens ". The price in my marked 
copy of the catalogue is ;^5 5 o. Mr. Eaton's note 
upon it was as follows, " My picture by Alfred Stevens 
is a portrait of a young man named Tobin who was 
a friend of Stevens in Italy, where I think the 
portrait was painted, but of that I am not sure. It 
used to hang in Stevens's room, and I bought it at 
the sale of his things after his death ". 

Nothing seemed to be known to the associates 
of Stevens about this Mr. Tobin, but it is possible 
that the publication of the portrait may lead to his 
identification. It obviously belongs to the Venetian 

period of Stevens's portrait-painting in Italy about 
1S40, of which the Morris Moore and No. 2213 * at 
the Tate Gallery are the finest examples. In its 
present condition it is not the equal of either of these 
works, nor, in certainty of drawing, of the quite early 
portraits ; but it has evidently been worked upon 
when it was lined, and it was possibly a first experi- 
ment in the Venetian manner, aiming at a rich 
harmony of golden red and olive green as well as 
the poetic dreamy poise of Titian's early portraits. 
Stevens's affection for it may have been partly a 
personal matter. 

The purchaser of the portrait, Mr. George 
Clayton Eaton (1834-1900), began life as a painter, 
and through his teacher, Mr. Heaviside of 
Norwich, was introduced to Stevens. He had 
passed through Carey's and the Academy Schools, 
and in 1858 for about four months was Stevens's 
pupil, and afterwards stayed with him as a friend. 
During this time he painted the interior of Stevens's 
study at Haverstock Hill that is now at the Tate 
Gallery Exhibition, a picture that shows Stevens 
reading a paper in the room for which he 
designed the mahogany fittings and furniture, and 
car\-ed part of them with his own hand. In one 
room of the house, I have heard from another 
friend, he amused himself with weaving tapestry, 
so much was he a master of the crafts before the 
famous " movement " of William Morris began. 

Mr. Eaton wrote down in 1890 what he could 
remember of Stevens and his conversation that 
was not too private for print : these notes his son 
Mr. Frederic R. Eaton has been good enough to 
send to me, and I will give them here, omitting 
what is known, believing that for the fragmentary 
modern Vasari, that bulges so hugely at the 
wrong places, the few personal traits and sayings 
that sur%'ive from Stevens deserve to be saved. 

"Stevens told me that he went to Italy by sea, and, if I 
remember right, was three months going. ... He told me 
at diflerent times various tales about his Italian life. . . . He 
was once, he said, under fire, some soldiers having been on the 
track of the party he was with. They had to escape by way of 
a bridge or high parapet, and an old man was shot ; after which 
Stevens had to cross the bridge, and described how be did so, 
walking, and not creeping, to make a good show as an English- 
man. He talked of writing a paper, to be called ' How we used 
to conspire'. . . . I also remember his speaking of an Italian 
expressing surprise, and something like horror, at one so young 
being sent off alone to a foreign country. That he did not like 
the Italians was very forcibly shown by his sending his work- 
men to see Garibaldi when he came to London in '64, telling 
them they would see 'an honest Italian', and adding, 'You'll 
never see another ! ' This he told me himself. You probably 
know that he made a flying visit to Rome during the time that 
the Wellington monument was in hand [and the decorations for 
S. Paul's]. He then made water-colour sketches of the ceiling 
of the Sistine Chapel. He told me of his dii£culty in getting to 
make these sketches (or others at the same time), and what he 
considered the insolence of a priest, who afterwards apologized, 
saying, ' I did not know you were a professore '. Upon which 
Stevens gave him a lecture : ' In the first place, I am not a 
professore, but a student, and in the next place, you ought to be 
more considerate for students than for professors, as they have 
more need of help '. He spoke of the general suUenness of the 
priests at that time, showing that it was during the Garibaldi 
troubles. You may have heard of his adventure at Sheffield, 

^Burlington Magazine, Vol. XIV, pp. 266, etc. 

A Portrait by Alfred Stevens 

when he was garotted 2, and afterwards taken into the gaol to 
see some men who were arrested. He saw the man who had 
attacked him, but would not swear to him, because he did not 
catch him himself. At any rate, that was the way in which he 
described it to me, adding that he should never forget the look 
the man gave him when he declined to swear to him. ... I 
remember Stevens working on his competition model for the 
1851 monument, and saying that 'it was to stand among trees, 
and therefore should be as unlike trees as possible '. I suppose 
he was thinking of Gothic architecture. He once spoke 
(whether or not in connexion with this monument I cannot 
remember, but the two cases illustrate each other) of an artist 
who had built a house in the Xew Forest, and made it externally 
of the roughest materials in order that it might harmonize with 
the forest, and civilization be approached gradually. 'A fine 
artist he must have been '. said Stevens. The right thing to do, 
in his opinion, was to build the house in 'the most civilized 
style of architecture ' as a contrast to the surrounding forest. 
Speaking of painting a tree, he once said, ' It should be done 
in a kind of inspiration '. He once, in speaking of his mother, 
mentioned her sorrow at the loss of a fine tree at some familiar 
point in the road, and of her missing ' the beautiful form '. He 
seemed to think this a proof of his having inherited his love of 
form, (Before he received the commission to execute the 
Wellington monument, while we were one day at Walham 
Green, talking about the matter, Stevens said, 'They must give 
it to me ; no one else knows anything about ornament '. . . . 

" One day, when we were looking over Cassell's ' Art 
Treasures ' (published at about the time of the Manchester Art 
Treasures Exhibition in 1857), we came upon a portrait of 
Gainsborough. ' That fellow's like me', said Stevens. I did 
not see it at the time, but have since thought that there really 
was a likeness^. Sir Joshua Reynolds once said that he saw 
more in an old piece of rag than he could paint. Stevens did 
not enter into this way of looking at the matter, and wondered 
that he spoke so. He once, in showing me one of his red chalk 
life studies of an arm, said, ' There, you see, is all that makes an 
arm noble ! ' 

"Among the pictures that used to hang in his room at 
7 Canning Place was a copy of one of Titian's portraits at 
Hampton Court,-' I think he was very fond of this portrait, 
and considered it a successful copy. One day we went to 
Hampton Court together (this must have been in '58), where we 
saw the original. He was a good deal struck with the difference 
in the expression of the portrait and his own copy. He had 
made a graver and what he would have called a more 'noble' 
face than the original had. Soon after this visit cracks appeared 
on his picture, and I remember his putting it out in the full 
sunshine, that the cracks, as I supposed, might enlarge (as they 
did), and so destroy the picture ; for I think he was a good deal 
disappointed in it, and had lost his pleasure in it. However, 
this must be taken for what it is worth. . . . 

..." The large design for the Isaiah in S. Paul's was partly 
painted in what was (till lately) the Wellington Chapel, and 
was then slung up to the place now occupied by its mosaic 
copy, in order that he might see it and judge of its effect there. 
. . . While painting the Raffaelle ceiling at the Cr>-stal Palace, 
he told me he used to go and see what the other artists were 
doing, and of how sharply he criticized Owen Jones's (I 
believe) coloured Elgin frieze with the horses, etc., telling him, 
' You have now done the exact thing you ought not to have 
done, bringing out lines intended to be kept quiet '. He pointed 
out to me the sketchy style of the ornament in this Raffaelle 
room, showing how that sort of thing should be done — with 
spirit, that is, and freedom, .as a work of fancy (I have mentioned 
something of the same kind as to the painting of a tree). This 
reminds me that in the original model for the Wellington 
Monument, which was really a sketch, parts not in sight were 
quite unfinished. At the time he received the commission to 
ex2cute the work a newspaper notice of him and of it spoke of 

* Stevens stood up to the roughs and routed them ; _ he after- 
wards laughed at his companion, who had run for the watch. 
Stevens was a well-knit man and a good boxer, well able to defend 
himself. Another friend told me that in a cafe in Italy he was 
once attacked by a man with a knife. Stevens seized a chair, 
and pinned the man to the wall till he was disarmed. He once 
thrashed a man who was ill-treating a horse. 

*The likeness is not very obvious. Mr. Holford used to say 
that Stevens resembled Napoleon. 

*Xow in the possession of Mrs. Gamble. 


A Portrait by Alfred Stevens 

its being nnfinished becanse he was ioo foor to finish it. This 
misunderstanding of the work and allusion to his own circum- 
stances cut him to the quick. What effect his early residence in 
Italy had upon his religious ideas I do not know, but he once 
told me, 'I don't believe in doctrines. . . .' 

" I forgot to say that Stevens thought very highly of 
Hogaith's 'Analysis of Beauty', and called it the best book 
ever written on composition '. 

" I once asked him what he thought of Mulready's rtd chalk 
life studies, which at that time were being exhibited, and were 
thought much of — I should say, that Mulready seems to have 
looked upon the red chalk as a means of giving almost colour 
to the drawings, and that there was nothing expressed in them 
by lines. Stevens' studies in red chalk, on the contrary, were 
almost, or entirely, I may say, studies of form expressed by 
lines. His answer to a student was this : 'Well: the paper was 
worth about three-halfpence, I suppose and now it is spoiled ! ' 

'■ Stevens had made a great study of Venetian painting and 
believed that he understood ihe principle on which the Venetian 
painters worked. That principle, although he was ready to 
teach it to anyone who desired to learn it, he would not tell just 
anyone. In speaking of flesh-painting, I once said that it was 
looked upon as a great mystery. ' It is a mystery ', he 
said. The principle was this — not to mix warm and cool 
colours together, which would produce a muddy colour, but 
to paint the cool colours solid and glaze the warm over them. 
Again : not to glaze the whole colour over a grey preparation ; 
but in the solid painting to mix all such colour as could be 
solidly painted at once. He said that the description given by 
Vasari (1 think) w-as exactly this method. Thus in painting 
flesh he would mix a cool red with white and, shade it with 
grey until the actual shadow was reached, and, in fact, carry 
the cool shade through the shadow. Then, as described by the 
old writer, he would pass over this cool preparation of solid 
painting ' the true fiesh ' — i.e., the warm flesh colour with red and 
yellow and some white in it, bringing it up to the shadow, but 

not into it. The shadow would be glazed with a warm trans- 
parent brown which would pass over into the penumbra. The 
effect of such flesh-painting is certainly very Venetian, and I 
have no doubt whatever that the Venetians did so paint. Titian 
he looked upon as the very King of Painters, and in Titian's 
flesh-painting it is evident that this principle is adopted. He 
said that in Venetian pictures you would think all the colour 
was in the shadows, yet in truth it is not so, the solidly painted 
colour being pure in the lights and the shadows deriving their 
effect from the glazing. It is quite certain that such purity of 
colour can be obtained in no other way ; the glowing warmth 
of effects like Claude's, for example, can only be got in this 
manner. Some people speak of glazing (by which name Stevens 
would include a liltle mixture of solid colour) as if it were not a 
legitimate manner of painting. Nothing can be more absurd. 
The last refinement of finish in colour and glow can only be 
obtained by gl.izing . . . Stevens told me that once while he 
was copying a Venetian picture at the National Gallery, or some 
other English gallery, Wornum, the Director of the National 
Gallery, came up to him. 'Well ', said Stevens, ' is this the way 
the Venetians painted ? ' 'I think you might have got the 
effect by solid painting ', said Wornum. This shows to me a 
wonderful absence of appreciation". 

I may add that the writer of these notes was 
an occasional exhibitor at the Academy, but after 
settling in Norwich he devoted himself chiefly to 
literary, artistic, and charitable administration. He 
took a leading part in the conversion of Norwich 
Castle into a museum and picture gallery, was 
elected secretary at the beginning of the scheme 
in 1 89 1, and compiled the catalogue of the pictures. 
Part of Stannus's biographical information for the 
life of Stevens was derived from Mr. Eaton. 


'N December 22, 1521, Cardinal 
' Wolsey purchased for the " legate's 
chaumbre at Hampton Courte " various 
'tapestries of the " Story of the 7 Deadly 
,Synnes". On November 25, 1910, a 
panel representing the right hand haff of the 
design of No. 4, Plate II, was sold at Messrs. 
Puttick and Simpson's to Captain H. Lindsay 
for the phenomenal price of £6,'joo. The sale of 
this panel raises questions of great interest in 
connexion with its date, its design, its history, its 
correct title, and the tapestries of the same type 
still existing. 

Made about 1500, on the very threshold of the 
Renaissance, this panel and the seven others, 
which I desire to associate with it, show in 
design and idea the full flower of mediasvalism. 
Through all of them run two leading motives : the 
religious history of the Redemption as it appears 
in various cycles of Miracle Plays, and the moral 
allegory of the Conflict of Virtues and Vices — 
between themselves and in aiding or attacking Man- 
kind — which persists all through the Middle Ages 
from the semi-classical " Psychomachia " of Pru- 
dentius to the Paternoster Plays of the fourteenth 
century and the Moralities of the fifteenth. This 
inextricable interweaving of ideas has naturally led 
to extraordinary confusion in the description and 


nomenclature of separate pieces. With regard to 
the eight pieces dealt with in the present article, it 
is right to enter here a vigorous protest 
on two points. Single panels have been so 
often and so picturesquely described by well-known 
writers that it may appear superfluous to speak of 
them again. But it is perfectly criminal, from an 
historical point of view, to describe one of these 
eight pieces as if it stood alone. It is even worse 
and more misleading to invent titles for individual 
pieces, which they never bore in the language of 
contemporaries, and which stand in no relation to 
those of the other allied pieces. In one case, as will 
be seen below, the guessed title of a single piece has 
led to a startling error in description. The title of 
Christ inspiring Faith has been applied to what 
certainly represents the Resurrection and its 
accompanying incidents. As the pieces pass into 
separate hands under the pressure of high prices, 
invented titles can only lead to the most appalling 
confusion in the attempts of investigators to 
identify them. I may be allowed to say here that, 
though I am anxious to modify much that I said 
in an historical sketch in "The Times" on 
November 26, 1910, I am still of opinion that the 
panel sold at Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's formed 
part of Cardinal Wolsey's purchase of The Story of 
the Seven Deadly Sins, nor am I unwilling to admit 








Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins " 

the application of the same title to the whole eight 
panels now under consideration, I do not wish 
to contend that these eight panels must necessarily 
be regarded as a complete and indissoluble set ; 
but I do wish to show that there is something 
more substantial in their connexion than the obvious 
artistic resemblance. Six of the eight pieces 
were together in the collection of the Duke 
of Berwick and Alva at the palace of the Dukes of 
Liria at Madrid, and were sold at the Hotel Drouot, 
Paris, April 7-20, 1877. Four pieces of a similar 
set were at the Vatican in 1855, and are probably 
still there. Three were together at Toledo Cathe- 
dral in 1890, and have since been sold. Three are 
still together at Burgos Cathedral. Two were at 
Hampton Court in Wolsey's time, and one is still 
there. This coincidence of locality is some 
support for coincidence of design and manufacture. 
The table of descriptions printed here at the foot 
of the pages opposite the illustrations will, it is 
hoped, show clearly not only the exact contents of 
each panel, but also the development of the three 
ideas intermingled in the tapestries. 

Such is this splendid series of Brussels tapestries, 
of which individual panels have often exercised 
the imaginative pens of experts ; but it deserves a 
better fate than to be described piecemeal. 
Between the overture of the Creation and the 
grande finale of the Last judgment, the music 
grows and swells to the crash of battle before the 
Cross and the noble battle-hymn of the " Pange 
lingua gloriosi prelium certaminis". As M. 

Eugene Miinfz has well said : — "Sur un ensemble 
de six tapisseries repr^sentant, dans les donnees 
plus ou moins symboliques, la Creation, le Triomphe 
du Christianisme, le Jiigenieiit dernier, les allegories 
morales ne dominent que dans une seule pi^ce le 
Combat des Vertiis et des Vices, ou peutetre plus 
e.xactement les Peclies Capitaux ". The main themes 
of Redemption and Conflict each display an 
orderly progression and blend harmoniously 
throughout. Single allegorical figures are, as it 
were, leit-motifs, the meaning of which may be 
recognized as surely as in the score of an opera. 
To pursue the musical metaphor, each set of scenes 
is overlaid with some idea which dominates but 
does not conceal the main themes ; in panels 2 and 
3, for example, Justice and Mercy, in 4 and 5 
Challenge and Combat, in 6 and 7 Victory, 
Vengeance and Pardon. Apparent discords are 
resolved when the seemingly incongruous introduc- 
tion of allegorical figures in the groups is interpreted 
in the light of theological use : Natura as typifying 
the Law of Nature ; Abraham, etc., the Old 
Testament, the Old Law, God's Justice without His 

To proceed to the general question of artistic 
design and particular points of interest — these 
panels have always been attributed to the ateliers 
of Brussels. On the style, as a whole, of these and 
other similar pieces, M. Destree's "Maitre Philippe", 
etc., should be referred to as the latest monograph. 
The most distinctive feature common to the whole 
set, except the Creation, is the two seated figures at 


[The titles are those which have been given by various writers to e.ich piece. Where the same groups fall appropriately under 
more than one of the three headings of Redemption, Mankind, and Virtues and Vices, they are repeated in order to show the 
sequence of each story. The sub-headings under Owners refer to separate examples of the panels.] 

1. Creation. 

Redemption — Seven scenes of the Creation and Fall. Justitia 

and Misericordia on either side of the Trinity. 
Mankind — The same scenes fall under this heading. 
Virtues and Vices — The same scenes fall under this heading. 
Mottos — None. 
Owners — 

(a) Berwick Sale, 1877. B.aron Erlanger, 1880. Chateau 
de Haar, 1912. [Plate I, No. i]. 

(b) Narbonne Cathedral, igii. 

Ic) Toledo Cathedral, 1890 ; Mr. Wertheimer, 1902. 

(d) The VaUcan, 1855. 

(«) Fragment exhibited at Brussels in 1905. 

2. Deadly Sins. 
Redemption — 

(a) Justitia, Misericordia, Veritas and Pax pleading before 

the Trinity for Man. 
(6) Humilitas and Caritas seated on either side of Christ ; 

Misericordia, Natura, and Miseria holding a charter, 

kneeling before Him, 
Mankind — 

(a) Man and woman embracing. 

(6) Virtues in an arbour holding a cloth with a picture of the 


(c) Homo, with Luxuria, attacked by Justitia, who is re- 
strained by Misericordia. 

(d) Homo, with Misericordia ; Gratia Dei offering him a 
breastplate and Pax a helmet. 

(«) Homo disarmed and attacked by Luxuria and Gula ; 
Temptator blowing a horn ; Spes behind. 

Virtues and Vices — The same scenes fall under this heading. 
j\/o/tos— " Reddam ulcionem hostibus ". " Ascendit mors per 

fenestras ". 

{a) Card. Wolsey, 152 1 ; Hen. VIII, circ. 1530. Now at 

Hampton Court. 
(6) Hurgos Cathedral. [Plate I, No. 2]. 
(c) Victoria and Albert Museum (one group), 
(rf) M. Schutz, Paris (one group). 

(e) Lord SackviUe, Knole, (left-hand half only), offered for 
sale, 1911, 

. Deadly Sins. 
Redemption — 

(a) Christ, with Humilitas and Caritas ; Justitia and 

Misericordia kissing. 
(6) Christ, with Humilitas and Veritas, holding a mirror 
showing Himself kneeling ; the Virgin and the Angel 
of the Salutation. 
(c) The Father and the Holy Spirit seated ; the Virgin 
seated between ; the Son below and the Angel of the 
{d) Betrothal and marriage of the Virgin, 
(e) Adoration of the Shepherds. Wise Men and Star. 
Mankind—Homo in fetters, with Natura and Miseria ; Spes 
showing to him Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, with other 
Old Testament saints ; Temptator watching behind. 
Virtues and Vices — The same scenes fall under this heading. 
Mot:os — " Doininus exaudiet de loco sancto suo ". " Parvulus 

natus est nobis ". 
Owners— Burgos Cathedral. [Plate I, No. 3]. 


Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins'' 

the lower corners, each with a scroll and an 
appropriate motto. They represent, without doubt, 
not bishops nor donors, but prophets ; and the 
arrangement is certainly parallel with, if not 
derived from, the illustrations of the "Biblia 
Pauperum ". The idea, however, is very ancient. 
Prophets with scrolls occur in the illuminations of 
the fifth-century Greek gospels, the "Codex Ros- 
sanensis". A more interesting example occurs in 
the Calendar in the Hours of Jeanne de Navarre, 
circ. 1330 (the property of Mr. Yates Thompson), 
where each month has at the foot a prophet 
with a prophecy and an apostle with a clause of 
the creed. This is the more remarkable in view 
of the " Credo" tapestries, in which each scene is 
accompanied in the same manner. A good 
example of this latter type of tapestry is at the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and is described and 
reproduced in the " Bulletin " of February, 1909. 
Others in the Vatican are described in the " Annales 
Arch^ologiques ", Vol. XV (1855), p. 233; three 
arc now (1911), in the hands of M. Schutz 

of Paris ; and one was at Toledo, in 1890, since 
purchased by Mr. A. Wertheimer. For other 
tapestries of the Brussels school having the 
same feature, reference may be made to The 
Adoration and Annunciation at the Mus6e des 
Gobelins, and to the two tapestries of the Life of 
John the Baptist at Saragossa. An excellent and 
nearly contemporary example of the same in a 
picture will be found in Le Couronnenient de la 
Vierge (1517-1522), by Albert Cornells, in the 
church of S. Jacques, at Bruges. 

Perhaps the point which attracts the eye more 
than all is the repeated representation of the Trinity 
as three separate Persons exactly similarwith crowns 
and sceptres. This appears no less than seven 
times in the Creation, and the general type persists 
throughout the other panels. This became common 
in the sixteenth century, and is defended early in 
the eighteenth century by a Constitution of Pope 
Benedict XIV. It would be interesting to discover 
the source of this very marked type, which occurs 
twice in one of M. Schutz's "Credo" tapestries 


4. Allegorical Scenes from the New Testament, or 
Deadly Sins. 
Redemption — 

(a) John the Baptist baptizing Christ. 

(6) John the Baptist preaching to Homo, Natura, Abraham, 
etc. ; Temptator watching behind. 

(c) Salome receiving the head of John the Baptist. 

(d) The Woman taken in Adultery, 
(0 The Raising of Lazarus. 

{/) Judas selling Christ ; in background Invidia and 
(a) Homo (twice), Natura, Abraham, John the Baptist, etc. 
(symbolizing the Old Law), looking as if in expectation. 
(6) Homo, Natura, Abraham, etc., at John the Baptist's 
Virtues and Vices — 
(a) Caritas challenging the Seven Deadly Sins. 
(6) Christian Knight armed by the Seven Virtues ; Humili- 
tas handing him a helmet crowned with thorns, and 
Caritas a banner with the five wounds of Christ, 
(c) Judas with Invidia and Luxuria. 
Wli//ds— " Accingere gladio tuo super femur tuum, potentis- 

sime". Another, illegible. 
Owners — 
(a) Berwick Sale, 1877 [PLATE II, No. 4]; Baron Erlanger, 

ib) Card. Wolsey, 1521; Hen. VIII., circ. 1530; Rev. 
F. V. Jago Arundell, 1846. Sold by the Misses Bray 
at Puttick and Simpson's, Nov. 25, igio (right-hand 
half only) ; the Marques of Anglesea, 1912. 
5. Combat of Virtues and Vices, or Triumph of the 
Redeemer, or Deadly Sins. 
Redentption— . ,. . . ,, 

(a) Crucifixion ; various figures, mcludmg Longmus, the 

Roman soldier. 
(6) On either side two angels with scrolls^ mscnbed 
" Pange lingua gloriosi prelium certaminis" (from the 
sixlh-century hymn of V. Fortunatus). 
tc) On either side, again, two angels, named Old and New 
Law, standing on Mt. Sinai and Mt. Calvary, blowing 
Mankind—The combat of Virtues and Vices (see next 

Virtues and Vices— The Christian Knight in a helmet crowned 
with thorns, charging at the head of the Virtues against 
the Vices mounted on grotesque beasts. 


' His plagatus 

Mottos — "Ipse veniet et salvabit vos' 

sum ". 
Owners — 
(a) Berwick Sale, 1877 ; Baron Erlanger, 1880 ; Chatea 

de Haar, 1912 [t^LATE II, No. 5]. 
(6) Burgos Cathedral. 

(c) Toledo Cathedral, 1890 ; Goldschmidt freres, 1905. 
((/) The Vatican, 1855. 

6. Christ Inspiring Faith. 
Redemption — 
(a) Christ rising from the tomb ; the other Persons of the 

Trinity above. 
(6) On one side of Christ, Voluplas, |etc. ; on the other, and Velocitas (? Divine qualities). 
(c) To the left the three Women; and soldiers, with 

Longinus, fleeing, 
(rf) Christ, with Caritas, etc., harrowing Hell ; Homo, etc. 

issuing from the broken gates, by which stands 

{e) Christ, with three allegorical figures, at the head of a 

procession of saints, passing a fountain (? of the Water 

of Life) ; on the other side of the fountain a figure with 

a Tau cross (?S. Dismas, the Good Thief), waiting to 

follow last the procession to Paradise. 
(/) Christ with Dilectio and two other figures, 
(rt) Christ with Velocitas, Diuturnitas, Fortitudo, Dilectio, 

Caritas, etc., showing His wound, 
(/i) Christ with Humilitas and the disciples at Emmaus 
Mankind — Homo, Natura, Abraham, etc., issuing from the 

broken gates of Hell, by which stands Temptator, with 

his horn. 
Virtues and Vices — 
(ii) Voluptas, etc., on one side of the risen Christ ; Diutur- 
nitas and Velocitas on the other. 
(6) Caritas, etc., with Christ at the Harrowing of Hell, 
(c) Christ showing His wound in the presence of Velocitas, 

Diuturnitas, Fortitudo, Dilectio, Caritas, etc. 
A/o«os— " Vivificabit nos post duos dies". " Ecce rex tuus 

venit libi". 
Owners — 

(fl) Berwick Sale, 1877 ; Baron Erlanger, 1880 (part of 

design omitted) [Plate II, No. 6 (incomplete)]. 
(6) Toledo Cathedral, 1890 (complete design) [Plate III, 

No. 6 (complete) page 220] ; Mr. A. Wertheimer, 1902. 
(c) The Vatican, 1855 (complete design). 










PLATE 111 

Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins " 

just mentioned, and again in a small piece in the 
hands of M. Heilbronner, of Paris. 

Of single figures the most distinctive are those of 
Homo, Natura, Temptator, Abraham, and John the 
Baptist. Homo, as perhaps might be expected, is 
represented very much as the Filius Prodigus 
in tapestries of that kind. In fact, the disarming 
of Homo in panel No. 2 is almost an e.xact 
counterpart of a group in the Filius Prodigus 
exhibited by M. Nardus of Suresnes at Brussels in 
1905. The suave, almost benignant, expression of 
Temptator in these tapestries is in strong contrast 
with the haggard and dishevelled appearance of 
the same figure in the centre of the curious piece 
formerly at Toledo, which goes by the name of La 
Coiir de la Reine Opulence, 

The seated figure of John the Baptist in No. 4 
bears a distinct resemblance to that of John the 
Evangelist in Patmos in the Isabella Book, British 
Museum, Add. MSS. 18851, f. 309, and still more 
clearly to the figure of the same in the Memlinc 
triptych in the Hospital of S. John at Bruges. 
Failing any further indication, however, this 
is slender evidence for a Bruges provenance. 
The conception of the whole series is, as has 
been said above, entirely unaffected by the 
Renaissance ; and apart from the execution, the 
tapestries might have been woven twenty or thirty 
years before 1500. The treatment of the Virtues 
and Vices is worlds away from that in Los Pecados 
Capitales and Los Honores at Madrid, dated about 
1520 ; and hardly less removed from that in the 
Virtue and Vice tapestries of the Baron D'Hunol- 
stein at the Chateau de Cany, near Fecamp, 
perhaps a decade earlier. 

If the panel sold at Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's 
be compared with the complete panel (No. 4 in 
the list above), it becomes clear that figures on the 
left of the smaller panel were altered to obviate 
the incongruous effect of their looking out of 
the picture. Two new figures were then added 
to cover the space left unoccupied by the omission 

of Peter and the rising Lazarus, in the lower plane, 
and the figure of Christ in the upper plane. At the 
same time the Woman taken in Adultery has her 
hands raised as if in supplication instead of being 
folded on her breast. 

With regard to panel No. 6 in the above list it 
must be noted that it has generally been described 
under the title Christ i)ispiriitg Faith, from the in- 
complete design in Baron Erlanger's tapestry. 
The complete design appears in the piece which 
was at Toledo in 1890, and was purchased in 1902 
by Mr. A. Wertheimer. This restores the figure of 
the Risen Saviour to the centre of the picture, and 
adds to the left, in the lower plane, the Three 
Women, and the soldiers fleeing. The ineffective 
figure of Christ in the upper plane is in the 
complete panel striking with the Resurrection Cross 
the broken gates of Hell, and between this group 
and the throne in the centre, Christ at the head of 
the saints released from Hell proceeds past the 
Fountain of the Water of Life on His way to 
Paradise ; S. Dismas, the Good Thief, with a Tau 
cross on his shoulder, waiting to follow. 

The name of the artist whose pencil translated 
into cartoons this remarkable scheme remains a 
matter for ingenius conjecture. The cartoons have 
been attributed to several of the famous artists of 
the late fifteenth century Flemish school, to whose 
influence they are undoubtedly due, — to Roger van 
der Weyden, Memlinc, Quentin Metsys — but all 
are barred by date. Two conjectures are of inter- 
est, one on account of its ingenuity, the other on 
account of its detailed audacity. They are both 
based on the relation in style of these tapestries 
to the celebrated Descent from the Cross at Brussels, 
(itself borrowed from the Pieta of Perugino at 
Florence), in which the word " Philiep " appears 
on the dress of one of the figures. From this 
M. Destree ingeniously deduces the Maitre 
Philippe, to whom he attributes various allied 
tapestries. M. Michiels, on the other hand, 
identifies this figure with Philip de Bourgogne, 


7. Triumph op Christianity, or Glorification of Christ. 
Redemplion — 

(a) Christ ascending ; the other Persons of the Trinity 

above ; below, angels and adoring figures. 
{b\ Christ with Peter, and Christ with James. 
\c) Christ, with Caritas and Humilitas, receiving His 

(d) The Trinity ; on either side, Misericordia and Justitia ; 
below. Gratia Dei presenting Homo, who kneels facing 
Abraham ; behind Homo, Adam. 
Mankind —Womo, presented before the throne of the Trinity 

by Gratia Dei, kneels facing Abraham. 
Virtues and Vices — 
(a) Gratia Dei presenting Homo before the throne of the 

(6) Avenging Angel driving down Invidia, Accidia, Avaricia 

and Temptator. 
(c) Below, the Seven Vices and Temptator in despair. 
Mottos — "Juxta est dies perdicionis ". 3" Putasne mortuus 
homo rursum vivat". 

Owners — Berwick Sale, 1877 ; Baron Erianger, 1880 ; 
Chateau de Haar, 1912 [Plate III, No, 7]. 

!. Last Judgment. 

Redemption— The Last Judgment ; Christ enthroned, Miseri- 
cordia presenting the saved, Justitia driving away the 
lost. Principal figures on the right of the throne: 
Homo, Natura, Abraham (?) ; on the left, the Seven 
Vices and Temptator. 

Mankind— Homo, Natura, Abraham (?) among the saved on 
the right of the throne. 

Virtues and Vices — Justitia and Misericordia presenting the 
saved and driving away the lost. The Seven Vices 
and Temptator among Ihclost on the left of the throne. 

Mottos — "Dominus ad judicium veniet". " Judicabit gentes 
et arguet populos multos". 

Owners — 

(a) Berwick Sale. 1877 ; Baron Erianger, 1880 ; The 

Louvre, 1912 [Plate III, No. 8]. 

(b) The Vatican, 1855. 

(c) M. Schutz, Paris, 1910. 


Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins " 

bastard of Burgundy, son of Philip the Good, and 
Bishop of Utrecht. In the figure facing him he 
finds Jean de Mabuse, whose style (not to say 
face) he recognizes in this tapestry. He boldly 
adds that Mabuse drew the cartoons of the 
Deadly Sins by command of the bishop, before 
1508, when he went on an embassy to Rome 
with the artist in his train. He asserts that 
they passed by Narbonne, where the cathedral 
authorities ordered a similar set — this appar- 
ently to account for the possession by them 
at the present day of a panel of the Crealion, 
assumed to be the remains of a complete set. The 
original set is said to have long remained at 
Duurstede, near Utrecht, the castle of the bishops, 

rebuilt and decorated by Philip in 1518, and 
destroyed by Louis XIV in 1672. It is with the 
greatest regret that I must confess that I cannot 
find one tittle of fact to support this beautiful 

The writer desires to thank Mr. Kendrick of the Textile 
Department, and Mr. Palmer of the Library, at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, and their staff for continual information 
and assistance, 

[Our sincere thanks are due to le Baron de Zuylen de Nyevelt 
de Haar for permission to reproduce his three splendid tap- 
estries, Nos. r, 5 and 7, to M. Frans Luyten for procuring us 
excellent photographs, and to M. A. Oosthoek of Utrecht, for 
the right to print them, to M. le Baron d'Erlanger for the loan of a 
copy of the Berwick et d'Albe Sale Catalogue, and also to Mr. 
Asher Werlheimer for the right to reproduce No. 5 from a 
photograph taken while that tapestry was in his possession. 



XTEREST in the early pottery and 

porcelain of the Far East has grown 

apace during the last few years, as it 

.<,.« We'll should do considering the graceful 

•y v-ti> forms and wonderful glazes of the early 

potters of China and Korea. 

In their descriptions of many specimens of the 
early wares, previous writers ' have called attention 
to the difficulty experienced in arriving at the date 
of manufacture of some particular specimen, from 
the fact that the Chinese potters in each succeeding 
period — even down to the present time — attempted 
to reproduce the earlier forms and glazes. As has 
been often pointed out, this makes it extremely 
difficult to decide just what pieces were made 
during the Tang, Sung, and Yuan periods. 

Even the Chinese tomb ^ " finds " have proved in 

1 Catalogue of the Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition, 1910. 
'Burlington Magazine, Vol. XV, pp. 18, etc., " Wares of Sung 
and Yuan Dynasties". 

the main inconclusive, owing to the continuity of 
the custom of burying pottery with the dead, and 
the haphazard way in which the tombs themselves 
have been opened in almost every instance. The 
old Korean tomb wares, however, which have 
come into the possession of Western collectors 
during the last few years, fortunately for us are 
now known to have been made before the year 
A.D. 1392, the fall of the Koryu dynasty; so that 
there is sufficient evidence to justify the very 
definite assumption that all the pottery and 
porcelain taken from the ancient tombs in Korea 
were buried before this important date, 1392. 

In our study of the various tomb specimens we 
have to try to decide at what period preceding 
this date they were actually made. To help to 
arrive at this decision it will be well to refer to the 
early history of Korea,' and to consider what the 
early Chinese writers had to say on the subject 
2 See W. E. Griffis, Cotca, the Hermit Nation, 

[AH the articles illustrated are in the author's collection : the dates can be assigned only approximately.] 

[a] Hard grey stoneware vase, iron colour showing in a few 

places. A very early piece, similar to some Tang speci- 
mens. The body, which is thick and heavy, is covered 
with a fine, soft glaze of a light-green colour on neck and 
shoulder, turning into reddish-brown on one size ; tomb 
oxidization at base, gradually lessening and dying out at 
the centre of the body. The foot is hollowed out and 
glazed, showing heavy tomb-discoloration, with a thick 
cream-coloured deposit. Some pitting has taken place at 
one side. Height: gj in. Diameter: 4J in. Date: 
probably early loth century. 

[b] Early decorated shallow dish of hard grey stoneware, 

coated with an even soft green glaze, fine brown crackle 
and heavy uniform tomb-oxidization. Inside floral deco- 
ration well executed. Diameter : 7 in. Date ; probably 
loth century. 

[c] Hard grey stoneware wine-bottle completely covered with 

soft grey glaze ; elegant pear-shaped body ; heavy tomb 
oxidization on one side, opposite side showing round \- 
inch hole made by pointed rod used when searching for 
the tombs. Height : 6| in. Diameter : 12J in. 

[d] Hard grey semi-porcelain wine-pot, melon-shaped, of 

beautiful proportions ; iron colour on foot ; completely 
covered with the softest uncrackled grey glaze ; sides 
very thin and regular ; workmanship of the highest order. 
Height : 6J in. Diameter : 5J in. Date : about lioo. 

[e] Fine semi-porcelain bowl, very thin and beautifully 

fashioned ; covered with the softest grey glaze, which is 
carried under the foot, three small quartz spurs showing 
where it was supported in the kiln. Tne thin sides, 
graceful form, and perfect uncrackled glaze give a very 
clear idea of the early Ju ware described by early Chinese 
writers. The finest example the author has seen. 
Height : 2J in. Diameter : 8J in, 

The undecorated specimens, D and F, exactly coincide 
with Hsu-ching's description of what he saw in Korea in 

[f] Hard grey stoneware cup ; oval fluted body, fluted edge ; 

iron colour on bottom ; sand-burned in p.^rts. Ten panels 
decorated in cream and black mishima. Soft blue-grey 
glaze; faint crackle on one side. Height: 3 in. Diameter: 
2| in. The stand (H. 2-^ in., D. 4* in.) shows tomb- 
oxidization on lower side. Date : lotn to 12th centuries. 












\ > 

, ^-a;'. 

V 'v^ 



Ancient Korean Tomb JVares 

of Korean pottery, and to see with what early 
Chinese wares they compared it. 

The old Silla Kingdom (57 to 924 A.D.), which 
was called H'sien in Japanese (C/iosen), witnessed the 
first glimmerings of Korean art, stimulated, no 
doubt, by the advent of Buddism, which was in- 
troduced into Korea about 372 A.D. by the Chinese 
monk Sun-do, who brought with him from China 
Buddist statues as well as the book Pul-Yung. 

Taiku, the capital of the kingdom, was the 
residence of the old kings, and from the tombs 
situated in its neighbourhood quantities of 
primitive unglazed Korean " mortuary " pottery 
have been taken. During most of the Silla period 
the country' was in a continual state of strife and 
turmoil, which was only terminated about A.D. 
913 by Wang, who unified the peninsula under 
the name Korai (in Chinese Kao-li), made Song- 
do the capital, and established Buddism as the State 
religion. During the remainder of the Wang 
dynasty the country prospered and great artistic 
development took place, and it was between the 
years A.D. 918 and a.d. 1200 that the Korean 
potters at Song-do turned out the best of their 
work. The VVang dynasty came to an end in 
A.D. 1392 — for us a most important epoch in the 
history of the peninsula — when Mi Tayo, or Litan, 
the founder of the present dynasty, ascended the 
throne. He tendered his homage to the first Ming 
emperor of China, and Korea became tributary to 
China. Further, he revived the ancient name of 
H'sien, moved the capital from Song-do to Seoul, 
disestablished Buddhism, made Confucianism the 
State religion, and introduced the Confucian 
system of education. This change of dynasty 
and removal of the capital and court from Song-do 
caused the decay and closing up of the potteries, 
and the change in religion led to people ceasing 
to bury pottery with their dead. From these two 
facts we may fairly infer that the pottery lately 
taken from the tombs in the Song-do and other 

districts must have been buried previous to A.D, 
1392, and therefore made before that date. 

The following notes from the early Chinese 
writers will assist us when studying the different 
specimens of tomb ware. 

The author of the " T'ao Shuo ",* quoting from 
the "Tu yangtsa pien ", an account of the rare 
and curious objects brought to China from 763- 
872 A.D., says that : " In the first year of the 
period Hui-ch'ang (A.D. 841), P'ohai offered as a 
tribute to the Emperor a brown porcelain (tzu 
tz'u) bowl, of the capacity of half a hu, 
translucent ' both inside and outside, of a pure 
brown colour, half an inch thick, but as light as 
swan's-down ". He further explains that : " The 
' Annals of the T'ang Dynasty ' describes P'o-hai 
as originally the country of the Su-mo-ho, who 
were subject to Kao-li (Korea). The porcelain 
fabricated by them must, therefore, in all pro- 
bability, have been similar to the Korean. How 
is it, then, that in the later accounts of Korean 
porcelain there is no mention of such a trans- 
parent and light kind ? " A probable reason why 
later writers did not mention the beautiful Korean 
wares made in the early times is that the 
specimens which had not been buried in the 
tombs prior to 1392 had mostly been destroyed 
owing to the constant internal strife. Fortunately 
for us, Hsii-Ching, in a work first published in 
1167, giving a description of a mission he made to 
Korea on the accession of a new king in 1125, 
makes special reference to the porcelain he saw in 
the country at that time. He says of it : — 

" There is a ceramic ware made in Korea of green colour, 
which is called Lythe natives of the country ' kingfiiher green'. 
In these latter years the pieces have bten more skilfully 
fashioned, and the colour of the glaze has also been much 
improved. There are wine pots (chiu tsun) moulded in the 

*S. W. Bushel], Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, pp. io2, 103. 

'The rendering "translucent" seems improbable in this 
conte.xt. The Chinese word to which this meaning is often 
given in similar contexts has the literal sense of "shining" or 

[All the articles illustrated are in the author's collection : the dates can be assigned only approximately.] 

[g] Dense light-red stoneware water-bottle, uniformly coated 
with fine soft brownish-green glaze ; very faint crackle. 
Pear-shaped, with slender neck. Decoration, in six 
vertical lobes, of small blossoms in white and black 
mishima. Height : 12 in. Date : I3tli to 14th century. 

[h] Large bowl of dense pottery coated in soft greyish-green 
celadon glaze, with white mishima borders and twigs. 
Fine example of Kao-li-yao. Diameter: 7J in. Dale: 
probably 14th century. 

[j] Hard stoneware bowl, evenly coated with soft greenish 
celadon glaze. Interior engraved under the glaze with 
raised leafage and shows soft crackle. Diameter : 7i in. 
Date : I2th or 13th century. 

k] Ovoid vase, with short neck, of hard grey faience showing 
iron colour and tomb-discoloration ; uneven surface and 
coarse body, covered with thin dry gaze. Decorated in 
brown with floral scroll-work ; brown band round base. 
Height : 10 in. Diameter ; 4I in. Date : 13th to 14th 

[l] Mei Ping vase of dense grey stoneware, showing iron 
colour in exposed parts ; completely covered with fine 
soft bluish-grey glaze, having faint accidental crackle in 
parts. The glaze has collected like " massed lard " 
towards the bottom and shows a deeper blue ; glazed 
under the foot, with some tomb-discoloration. The 
vase shows a faint reddish-brown clouded effect on one 
side ; in perfect preservation, with no tomb-oxidization. 
Height: iij in. Diameter; 6J in. Date: probably 
loth century. 

[m] Decorated panel of hard grey semi-porcelain with fine 
greyish glaze on decorated side. Decoration shows 
flying cranes, clouds and a fine floral pattern in frames. 
A very beautiful and extremely rare piece, thickening 
from j in. to J in. Date ; i3lh or 14th century. 

[n] Large vase ; baluster-shaped, without neck ; copper ring 
round top. Dense reddish stoneware, covered with soft 
greyish-green glaze finely crackled ; incised palm-leaf 
motif under glazing. Height : 13^ in. Date ; 12th to 
13th century. 


Ancient Korean Tomb Wares 

shape of melons, with simple lids at the top surmounted by 
ducks squatting in the midst of lotus flowers. The Koreans are 
clever also in the making of bowls and dishes (wan, tieh), wine 
cups and tea cups (pei, ou), flower vases (hua p'ing), and hot 
water vessels for tea drinkers (fang chan), which are all, 
generally speaking, copied from the forms of the Ting-chou 
wares (of China), so that I need only allude to them and not 
illustrate them by figures, only giving the wine pots as being 
of novel and original design. 

" In Korea the table vessels used at entertainments for eating 
and drinking are usually made of gilded metal or of silver, 
although they esteem green porcelain ware more highly than 
either of these two materials. They have incense burners 
(hsiang lu) shaped like lions, which are also of ' kingfisher 
green', the four-footed monster being represented seated upon 
a lotus leaf with tilted margin, which forms the stand of the 
urn. This is one of the most ingenious and striking of their 
ceramic designs ; the other forms are for the most part moulded 
after the shapes of the ancient imperial porcelain of Yueh-chou, 
or from the modern productions of the kilns of Ju-chou''.' 

The next important reference is in the Ko ku 
yao lun, first published in 1387: " It is of pale green 
colour, and resembles Lung-ch'iian ware. Some 
is covered with white sprays of flowers, but this 
kind is not worth much money". The " T'ao 
Shuo" says: "We find that the porcelain of the 
Korean potteries resembles that of Jao-chou. It 
was finely decorated like the porcelain of Ting- 
chou ".' 

A later reference is from the Ching-tc-Chen T'ao 
lu (1815), whose author evidently had but little 
personal knowledge of early Korean porcelain and 
is simply quoting from the early writers: "These 
are the porcelains made in Korea. I am unable to 
say to which epoch they belong. They are 
extremely thin, and their enamel is a little like 
that of King-te-Tchin. They are of pale blue 
colour which resembles that of Sung. If they are 
ornamented with white flowers they have in this 
country (Korea) but little value. In general they 
resemble as to form the porcelain of Yueh chou".^ 

It will be seen that these writers compare the 
Korean wares to Yueh-chou, Ju-chou, Lung- 
Ch'uan, Jao-chou, and Ting-chou. It will, therefore, 
be interesting to refer to some Chinese description 
of these wares : — 

Yueh-chou pottery of the T'ang Dynasty (a.d. 
618-906). The Ch'a ching by Lu Yu (middle of 
eighth century) says: — 

" Among bowls (wan) those of Yueh-chou rank first. The 
Yueh-chou porcelain is like ice ; it is green, and gives a 
greenish tint to the tea". 

The " T'ao Shuo " says :— 

" This Yueh-chou porcelain of the T'ang dynasty was really 
the original type of the prohibited colour porcelain (pi-se yao) 
of the Ch'ien family, who were proclaimed princes of Wu and 
Yueh at Hang-Chou, a.d. 907, and ruled till 976. In after times, 
when this name of pi-se was given to the porcelain fabricated 
for imperial use, its origin was forgotten ", 

The " Ch'a ching " further states :— 
" The Yueh-chou bowls have the edge of the upper rim 
straight and not everted, the foot expanded below. They are 
shallow, and hold half a sheng (the sheng is a measure of about 
a pint) ". 

«S. \V. Bushell, Oriental Ceramic Art. 
"'Chinese Pottery and Porcelain, pp. 52, 53. 
• M. Sunislaus Julien, Histoire ci Fabrication de la Porcclaine 
Chinoise, 1856. 

With regard to Ju Yao, Mr. R. L. Hobson, in his 
second article on "The Wares of the Sung and 
Yuan Dynasties "," gives a full description of the 
ware, and quotes what the early Chinese writers 
had to say about it, concluding as follows : — 

"The glaze was bright, smooth and thick, like congealed fat, 
and its colour approached that of the 'blue of the sky after 
rain ', a phrase of sufficient elasticity to cover an intense blue 
of purplish tint, as well as the paler shades tinged with grey or 
green . . . ". 

"... Of the scarcity of Ju ware there can be no doubt. One 
sixteenth-century writer actually declared that it was as extinct 
as the Ch'ai yao ". 

Many of the Korean tomb specimens, which 
tally closely with the descriptions given of Yiieh- 
chou and Ju-chou wares, have thus an additional 
interest in that they give us a further insight into 
those important but mysterious productions of the 
early Chinese potters. 

The further comparison, made in the Ko Ku lao 
lun in 1387, with the well-known Lung-ch'iian 
celadons leaves no doubt of the nature of the 
Korean wares at that time at any rate. 

That our knowledge of the artistic products of 
the Korean potters is of very recent date is 
evidenced by the fact that the late Dr. Bushell — 
probably the greatest authority at that time — 

wrote in 1899 ^'' : — 

"The country has been thoroughly explored during the last 
few years, and it is known that no artistic pottery is produced 
there at ttie present day, ard no indisputable evidence of any 
original skill in former times was discovered ". 

Prof. Ed. S. Morse, in his introduction to 

Korean pottery, says " : — 

"The more one studies authentic specimens of Korean pottery 
the more he becomes impressed that, with the exception of the 
knowledge of the mishima style of decoration, Korea gave to 
Japan nothing beyond a number of industrious potters, who, in 
early centuries, wrought the mortuary pottery and later the 
mishima decoration, which the Japanese rapidly converted into 
a highly artistic form ". 

Prof. Morse describes ten pieces of Korean tomb 
ware, part of that brought to the United States by 
Ensign J. B. Bernadou in 1885, and now in the 
Morse collection at the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts. At that time his idea of the early Korean 
wares was so far astray that he says : — 

"The character of the work is so unlike Korean mishima that 
one might be justified in regarding it as of Chinese origin, and 
suggesting the idea that the Korean mishima was derived from 
the same source. The clay is h.ard and ringing, and the glaze 
is a greyish and greenish celadon. The mishima designs are 
in white and black ". 

We now know that these are Korean tomb pieces, 
and that the mishima'- decoration is of Korean 
and not Chinese origin. 

Capt. Brinkley in his account of Korean porce- 
lain was much nearer the mark, and his descriptions 
will be found to be mostly correct. He says : 

'Burlington Magazine, Vol. XV, p. 87. 

^"Oriental Ceramic Art. 

" Catalogue oj the Morse Collection of Japanese Pottery, Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A. 

'-The Japanese term "mishima" is applied particularly to 
that class of ornament in which the pattern is deeply incised or 
stamped and the intaglio filled with white or coloured clays as 
in Pl.\te II, M. 


Ancient Korean Tomb Wares 

"Roughly speaking, therefore, an age of five centuries at 
least may tie ascribed to any choice Korean specimens, and of 
these few found their way to Japan. These were three prin- 
cipal varieties, but in speaking of them it must be premised that 
the subject of Korean keraniics still awaits accurate investiga- 
tion, and that the information now possessed may have to be 
modified hereafter "." 

Further researches have shown Dr. Bushell 
to have been correct with regard to the present 
production of artistic pottery in Korea, but the 
later opening up of the tombs has given 
indisputable evidence that the porcelain made 
by the Koreans at the Song-do potteries (before 
1392) was of a very high order and fully 
equal to the Chinese Sung and Yuan wares. It 
shows also that Prof. Morse was quite wrong in 
his idea that the Japanese improved on the 
mishima-decorated pieces made by the early 
Korean potters. As a matter of fact, up to the 
present time the Japanese have produced no 
glazes which can in any way be compared with 
the beautiful soft and wax-like product of early 
Korea. That the finer examples of the wares 
which he was describing were so little known to 
the early Japanese potters was due to the fact 
that Korea after the end of the fourteenth century 
was in a continual state of turmoil, in consequence 
of which most of the early pottery and porcelain 
was destroyed. 

Any desecration of the tombs being a capital 
offence, and always accomplished at much risk, 
very few specimens were obtained in this manner, 
the great scarcity of fine early examples continu- 
ing till we come to the time of the Russo- 
Japanese war, when the Japanese army made its 
headquarters in Korea. This was too good an 
opportunity to be lost, and Japanese and Koreans, 
who knew what was likely to be found in the 
tombs, systematically robbed them and obtained 
a large number of most valuable specimens. The 
most important excavations were made in the 
vicinity of Song-do, the ancient capital, where the 
graves of the early kings and nobility of the 
Koryu dynasty were to be found. To-day most 
of the graves in this neighbourhood have been 

Many of the specimens here illustrated and 
described were taken from these tombs, and from 
others on the eastern side of some hills situated 
17^ miles from Kaijo, in a north-easterly direction. 
The eastern slope of these hills was covered with 
ancient tombs built into the hillside. In order to 
locate the tombs heavy sticks and pointed iron rods 
were used. By knocking on the ground it was 
often possible to tell that there was a hollow place 
beneath, and when the pointed iron rod was bored 
into the ground and went through into space it was 
known that a tomb would be found in this spot. 
In this manner many of the most valuable and 
beautiful specimens were broken, some of the thin 

"F. Brinkley, Japan and China, Vol, VIII. 

pieces having small holes punched in the side. 
The specimens which it has been the writer's good 
fortune to examine consist of vases of over a 
dozen different forms, water bottles, oil bottles, 
jars, fish bowls, rice and tea bowls— both large 
and small— saucers, dishes, tazza cups, ewers with 
covers, wine pots, wine jars, rouge boxes, panels, 
etc. It will be seen by reference to the list given 
by Hsii-ching when describing what he saw in 
1 1 25 that it is very similar to the one given above. 
Most of the pieces are of a hard stoneware or 
semi-porcelain, and show the iron colour where 
the piece was not covered with glaze when in the 
kiln. Some are plain with no decoration of any 
kind, some plain with moulded and engraved 
decoration in relief. Others have an incised or 
engraved decoration of a darker shade of the 
body-colour, with a plain glaze over the whole 
surface ; but by far the largest number has 
mishima decorations in white, and white and 

An entirely different class of ware from the 
same tombs has a coarser paste and glaze, and is 
bodily painted in scrolls in black and brown. 
This is the original Korean painted or E-gorai 
ware," which is in no way comparable with the 
Chinese Tz'u Chou ware which the Japanese 
mistook for it. Some specimens of Korean 
"Ting" ware were also found, but they are very 

We now come to our difficult problem, the 
attempt to settle which are the earlier pieces. In 
doing this we have to be guided largely by the 
writings of the Chinese authorities, reference to the 
descriptions in Hsiang's Album," and what 
knowledge we have of contemporaneous Chinese 
pieces. The nature of the tomb oxidization, while 
supplying unquestionable evidence of age, can 
assist only in a very general manner. From Hsii- 
Ching's statement (made in 11 25) that : " In these 
latter years the pieces have been more skilfully 
fashioned, and the colour of the glaze has also been 
much improved ", we may infer that the perfectly 
formed specimens, with thin body and uniform 
glaze, of the colour of Ju-Chou porcelain, were in 
all probability made about iioo A.D. ; the heavier 
undecorated pieces with fine, soft, wax-like glaze 
and thick tomb oxidization being of an earlier date. 

Our study of a large number of specimens leads 
to the assumption that the earliest Korean por- 
celain was undecorated, and that it had a hard 
grey proto-porcelain body, which invariably 
showed the iron colour ^^ where exposed to the 
heat of the kiln and not covered with glaze. The 
glaze was of a very soft uncrackled texture, the 

^^ Burlington Magazine, Vol. XIX, p. 264, footnote 10. 

''Bushell, Chinese Porcelains of Different Dynasties, 1908, a 
translation of a manuscript catalogue by Hsiang Vuan-Pien. 

i*Dr, F. Hirth, Aiuient Porcelain, pp. 30, 31 ; Burlington 
Magazine, Vol. XV, pp. 160, etc., " Wares of Sung and Yuan 


Ancient Korean Tomb Wares 

best colour being usually either green or blue, 
both of them generally merging into a soft grey. 

There is also evidence that the pieces of a single 
colour, with engraved scroll work and modelling in 
low relief, were of an early date, having been 
made before 1125 A.D. 

But by far the greatest number of pieces taken 
from the tombs has mishima decorations and 
is of varj'ing thicknesses and quality. Most of 
these were undoubtedly made between the years 
1 100 and 1392 ; the heavier ones with a harder 
and more glass-like glaze being probably made 
between the years 1250 and 1392, as during this 
period the art was said to be on the decline. 

To recapitulate, we know from what was written 
by the early Chinese writers that a very beautiful 
ware was made in Korea at least as early as the 
twelfth century. We also gather from HsU-Ching 
that from around iioo to 1 150 the forms, tone, and 
colour of the glaze were much improved, and our 
study of the tomb specimens fully bears out the 
descriptions of the Chinese authors. 

We are, moreover, in a better position to realize 
the beauty and colour of the glazes produced by 
the Chinese potters at Yueh-chou and ]u-chou 
which have been up to this time matters of 
conjecture, our impressions of them having here- 
tofore been derived from literary sources. 





USE this name for short to describe 
the small, not quite finished, picture of a 
Madonna and Child playing with flowers 
which belongs to Madame Benois at S. 

-*:=3a Petersburg and was reproduced as the 
frontispiece to the December number of this 
Magazine [page 128]. M. de Lipharl,' Dr. J. von 
Schmidt,* Dr. Frizzoni,' and Mr. Herbert Cook' 
are agreed in claiming it for the hand of Leonardo 
da Vinci in his first Florentine period. But these 
gentlemen seem to have overlooked what is perhaps 
the strongest piece of evidence in favour of their 
own contention, namely the fact that there exists a 
perfectly authentic and undeniable sketch for the 
picture by Leonardo's own hand. The sketch is 
in the British Museum, and is reproduced in 
the present number [Plate, b : the drawing to the 
right]. It is drawn in pen and bistre on the 
verso of a sheet of which the recto, prepared with 
a pale pink lead wash, carries another drawing 
presently to be discussed [Plate, a]. The size 
of the original is 7J by 6 in., so that in the 
reproduction it is reduced by a little more than one 
sixth. The sheet is catalogued by Mr. Berenson 
under No. 1,027. 

If the reader will compare the reproduction here 
given of this drawing with that of the picture 
published in the December number, he will see 
that in carrying out the work the young painter has 
deviated scarcely at all from his sketch. The arched 
form which he intended to give the picture, and the 
relation of the figures to the arch in the composition, 
are exactly indicated in the sketch. The only 
noticeable differences are that in the sketch the 
figure of the Virgin is shown in full length to the 

^Lts ancieniies icolcs de peintiire dans hs palais cl 
collections privis nisscs. pp. 30-32. 

^ Monatshc/le fi'ir Kunstivisscnschaft, ii, p. 161. 
'Nitoi'a Aniologia, July, 1911, p. 62. 
* Burlington Magazine, loc. cil. 


feet, while the picture shows her only in three- 
quarter length, cutting off the legs not far below 
the knees : that in the sketch the weight of the 
child sinks a little into the mother's lap between 
her parted knees, while in the picture its weight is 
carried on her left knee, which is brought nearer 
to the right : and that in consequence the child 
sits a little higher in the picture than in the sketch, 
and has the outline of its head more detached 
from that of the mother's shoulder. For the rest, 
as a glance will show, the design of sketch and 
picture are identical. The angle and inclination 
of the mother's body correspond strictly : so do 
the attitude and arrangement of the child's body 
and legs (with the single exception aforesaid that 
it sits a little higher) ; so, above all, in each case 
does the determining motive of the play with 
flowers, — the mother holding a tuft of leaves in 
the left hand with which she supports the child's 
shoulder, while she advances a single flower spray 
to the child's face with the right, — the child laying 
his left hand on her right wrist while with his right 
he grasps at the flower held to his face. All these 
points are already clearly indicated in the sketch 
and only more fully worked out in the picture. 

The tentative, early Leonardesque character of 
the Virgin in the picture, with her girlish smile 
and elaborately braided hair, seems too obvious 
for comment. So does the Leonardesque spirit 
and design of the draperies : so, also, does the 
affinity of the heavy, somewhat clumsy type of 
Child-Christ with those painted about the same 
time by Lorenzo di Credi and others in the school 
of Verrocchio. Hence, if we may accept the 
concurrent testimony of the four very competent 
authorities above quoted as to the quality of the 
painting, we are justified, it seems, in regarding 
this Madonna as an acquisition definitely gained 
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A Note on the Benois ''''Madonna''' of Leonardo da Vinci 

by the master in his first Florentine period, and 
in treating it as a touchstone whereby to test 
others attributed to him, as the Florence Annim- 
ciaiion, the Munich Virgin and Child, the Dresden 
Virgin and Child with S. John, and the Liech- 
tenstein portrait. 

The 3'oung Leonardo, we can see, had not 
arrived at the motive finally adopted in this picture 
without several preliminary trials. One such is 
perhaps to be recognized in the lovely little group 
of a girl mother and child sketched to the left of 
the main drawing which we have been discussing 
[Plate, b]. Here the attitude of the child is 
much the same as in the main drawing, but that 
of the mother quite different, and there are no 
flowers. More revelant to our present study is the 
sketch which appears on the recto of the same 
sheet and is reproduced as Pl.\TE, a. Here the 
group is seen from a different point of view, and 
instead of holding the flower to the infant's face 
with her right hand the mother holds it nearly 
at arm's length beside her right knee, while the 
child stretches out his right arm to reach it. Such, 
at least, is the moti%-e of the pen sketch which 
chiefly catches the eye on this side of the sheet : 
but underneath the pen-work can be detected an 
earlier and slighter sketch in silver point (not very 
easy to make out in the reproduction), which shows 
the heads of mother and child placed in nearly the 
same relation as in the design finally adopted. 
The order of these sketches would seem, then, to 
be as follows : First idea, Plate, a, the under 
drawing in silver point ; second idea, Plate, a, 
the over drawing in pen ; third and final idea, 
in part a reversion to the first, Plate, b (meaning 
of course the larger drawing to the right, and 
leaving the smaller drawing out of account as 
representing a divergent idea altogether). 

On the recto of the sheet [Pl.ate, a] will be 
observed, besides the main group of Virgin and 
Child, several of Leonardo's characteristic sketches 

of beautiful youthful profiles intermixed with 
engineering or geometrical diagrams ; and besides 
these, one head which may perhaps serve approxi- 
mately to date the Petersburg picture. This is the 
grim little profile in silver point near the foot of 
the sheet, of an old man with toothless upper jaw 
and nose drooping over his upper lip so as almost 
to touch his protruding chin. The same head more 
carefully drawn in bistre from the same point of 
view appears on the well-known sheet at the Uffizi 
(Braun, 439) bearing the inscription " [ottojbre 
1478 incominciai le 2 vergini Marie", etc. The same 
model, who no doubt served in Verrocchio's 
workshop, appears, it is true, in several other early 
drawings by Leonardo. Hence too much stress 
must not be laid on the coincidence ; but it makes 
especially pertinent Mr. Cook's question whether 
the Benois Madonna may not be one of the two 
mentioned in the master's note of October 147S. I 
should say it in all probability is. This is quite the 
kind of work one would look for from Leonardo 
about his twenty-sixth year. As a painter his touch 
is still somewhat tentative and pupil-like. But he is 
already an absolute master of the pen, and there 
are no lovelier drawings than those done by him 
about this time, especially those for playfully 
conceived groups of the Virgin and Child. 
Alongside of sketches for the flower-motive 
carried out in this Petersburg picture, has to be 
studied a group, more numerous and even 
more beautiful, for a composition of the 
Child in Its mother's lap playing with a cat. Of 
this group of drawings also the best are in the 
British Museum. One of them shows the design, 
apparently, finally fixed, and bounded with an arch 
at top like that for the Benois Madonna. Was 
this design also carried out in paint, and if so, 
was it the second of the Maries mentioned in 
Leonardo's script of 1478? And if so, again, does 
it lurk somewhere awaiting recognition as the 
Benois Madonna had lurked till lately ? ^ 


a memorlal of all the rooms at tart hall 
and an inventory of all the household 
stuffs and goods there belonging to 
the rt. hon. the countess of arundel, 

8th SEPTEMBER, 1641. 

(Continued from page 100.) 

By the Top of the Staj^e-Case aboue the North End of the 
second storie hangeth a Brass Clock and a Picture of a Sea 

And ouer that is a little Roome, where a 
Bed may be placed, and the sayd Roome is hanged with gilt 
lether, therein an old Table with two folding leaues called the 
Taylo^ Roome. 

And Westward at the said End a little 
Roome wherein a short Bedsted now standeth thereon a Flocke 
Bed, and a Fether Bed, a Flocke Boulster & a Fether Boulster, 
a Biankett and a Course Couerlett : 

The third storie of the New-house. 

first begining at the North Gallery, thereof 

In the West End of the sayd North Gallery, 
are contayned theise things as followeth : 
Foure drawings or Cartones, whereof three in slight Frames. 
The first of Tinteritt, being of a Martirdome : 
The 24 of a wedding in Canaan of Galalee. 
The 3^ of S' Michaell w*^ the Glory of Angells : 
The 4'.'' the AssumpcSn by Bassano. 

A Persian Carpett foure yardes & a quarter & halfe a quarter 
long, & 2: yardes 3 quarters & a halfe broad. 
Another Persian Carpett 3: quarters & a halfe & a halfe quarter 
long & 3: yards broade. 

Another Persian Carpelt 4 yardes & halfe a quarter long & 3. 
yardes broad. 

A Turky Carpett 3 yardes quarter & halfe in length & 2 yards & 
a quarter broad. 

An other Turkey Carpett 5 yardes long & 2 yardes & a halfe 
quarter broad 

Notes on the Arundel Collections 

Another of the same 4 yardes & a quarter long and 2 yardes & 3 
quarters broad. 

Another 4 yardes 3 quarters long & 2 yardes and a quarter broad. 
Another 4 yardes 3 quarters long & 2 yardes and a lialfe broad. 
A greate tine Turkey Carpett: 10 yardes & a lialle long, & 3 
yardes and a quarter broad 

Another large one: 16: yardes & a halfe long, & 4 yardes and a 
halfe broade. wanting a naylc. 

Another foure yardes & a quarter long & 2 yardes & a halfe 
broade wanting a. nayle. 

Another six yardes & a quarter long, & 2 yardes & a halfe, & 
halfe a quarter broad. 

Another 4 yardes three quarters long & 2 yardes and a halfe 

Another 3 yardes 3 quarters long & 2 yardes & quarter & halfe 

Another 2 yardes & halfe long & a yard and 3 quarters broad. 
Another 3 yardes long, & a yard & halfe 

Little Turkey Carpetts. 7. 

The First, 2 yardes long & a yard & a quarter broad 

The ■2.'^ '. 2 yardes long, & a quarter & halfe broad 

The third. 2 yardes long & a yard & quarter broad. 

The fourth 2 yardes long & a yard & quarter, & halfe quarter 


The Fifth. 2. yardes long, & a yard & quarts broad 

The sixth, 2 yardes long, and a yard & quarter & halfe quarter 


The seauventh. 2 yardes long, & a yard and a quarter broad. 

A blew Bayes Scrcene, of Eight Kouldes lined of blew Searge. 

A Freeze Couch Hed, & a square Canopie of Freeze for the same. 

Foure Backe Armed Cliayres couered with Freeze & Edged 

about with a broad Embroydered lace of gold. 

Foure little backe Chayres, made up in the same manner & 


A Dozen and Seauen Backe Chayres of the same Freeze furnished 

with guilt Brass Nayles. 

A greate Armed Chayre of Cloth of siluer Blacke & white, fringed 

of the same Colo'^? 

Three little Backe Chayers of the same stuffe. 

and one square stoole of the same stuffe. 

Two Armed Chayres of Turky Worke & foure stooles of the same. 
Three little lowe guilded Chayres, the bottome Couered with 
blackish Leather. 

A Red Leather Chayre with Armes. 
An old wooden Chayre with a Tike Seate but no Couer 
Two Itttle lowe old stooles. 
Nyne stoole Frames gilte upon pte of ye feete. 
Two old Bedsteds which came from Greenw'^.'" painted blewe 
& guilt, but noe Bedding nor Furniture thereunto 
A grecne Bedsted guilt. 
Three plaine woodden Bedsteds 

A Bedsted of Iron, which as Coiiceyucd must be sent to my lady 
of Aiundell: And. 8. Figures belonging to the Tops of the 
Bedstead foure guilt and fower not. 
A greate guilt demy Ball for a Canopie. 
A little greene falling Table hanging upon a Frame. 
The Couer of a Freeze Bed lyncd w^i^ Nctworke placed on a 
Frame : 

A Roll : 
A Roll of Indian Malts, consisting of 14 peeces. 
Twelue Picture Frames greate & little : 
Foure strayne Frames. ^ 

Eight Cages for birds & a great Dutch Chest coued with Lether 
& Iron Barres brought from my la ly Alexanders. 
An Iron for a Flower pott to stand in 
An Indian Couch Bedsted 

memorand a strong Pad lock hangeth to this partico : 

In the next Parlicion 
of this Gallerie : 
Two drawing Winescott Tables w"» feet Carved. 

In the third ParticOn. 
A wooden Chist painted on the side and a greate Table. 
In the Chimney a greate Bowing Iron to. keepe up the Coales. 
And here is all that rcmayncth in this Gallerie. 

The Next Roome to the 

North Gallerie therein. 
A walnutt Tree Spanish Table thereon. 

A paireof Ordinaire Tables, with Blacke and white Table Men;. 

Foure Indian Chayres. 

Ouer the Chimney in a Frame a Picture of a Man with a woeraan. 
& a Childe in her Armes 
And on the top of this Roome a Picture of. Aurora. 

In a Closett on the West Side 
of the sayde Roome. 

First the Floore Couered with a Carpett of yellow leather, thereon. 
A yellow Armed Chayre, couered with yellow sattin Em- 
broydered with siluer, tliereon a long Cushion of the same stuffe. 
Two little lowe back Chayres & two Buffitt stooles of the sayd 

On the Walles Eight Pictures whereof. 

Over the Jambe of the Chimney a night peece of the Nativity of 
our Savio' , done by. Huntliurste and sent by a Freind. 
The second a Picture of the Buriall of our Sauiour, 
The third, Jerome 
The fourth of Christ in the Garden. 
The Fifth of the same History 
The Sixth, S' Peeler in the Prison. 

The seauenth Blacke & white of Christ and the Samaritan. 
The Eigth the preaching of S Paul a drawing. 

In the Roome between the foresaid 
Roomes cS: y° South long Gallerie. 
A Spanish Table of Walnut Tree. 

Three Backe Chayres of Crimson Damaske Embroydered with 
Satin, being parcell of the Nyne that are belowe. 
At the backe of the Chimney hangeth a Picture of Diana & 
Acteon done by Tisian 

Ouer the head thereof a long Drawing of the Historie of Niobe. 
On the Roofe of this Roome a picture of the fall of Phaeton. 

The Closelt on the West side 

of the last Roome. 
The Floore Couered with white Leather 

A Table of Firre Couered with a little Carpett. of the like Leather. 
Thereon lying a long Cushion Embroydered of the Armes of 
King Pliilip & Queen Mary 

Three Armed Chayres of walnutt Tree, the Backes & seates 
Couered with Red lether Furnished w"" guilt nayles & tops of 
Brasse guilt. 

In the Chimney a payre of greate Iron Andirons, the upper 
partes thereof of Cast Brass pt guilt. 
A perfuming Panne of Brass with F"igures. 
An Iron fire shouell c& tongues with Brasse Figures on the tops 
Two tryangular old fashioned Chafing dishes, of brasse, the 
Couers hauing P'igures thereon & brasse Feete. 
On the Mantletreeof the Chimney standeth Eight Brass Peeces. 
The P'irst a Woeman. standing on a Pedist.iU. 
The 24 a woeman. sitting on a Pedistall. 
The .3d. a Man without Armes. or leggs 

The 4".' Laocoon. & his two Children stung to death w'J? serpents 
standing on a Pedistall. 

The 5'!" a Figure of a Man without Amies or leggs sitting on a 

The 6'!> a Man on Horsebacke on a Pedistall: 
The 7'^ a woeman at large. 
The S'i" a little Bell Cast with Figures. 

Ouer the Chimney a greate Picture made by Bassant, de Gloria 

in Excelsis. 

Alsoe standing on a ledge of the Freeze. 

fine Pictures: 

The First of them an Angell done by Lucas Cranicke: 
The 2* an Angell playing upon a viall. 

The 3? done by Bessano being the Angells appearing to the 

The 4'!" a Flying Angell: 
The S'"" of y» like, both made by Passa Rota. 

In the upper parte of the Roofe a Picture of Justice. 


Notes on the Arundel Collections 

In the South Gallerie : 
N>'ne streamed Tafata Curtaines hanging at the Windowes 
without any lyning. 

Seauen Chiits (whereof six painted) without Lockes or Hinges 
Eighteen Italian Wooden Chayres gilt. 
Two Chesboards 

On the one. Ende of y" South Gallery 4. 
Pictures viz ' : 

A greate peece painted upon wood of Pilate, washing his hands 
A Peece belonging unto the first. S^ Peter, denying our sauiour 
Two Peeces made by Paolo Fiamengho being p.irte of the 
4 seasons. 

On th3 North Side 16: Pictures viz* : 
A greate Landskippe pesented to my Lady by a Freind. 
A Woeman with a Childe in her Armes of Luca Cangiagi 
The Birth of our Sauiour. 
A little Landskippe of Monper. 

A greate Landskippe done by Monper. representing the Castle 
of Radicofano w'.'>a greate Inne. 
Lott tjeing led out by the Angell. 
A greate Landskippe done by Monper. 
A little Landskippe done by Monpere. 
A little Peece of the Angell saluting yo Sheppards 
A Peece with Grapes and Birdes. 
A Landskippe 

Ouer the Chimney the last Judgment. 
Ouer the Doore a woeman with a Childe 
A greate Landskippe presented unto my Lady. 
A Landskippe 
A Landskippe. 

On the other End: of this Gallerie 4: Peeces: vizf 
A Picture of a Woeman with a Childe Copia Leo duavinci 
The same Historie done after Raphaell. 
Two Peeces belonging to the foure Seasons. 

On the South side of y° s* Gallory 
16: pictures videlt : 
A greate Landskippe presented to my lady by a Freind. 
Two little Landskippes. 
A double Peece of Adam & Eue presented to my lord by the 

Queene of Bohemia. 
A little Landskippe. 

A greate Landskippe. 

A greate Landskippe. 

Jacobs trauelling done by Bassano. 

Christ taken downe from the Crosse 

A Peece with Shippes. 

A great Landskipp presented unto my Lady by a Freind : 

A Peece with S' George & the Dragon. 

Three Cartons hung up in the place of villa Hadrina. 

The First. 

The First of Pierino del dago. 

The second Jupiter & Semele. Julio Romano. 

The third Pallas with the Gods. 

Two Peeces of Basso releiue in white Marble standing ouer the 


Two vass skanallats of orientall Alabastro standing undre y'' 


In the Wardrobe ouer the Dutch Pranketing 
Roome & next to y« afores* South Gallerie: 
are these Goods following 

First a suite of Freeze Hangings, for the great Chamber, laced 

with two gold galowne laces in Each space & in the like Manner 

about the top Bordure. 

Alsoe a suite of Freeze hangings for the w'^ drawing Roome. 

laced with a greate Parchment lace of Gold, & on the top 

thereof, a Bordure of the same lace spangled. 

There is also for that Roome Freeze for a Canopie to hang ouer 

the Couch, & on the spaces of the Curtaines thereof a broad 

gold lace: And the Inward & out ward valence that goes round 

the top laced, with greate bone lace of gold: 

A suite also of Freeze hangings for the Clossett next to the with 

drawing Roome, laced in each space with gold lace, & y« like as 

formerly about the Bordure onely halfe a yard wanting before 

. . . with a Picture used to hang 

A Freeze Carpett also for y" Table with the like suteable lace. 

Each space with two little Embroydered laces. 

A suite of Freeze Hangings for y" Palate Chamber, & Curtaines 
& Counterpoint for bed of y° same. 

The Curtaynes are lyned with Networke, & edged about with a 
Silke & gold Fringe, Bottonns & loopes, & each side of y" Hang- 
ings there in like Manner suteable. 

For the Chamber called Mr Thomas Howards Chamber in like 
Manner a suite of Freeze Hangings, laced downe each space 
with two little Laces Embroydered with gold : 
For my Lordes Chamber a suite of Freeze Hangings laced 
downe on eache space, w"" one lace e.iibroydered with gold. 
A suite of Freeze Hangings for my Ladies Chamber with 3 
little siluer Laces in each seame and 3 round the top : 
One Peece of Tapistry Hangings of Solomons building the 
Temple, 3 yardes & a halfe deepe & foure yardes and a halfe 

Another peece of ye same suite of the same, depth two yardes 
and a halfe broad. 

Another Peece of the same suite & depth three yardes & a halfe 
in breadth. 

Another Peece of the same suite & depth. 5 yardes broad : Three 
of theese peeces are lyned with Canvase, & the 4'^ unlyned : 

Seauen Peeces of Indian Twilt hangings stitcht. with O.'enge 
Colo" silke, & Edged about w'^ yellow Fringe, for my Ladies 
Clossett in the old House next to her Bed-Chamber. 
A suite of Hangings Consisting of Foure Peeces of Indian 
Pantadoes, & Curtaynes of the same suite for the same Roome, 
And a Canopy of the same suite with a valence thereunto 
And foure little Indian Pantadoe Carpetts for the same Roome. 
Foure Peeces of silke striped Hanginges lyned with yellow say, 
and Fringed with Greene silke <fe siluer Fringe. 
A streamed silke Curtaine lyned with, blew Bayes, belonging to 
the same. 

A Valence Woeuen with gold Flowers, with a greene silke & 
siluer Fringe thereon belonging to the said suite. 
A Border of foure Peeces of y» same Stuffe thereunto belonging. 
Eleauen little Table Carpetts of red Leather whereof two lyned 
with red Buckram. 

One Couer of a Couch of the same lether. 
A large Carpett for a square table with broad Basis of guilt 

Eight Anteporles to hang ouer doores of. seuerall sortes of lether 
gilt & red. 

An old little suite of Hangings, of satinisco striped blew & 
yellow, consisting of 18 peeces. most of them verie little. 
An other little suite of Hangings of satinisco paned of Ash= 
Col° & red being very old. w'h the same three peeces of old 
striped stuffe of an other sorte. 

Furniture for a Bed of red Cloth, the head peece & valence 
lyned with Buckerain, Fringed, with a deepe red silke fringe & 
six Curtaines of the same Cloth unlyned: A Counterpoynt of the 
same lyned with red Bayes, but noe other Furniture hereunto 

Furniture for a Bed of Sarcenett, paned yellow & greene viz' 
a head peece lyned w*** Canvase two double valence with long 
fringe greene & yellow, lyned with Buckeram. Foure. Curtaines. 
Countepoint. foure Balls: twoe Cases for the Poasts of y" Bed. 
&r. loose fring to putt upon the Counterpoint, about twelue 

yardes and a Bedsted belonging unto it, But. noe Bed. This is 
suteable to the greene and yellowe Tafata Hangings, now in 
my Lords Roome 

Furniture of Greene and yellow Daraaske. for a Bed viz' a 
double valence longe Fringe lyned with yellow Buckerome: A 
Basis of the same lyned with Greene Buckerom, a Counter- 
point and six Curtaines. of the same unlyned 
And a Tester of an other sorte of stuffe mixt red greene and 
yellow, & a Bedsted onely now thereunto. 
An other little old Bed furniture of red and yellow Damaske 
consisting of seauen Peeces & a Counterpoynt. to yo Bed of 
Indian Twilt. lyned of yellow. 

An old Greene say Furniture for a Bed lyned. with Buckram: 
vizt: A Tester Valence, & thro Curtaines without lynings, noe 
other thing belonging thereunto. 

Furniture belonging to a Bed of striped silken stuffe of severall 
colours. Inner Valence out ward valence. Basis Counterpoint. & 
six Curtaines & two Cushione Cases of y* same with a fringe 
and Tassells suteable. 


Notes on the Arundel Collections 

An old litle Canopie of Cloth of siluer 

lyned with Changeable Tafata & small valence for the same, 
with gold and silke Fringe and three Curtaines of Damaske 
stuffe of. Blew & yellow with gold lace St, bottones & loopcs 
belonging to the same. 

Furniture for a large round Canopie Bed of Networke & 
Damaske paned, Consisting of three large Curtaines, an Inner 
Valence and outward Valence 

An other greate Canopie of silk Tiffenie striped, lace, Fashion 
& Counter poynt of y° same lyned with course Holland Sc Edged 
with a little Fringe, 

A greate large Canopie of red striped, with thrids of gold H, 
Edged with gould Fring .. j j -.u ,j 

A large silke quilt, of red and yellow Tafata & edged with gold 

Galome : . ^ . r • u j 

Basis of red sattin for the top of a round Canopie furnished 

with deepe gold fringe & broad gold lace 
A little silke red Tiffany Canopy with a little Fringe about it 

of red greene and siluer: 

An other round peece of blew. India worke for the top of y° sayd 

Canopie lyned with red & fringed as the other, but somewhat 

^^"P^- A state. 

A State of Cloth of Tissue Consisting of three Panes bordured 
of the same, with a deepe siluer & gold Fringe, the backe lyned 
witn blewe Callicoe the Borders with yellow sarcenett. 

A Counterpoint of blew Tafata with the Flowers and Basis 
thereunto, & two Cushion Pillowes of the same. 

A square Carpett of striped sarcenett, red and white lyned 
with Course white linnen Cloth. 

A Counterpoint of a Bed of the same stuffe, & lyning with 
Basis f.-istned thereunto. 

Seauen Curtaines of the same stuffe, whereof three verie 
large, all unlyned. 

A Carpett of the same Stuffe lyned as the Counterpoint 

A long valence for a Roome of red Damaske & red and 
yellow Damaske with a deepe fringe at the bottome & a narrow 
one at y« top, lyned. with yellow Buckerom, being in 2 peeces 
23.yardes & 3 quarters broad. 

Three little short Peeces of old yellow Damaske. Hangings. 

An old Torne Pcece of red Hangings wrought with gold 
lyned with Canvase, being fourc yardes and half quarter deepe, 
& a yard & halle in breadth. 

An other. 
An other of the same stuffe, 5 yardes deepe & a yard & a quarter 
wanting an Inch long. 

Flue greate Tafata Curteines whereof one Large 

A red Bayes to goe round about my lords Bed. 

Canvas for 2 Beds to keepe Gnats away. 
Two large old Tafata Curteines, lyned w"> yellow Callicoe 

A greate Tafata Trauerse lyned with greene Callico 


Jo the Editors of The Burlington Magazine. 
Gentlemen, — With reference to your editorial 
article in the November issue of The Burlington 
Magazine (pages 65, 66), there are several aspects 
of the question raised therein to which I should 
like to call attention, and I should be glad if you 
would allow me the necessary space for the 
following remarks. 

It appears to me that the real difficulty which 
has to be surmounted or removed in the acquiring 
of new works of art for our national collections is 
not so much the apathy or niggardliness of the 
authorities, as what is known as the " official 
method of procedure ". In its effects in enhancing 
prices, the system at present in practice works 
badly enough in the case of pictures, but in the 
instance of furniture, curios, and the like, the 


A Blew Tafata Curteine lyned with blew Callico. 

A nother striped Curtaine of Tafata. 
About 40 small peeces of Remn^ of gilt Lether whereof most 
guilt some not. 

Six long Cushions of striped old Clothe of siluer lyned with 
Damaske, & fringed about with siluer. 

Foure long greene Tuff Tafata Cushions. 
Three Cushions of Embroydered Satin with silke fringe & greate 


One Cushion of red striped Cloth of gold, with Tassells of 
red silke & gould. 
One long red sattin Cushion. 

Two long red Tafata Cushions couered ouer with white worke, 
Embroydered with gold. 

Two white Pillowes edged about yellow sarcenet. 
Nyne little yellow & greene Damaske Cushions 
Foure little greene Tafata Cushions 

Three Cushions of silke flowred worke white & Murrey, & 4. 
little ones of v« same stuffe. 

Fine Fustion Pillowes, whereof two uery little & two Pillowes 
couered wtt Course Holl.ind 

Two long greene Spanish leather Cushions. 
A little Turky Carpett, in length a yard and a quarter, in Breadth 
a yard. 

A Fine Holland Twilt. 
A Fether Boulster to the same couered on the Ends of India 
A shorter white Flocke fustian Boulster to the same. 
Two little Feather Pillowes of the same. 
Two Fether beds with an old Ticke, an old. Fether Boulster. & 
Pillow, but noe other Bedding to the same. 

Three old Flocke Boulsters & an old Couerlett of white and 
blacke stripes. 

A red leather Twilt and a red Lether Flocke Boulster to the 

Six dozen & seauen Turky whole blew skins 
Fiue Dozen of blew Turjiy skins cut square. & wett and dry 
for Carpetts ouer y" Chists in y« South Gallerie. 

In 2 lobbies of the wardrobe many glasses to put in preserue. 
At the Head of the SLayrecase of the South 
Gallery is a little Roome hanged with gilt 
leather, & a Table Couered with the like. 
Vnder that Roome hangeth a Mappe in a Frame. 

On the Top of the new house, hangeth a greate Bell, & upon 
the Kayles there, a little Brass sonne Dyall 

And soe here endeth an Inuentory . 
of the goods of the New He use. 

{To be concluded.) 

results of the present " official method " are more 
serious, for it deliberately thrusts an otherwise 
obscure negotiation into the full glare of the public 
eye, and by so doing either loses the chance of an 
acquisition altogether, or else materially increases 
the price by reason of greater competition, or the 
additional "knowledge regarding the object of 
purchase which has been imparted gratis, and for 
the sole advantage of the seller. This, however, 
is precisely the result, in nearly every instance, of 
the " official method" as prescribed by the Board 
of Education to be pursued in the case of purchases 
for our national museums, such as the Victoria and 
Albert. With objects of applied art especially, this 
pernicious systerti works very disadvantageously 
for the Museum. Furniture, for example, differs 
very materially from pictures as regards its acquisi- 
tion. A Titian may be found on a dustheap or a 

Letters to the Editors 

Raphael in a stable, but it would not be a paying 
transaction for the nation to speculate on these 
" finds ". Masterpieces of painting are, as an 
almost invariable rule, in known hands, and when 
they are not, they are naturally approached with 
some hesitation by the authorities. With furniture 
the case is exactly reversed. Rare pieces are to be 
picked up in the most out-of-the-way places, and 
very often in the hands of people who have very 
little, if any, idea of their true value. 

It is a pleasant little fiction on the part of the 
Board of Education, however, that a curator is 
never anxious to acquire a new specimen ; that 
it is always the seller who is tormented with a 
desire to exchange his possession for the money 
of the Board, and so long as he gets a price, no 
matter how small, the honour of selling to the 
nation supplies more than an equivalent for any 
time lost and trouble taken. It must be borne in 
mind that museums can rarely afford to pay the full 
market value for their acquisitions — that is, the 
price regulated by competition among dealers or 

We will assume that the curator of an important 
museum finds a desirable specimen in private 
hands, the value of which is unknown to the 
possessor. The right of the authorities to take 
advantage of lack of knowledge on the other side 
is usually assumed in such transactions. In the 
case above given, the curator would be in the 
position to acquire an example of value to the 
collection under his charge, on terms very favour- 
able to the Board, if he could do as collectors or 
dealers can — produce his cheque book and close 
the bargain. It is one of the unwritten laws of 
every Board of Management, however, that no 
official can be trusted with the unauthorised ex- 
penditure of a single penny. The curator has, 
therefore, to report to the Board of Education or 
Committee representative of it regarding the con- 
templated purchase, and if it be considered 
favourably, some weeks, or possibly months, 
afterwards the owner of the piece receives 
a printed form to fill up, in w^hich he suppli- 
cates the Board to buy. If he name a price — 
as he must — and this be too high, the officials 
of the Board are forbidden to bargain ; they 
must send another printed form stating that the 
Board of Education does not see its way, etc., 
etc., but if a lesser figure be demanded, the Board 
may reconsider its decision. In no case may an 
official of a museum make an offer of any kind ; 
this must come from the other side. During the 
time taken by these negotiations the piece is 
usually sold elsewhere, but, if it should be still 
available, the official forms which the owner 
receives apprise him that the article on which he 
has hitherto set small store is deemed worthy of a 
place in a national collection. If the owner is not 
acting from motives of patriotism — and the love 

of country must be strong indeed to survive the 
effect of the terms in which a letter from a 
Government department is usually couched — or 
utterly devoid of any commercial instinct, he 
straightway seeks a trustworthy opinion regarding 
the value of his property ; and as public institu- 
tions, when in competition with private collectors, 
or even dealers, are always worsted, the transaction 
is closed as far as the museum is concerned. 

There is a point in connexion with the above 
which is worthy of consideration. Those who 
know the rank and file of dealers or collectors — if 
such a term be permissible — know how much 
store they set, as a general rule, by expert opinion, 
tradition or pedigree, and how little attention 
they pay, comparatively, to the intrinsic merits oi 
demerits of a piece. An article of furniture ot 
good repute, one which has been illustrated in 
standard works of reference, will command a 
ready sale, at a high price, whereas another of 
better quality, but unknown, or perhaps thought- 
lessly condemned by several experts whose system 
appears to be one of mere guesswork, will realize 
nothing like the same sum. Now, what have the 
museum authorities done in sending the official 
notification of their readiness to purchase ? They 
have set the seal of their approval, endorsed by 
what is usually regarded — and should be — the 
highest e.xpert opinion in the land on the article 
in question. It is a matter for wonder that many 
people possessing pieces of some merit, but 
unknown to the collecting world, have not offered 
them to our museums simply to get the official 
mark of approval set upon them. There is no 
danger of a sudden purchase. How would it be, 
for instance, if a cabinet were offered at Christie's 
with a label attached, " Approved by the Victoria 
and Albert Museum " ? The official form could 
be handed to the purchaser on completion. One 
might make the round of every museum of note 
in the kingdom and accumulate a sheaf of official 
opinions regarding a piece of unusual merit. 

It is difficult to imagine anything more absurd 
in practice than the foregoing. It is not as if the 
Board of Education were willing to pay any price 
for an example put before it by a curator as in- 
dispensable. One might criticize the publicity given 
to the transaction as being costly and unnecessary, 
but we might console ourselves, as a nation, with the 
truly British quality of " muddling through some- 
how ". The Board is, however, parsimonious in 
the highest, or the lowest degree. It limits an im- 
portant museum to a sum which would be thought 
inadequate by a retired grocer with a taste for 
knick-knacks. Perhaps, however, the allotted sums 
are adequate after all, for how a museum ever 
succeeds in acquiring anything, hampered as it is 
by ridiculous and vexatious restrictions, is a 
mystery. An official, for example, may attend an 
auction, but he must not bid : that would be in the 


Letters to the Editors 

nature of making an offer. Surely this is too 
farcical even for crusted officialdom : it is worthy 
of Gilbert and Sullivan. 

What is the alternative to this ridiculous method 
of acquiring new treasures for our museums ? 
Simply that the Board should dispense with its 
red-tape methods and recognize that the buying of 
works of art is not exactly on a par with contracting 
for the delivery of a j-ear's supply of coal. Let the 
Board put its responsible officials on at least the 
footing of private collectors. The authorities can 
be niggardly, if they must ; but first to restrict a 
buyer to a small amount, and then by cumbrous 
official methods make it impossible for him to buy 
at any but the most inflated price, is surely the 
acme of absurdity. A certain sum should be put 
at the absolute disposal of one or two respons- 
ible officials, who can be called to account 
after a transaction is concluded. It must be 
remembered that the Board has eventually 
to rely on the judgment of its experts, so 
why not at the outset ? The hide-bound advocate 
of official methods will retort that this may 
open the door to corruption : but are our 
public officials to be regarded as undetected 
embezzlers ? Before they are engaged, they 
have to furnish the highest references to prove 
that they are gentlemen, but with the irk- 
some and insulting restrictions which are 
imposed the Board might possibly find equal 
talent, without the accompanying useless respecta- 
bility, in the neighbourhood of Dartmoor or 
Portland. Errors of judgment do not concern 
the point at issue. The expert is now the sole 
arbiter as to the genuine or spurious nature of a 
piece, and the liability to make a mistake is no 
whit lessened because the sanction of a Board of 
Management is necessary before a purchase can be 
completed. The expert is liable to be called to 
account for mistaken advice to his Board just the 
same as he would be were he the actual purchaser. 
No collection, whether public or private, has ever 
been formed without mistakes being made ; why 
should a national collection be exempted ? Because 
a physician may err is no reason why one should 
fee a doctor and prescribe for oneself, holding the 
doctor responsible for the consequences. Why 
then subject a cultured expert in a particular 
branch, to which he has probably given the best 
years of his life, to the hke indignity, and then take 
refuge behind the parrot phrase of " official 
procedure"? If his opinion can be trusted, why 
not his conduct? 

Yours faithfully, 

Herbert Cescinsky. 

To the Editors of The Burlington Magazine. 
Gentlemen, — I found in your November 
number (pages 122, 123) a review of my work 


EntwicklungsgeschichtederSpitze". Your critic 
speaks mostly of the plates and omits a closer study 
of the text, and this has brought about misunder- 
standings. It was not my intention to give a series 
of plates with explanatory text ; the work is much 
too unpretentious for that. I meant to write a 
history of lace with the help of illustrations : the 
plates and small prints have no other object. I 
would not discuss the subject further, were not the 
matter of great importance to the art of lace-making. 
The history of lace starts much earlier in the 
Orient than in Europe, and the Oriental designs 
were therefore placed at the beginning. As all 
trace of ancient Oriental lace is lost, I could refer 
only to the sources (and their illustrations), and 
offer some specimens of Oriental lace dating from 
the nineteenth century. As Oriental art develops 
itself in a much more quiet way than the European, 
conclusions might be drawn from these modern 
patterns. Your critic draws attention to a design 
representing an Egyptian specimen found in a 
tomb, and thinks it "most notable". His ideas 
differ from mine. I must repeat once more that 
we cannot be sufficiently careful in judging the 
identity of primitive designs which we meet with 
among the peoples of all countries. It would be 
a useful task for English students of art to discuss 
whether I am right in my opinion that the influence 
of Oriental lace spread directly to Dalmatia, the 
south of Italy and Spain. Malta, for instance, 
is too remote from our Austrian circle of studies. 
In my book I tried to make the reader acquainted 
with the technical details of lacework, including 
the typical denominations (pitiiio in aria, etc.). 
Old lace sometimes consists of a number of bits 
sewn together in arrangement different from their 
original form. When giving occasionally a most 
striking example I explained it in the text (page 59). 
The historical portraits show simply how lace was 
worn in those days. In making use of them I was 
fully aware that the study of technical details from 
paintings and engravings would certainly lead to 
errors, as such sources cannot be relied on. For 
the study of those times we have other means at 
our disposal, and make ample use of them, I 
certainly should be very grateful if English students 
of art would not only take notice of the designs 
but also study the text. It would be of great 
interest to me to learn their approval or even 
disapproval on dubious questions of art. 

Yours faithfully, 

M. Dreger. 

Otir reviewer replies as follows : — 
The portraits in Dr. M, Dreger's book were 
welcomed most distinctly as a study of costume, 
and only the exigencies of space prevented more 
quotations from the historical part of the work, 
I am very glad to find that Dr. Dreger does not 
object to the only serious criticism I made, as I am 

Letters to the Editors 

sure all interested in lace must regret the arrange- 
ment and cataloguingof the specimens in the Vienna 
Museum. Dr. Dreger says old lace sometimes 
consists of " bits sewn together ". But surely it is 
the duty of an educational authority such as a 
great national museum not to show these mangled 
specimens such as Pis. Nos. 7, 10, 27, 32-3, 58, etc. 
without remark. What would be said ii' in a 
national gallery pictures, even if only primitive 
pictures, were hung upside down? 


To the Editors of THE BURLINGTOX M.^GAZINE. 
Gentlemen, — It is only on my return to Naples, 
quite recently, that my attention has been attracted 
to the article by Dr. Paul Ganz in The Burlington 
Magazine for October, page 31, on "Two Un- 
published Portraits by Hans Holbein", in which 
he describes the jewel worn by an individual 


Roma AL tempo DI GiULIO III. La pianta dl Roma 
di Leonardo Bufalini del 1551, riprodotta dall' esemplare 
esistente nella biblioteca Vaticana a cura della biblioteca 
medesima con introduzione di Franxesco Ehrle, S.I. 
Roma : Danesi. 
Since the map of Rome by Dup^rac of the year 
1577 was reproduced from the copy of the British 
^Iuseum, that precious work has been received 
everywhere with great interest, on account of the 
services which it renders to every branch of study 
dealing with the Rome of the Renaissance before 
it had undergone the changes made by Sixtus V . 
It presents the stains quo ante in a bird's-eye view. 
The series' to which this book, "Roma prima di 
Sisto V ", belongs, established its reputation at the 
very first, and it is so attractive that the com- 
pletion of the list of no less than eight numbers is 
greatly to be desired. The second publication, 
ranking first in chronological order (1551), has 
just appeared. It is larger and even better repro- 
duced than the first ; the text is closely restricted 

' The following are the titles of the series :— 
Le piante maggion di Roma dci secoli XVI e XVII, riprodotte 
in fototipia a cura della Biblioteca Vaticana, con intro- 
du2ioni di Francesco Ehrle, S.I. Roma, Danesi editore. 

1. Roira al tempo di Giiilio III. La pianta di Roma di Leonardo 

Bufalini del 1551. 

2. Roma frima di Sisto V. La pianta di Roma Du Perac- 

Lafrery del 1557. 

3. Roma al tempo di Paolo V. La pianta di Antonio Tempesta 

del 1606. 

4. Rorra al tempo di L'rbano VIII (1623-1644). La pianta di 

Roma Maggi-Maupin-Losi. 

5. Roma al tempo di L'rbano VIII 1623-1644). La pinnta di 

Roma pubblicata da Goert van Schaych (Gottifredo 
Scaicchi) nel 1630. 

6. Roma al tempo di Innocemo XI. La pianta di Giovanni 

Batt. Kaldadel 1676. 
Appendici : — 

1. La grande veduta Maggi-Mascardi (1615), del Tempio e del 

Palazzo Vaticano. 

2. La pianta delta Campagna Romana del 1547, con intro- 

duzione di Tommaso Ashby. 

represented in a painting now the property of Sir 
John Ramsden. If Dr. Ganz had consulted the 
admirable and extensively illustrated paper pub- 
lished by that competent authority on German 
gold and silver work, Hofrath Marc Rosenberg of 
Karlsruhe in the " Kunst und Kunsthandwerk, 
Monatsschrift vom KK. Osterreischen Museum fur 
Kunst und Industrie." Wien. Artaria. XVI Jahrgang 
191 1 ; heft 6 and 7, on the Figdor Collection, he 
would have seen, at page 378, an illustration of one 
of these very objects which he imagines to be a 
whistle, but which is instead a penknife containing 
also toothpicks and ear-spoons or other little 
instruments such as tweezers or awls. Rosenberg 
also shows a drawing of a similar object from an 
engraving by Aldegrever dated 1539. 
Yours faithfully, 

Sidney J. A. Churchill. 
British Consulate for South Italy, 
Naples, 20 November, 1911. 

to the subject, and gives the results of all the 
latest researches. The distinguished editor states, 
in his lucid, rational manner, that Pope Pius X 
was presented with a singularly valuable collection 
of maps of Rome and the Campagna. Dr. Ehrle 
could not have over-estimated the gift, and no one 
knows better how greatly its value will be increased 
by the subsequent numbers of the series. He 
speaks with similar discretion of the reproduction 
of Bufalini's map already published, leaving to the 
reader the obvious discovery that the publication 
of the Ministry of Public Instruction has been a 
rather unfortunate enterprise from the scientific 
standpoint, and is entirely superseded by the 
Vatican edition. One of the mistakes which Dr. 
Ehrle points out in the ministerial edition has its 
humorous side : the enigmatic " Campus IV 
Deorum ", which he corrects into the more intel- 
ligible " Campus Ivdeorum ". The index of the 
new edition is a masterpiece of topographical 
acumen, and contains all that may be considered 
positive knowledge about Rome and its surround- 
ings in the first half of the i6th century. The 
same excellent use is made of sources far and 
near in composing the text which describes the 
life and works of Bufalini. It begins with a clear 
exposition of the stage reached by the art of 
engraving and the trade in prints at the period 
when Bufalini conceived his plan. This is a 
favourite subject with Dr. Ehrle, and one of which 
he is a thorough master. He then marshalls all 
the documents concerning the artist's profession, 
his abode and his opportunities for realizing his 
scheme to draw the first accurate plan of Rome 
in existence. All the adversities of Bufalini 
and his work are expounded on a stringently 
logical and critical historical method, convincing 


Reviews and Notices 

us that, after such a disposition of the existing 
material, only some new discovery can throw 
more light on the subject. An estimation of the 
real value of the map, a study of Bufalini's sources 
of knowledge, especially regarding Roman anti- 
quity, and the history of the few surviving copies 
bring to a close a treatise worthy of the keen 
attention of all who are interested in 16th-century 
Rome, and particularly of archaeologists. The 
map is, no doubt, already known by the edition 
of the Italian Ministry, or from quotations, but 
Dr. Ehrle has now rendered it available in a very 
serviceable edition, with an abundant commentary, 
special indexes, and a rich bibliography contained 
in footnotes. Paris, London, and other cities of 
minor importance have had collections of such 
old maps for a long time, but this edition marks 
the beginning of the enterprise to publish old 
maps of Rome in an irreproachable form. Rome 
at last takes her place in the domain of topo- 
graphy amongst the other capitals. Certainly the 
work could not have been undertaken by an editor 
of more brilliant capacity than the famous librarian 
of the Vatican, whose name is a guarantee of a 
monumental work. Not only those who know the 
difficulties of consulting old maps of Rome for 
regular study of its topography and history, but 
those also whose interest in the matter is more 
general, will be grateful to Dr. Ehrle for inaugu- 
rating this splendid series, in which, as already 
stated, surprises of great aesthetic importance are 
forthcoming. If the series appeals more emphati- 
cally to librarians, teachers, archaeologists and 
historians, whose attention it most thoroughly 
deserves, the editor may count on the admiration 
of artists and historians of art for some of the 
material which he commands. Rome evokes 
our interest and admiration in every way, and 
there will be ample space for both in the precise 
and beautiful sheets, which will bear her image on 
our desks and the walls of our studies. 

J. A. P.O. 

ANTIKE BILDWERKE. Venus von Milo : Ilioneus : Torso 
VOID Belvedere : Torso von Subiaco (Zur Kunst^eschichte dcs 
Auslaiides, Heft 86) von C. Hasse, O.O., Professor der 
Anatomie an der Universitit, Breslau. Strassburg : Heitz 
& Mundel. 

In this work Dr. Hasse, Professor of Anatomy 
in the University of Breslau, publishes restorations 
of four Greek statues to the study of which he has 
devoted his leisure for the last thirty years. He 
approaches the problems of their restoration from 
the point of view of a trained anatomist, and, as 
such, his contribution deserves careful study, but 
unfortunately he has not laid to heart the warning 
Ne stttor ultra crepidam, which he quotes (against 
himself), and has supplemented really valuable 
anatomical observations by archaeological deduc- 
tions. His most enterprising restorations are 


those of the Venus of Milo and the Subiaco 

Dr. Hasse begins his study of the Venus by a 
careful examination of the position of the left 
shoulder-blade, and the turn of the shoulder and 
armpit, and emphasizes the fact that the amount of 
turn shown is against any great lift of the arm above 
the horizontal, and that its movement was forwards 
and sideways. He accepts the fragments of the 
upper arm and hand as parts of the statue, and 
shows that the swell of the muscle at the fracture of 
the upper arm settles the position of the forearm 
and consequently of the hand. This arm he 
restores with the elbow on a level with the chin 
and the forearm bent inwards at right angles to the 
upper arm with the back of the hand uppermost. 
The right forearm and hand he places palm 
upwards across the figure, somewhat above 
the drapery, and supported slightly away from 
the body by a pnntello of which there are traces. 
He then adopts Henke's suggestion (though he 
dissents from his anatomical premisses) that the 
Venus is anointing herself after the bath, and restores 
the statue (Pis. I— IV) as grouped with a Herm, 
which, in his view, marks the scene as a bath. The 
goddess has just left the bath; in her left hand, 
lifted well above the level of her eyes, she holds an 
oil flask : from this she pours oil into her rijiht 
hand (about two feet below), the while she gazes 
at some point beyond and between the two hands! 
In adopting this restoration Dr. Hasse overlooks 
two points about the left arm which are not matters 
of archaeological knowledge, but of observation : 
the relative position of the dowel-holes in the arm- 
pit, upper arm and hand, and the identical weather- 
ing on the upper side of both the fragments ; while 
his restoration of the right arm takes no account 
of the disturbance of the drapery in front of the 
left thigh. The restoration is also archaeologically 
unsound because a left-handed statue is a freak 
which sins against every canon of Greek art. 
Greek art, moreover, requires that a single figure, 
engaged in some action personal to itself, should 
concentrate its attention on that action. Further, 
Greek art was extraordinarily economical in ideas ; 
wherever possible it adopted existing types, and if 
the sculptor had wished to represent his Venus as 
anointing herself, he had, ready to hand, a type 
which fulfilled all these conditions, and of which 
the best-known replica is at Petworth Hall (Furt- 
wangler-Sellers's " Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture", 
Fig 107). That figure (a youth) holds his flask in 
his right hand on a level with his chin, and 
carefully pours the oil into his left hand, on which 
his gaze is fixed, and which is held against the body, 
palm inwards, well above the abdomen. But 
though we reject Dr. Hasse's deductions, his 
anatomical material may help us to important 
results. He does not deal in great detail with the 
anatomy of the right arm, but his notes on the left 

arm, taken in conjunction with the details of dowel- 
holes, weathering etc. referred to, seem to prove that 
though sufficiently raised to displace the shoulder- 
blade, this arm was supported in a horizontal 
position with the forearm and palm of the hand 
turned upwards ; it could not have been held out 
in that position without producing a much greater 
distension of the deltoid muscle than is shewn. 
Furtwangler restored it as resting on a pillar in the 
attitude of the Tyche of Melos, the type from which 
he derives the Venus, and though his pillar is not 
high enough to meet Dr. Hasse's requirements, his 
restoration has the merit of taking into account 
most of the factors of the problem, including the 
careless working of the back of the hand, the 
decided bend of the figure to the left, and the 
sketchy treatment of the drapery on that side. 

When we turn to the Subiaco torso (Pis. X- 
XIII) we find that on anatomical grounds Dr. Hasse 
restores it as kneeling on the left knee, the right 
leg bent at the knee, with the foot firmly planted 
on the ground, the right arm raised in the attitude 
of an " over-hand " bowler, the left thrown across 
the right thigh, with the hand hanging down, and 
then christens it — a Diskobolos ! " At the moment 
when his right foot touches the boundary, when, 
with body bent forward and swung round to the 
right, and left leg drawn back, he has completed 
the movements of his cast, he sinks on his knee. 
The left arm . . . falls on the right thigh, the right arm 
retains the position of throwing ; witli head thrown 
back and face upturned, he watches the flight of 
his diskos ". An explanation which can be 
explained only on the hypothesis that in order 
to avoid the possibility of archasological bias, the 
author has refrained from studying the extensive 
series of vase-paintings which represents the 
diskobolia in all its movements, or even the com- 
ments of modern writers like Xorman Gardiner^ or 
Juthner,* who have discussed its technique as 
illustrated in these monuments. Had he done so, 
he would have seen at once that at the conclusion 
of the throw, the arms would not be in the position 
in which, on anatomical grounds, he places them: 
the right arm would hang, hand downwards, in an 
arrested forward movement, the left arm v/ould be 
thrown violently back to balance it. He would 
also have noticed that if the Diskobolos sank on 
his knee at the conclusion of the complicated series 
of movements necessary for a successful cast, he 
would fall on his face, unless he threw his body 
well backwards to the left to balance the pull 
of the throw. Dr. Hasse's explanation is, in fact, 
inspired by the Lancelotti copy of Myron's 
Diskobolos, and he has adopted it without observ- 
ing that Myron's athlete is in the middle of his 
throw, when, after swinging the diskos down and 
backwards from left to right, he is about to swing 

' Throwing the Diskos. Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1907, 
Vol, XXVII. Pt. I. *Antike Urngirnthc. 

Reviews and Notices 

it forward for the " underhand " throw. When we 
consider Dr. Hasse's restorations apart from the 
idea he reads into them, we feel that the position 
assigned to the left arm is not convincing; it is too 
obviously inspired by Myron's figure. 'The drag 
down of the left shoulder shows that this arm came 
well forward across the body, but it seems too 
pronounced, if the arm was lying across the right 
thigh and no longer in a state of strain. The 
feeling of tension which pervades the torso has 
always led to its restoration as initiating some 
violent action, but its position, the backward poise 
of the head, the force with which the toes of the 
right foot grip the ground, are equally well suited 
to a figure on its defence against attack from above, 
and in that case the left arm would be more in the 
position which Dr. Hasse assigns to that of the 
Ilioneus (PI. V). 

In his preface the author expresses the hope that 
his labour of love may help to solve the problems 
which he discusses : certainly the anatomical part 
of his work cannot fail to be an important factor 
in all subsequent attempts at their solution, and it 
is only fair to point out that he has himself pre- 
pared the barb which wings the archasological 
shaft, by the clearness of his anatomical notes and 
the wealth of plates with which he illustrates his 
restorations. C. A. H. 

William Blake, Mystic, a study by Adeline m 

BuTTERWORTH, together with Young's Night Thoughts: 
Nights I and II, with illustrations by William Blake, and 
frontispiece, Death's Door, from Blair's The Crave. Liver- 
pool Booksellers' Co. 15s. net. 
There is no harm in the reproduction of Blake's 
works in any form which may find purchasers, 
nor to their introduction by writers who have any- 
thing new to say, provided it is intelligible, which 
is rare. Perhaps Miss Butterworth has. At any 
rate the clear printing of the text does the 
publishers credit, and the book is nicely produced. 
But reduced reproductions do not further the 
study of Blake ; and the less Young's doggerel is 
studied the better. The original designs have the 
merit of having been engraved by Blake himself, 
but they represent him at his worst as a designer. 
They might have been designed by Stothard, and 
would have been better designed by Fuseli. The 
original edition of the book is not rare, and 
had better be studied in a library than in a state of 
semi-facsimile. Comparatively speaking, however, 
the present edition is above the average of such 
publications, and deserves no particular condem- 

The HeRKOMERS. By Sir Hubert von Herkomer, 
C.V.O , R.A. Two volumes. Macmillan. "s. 6d. net each 
This is a graphic account of the author's educa- 
tion and career. Many pleasing details show how 
a wise father contrived to foster his son's early 
talent and leave his individuality free to develop 
naturally. They suggest the origin of Sir Hubert's 
" gospel " as expounded by the system which he 


Reviews and Notices 

pursued successfully in his school at Bushey for 
many years, so far as his practice was systematic. 
The artist's psychological experiences also are 
agreeably chronicled ; the growth of his mind, 
especially during his first visit to his old home in 
the Bavarian Alps, and his gradual realization that 
production must be alternated with contemplative 
repose. Sir Hubert is so frankly pleased with his 
own life that he succeeds in interesting his readers 
in a biography which is not very eventful. S. L. 


Oesterreichische Kcnstschaetze. Heft 4. — 
For this portfolio the editor has drawn largely 
upon the collection of Prince Alfred Montenuovo 
at Vienna, The works reproduced comprise three 
portraits of the children of the Batthyany family ; 
two by George Ferdinand \Valdmiiller(i793-i865), 
Nos. XXIX and XXX, and one by Johann Ender 
(1793-1854), No. XXXI, all very reminiscent of 
Lawrence ; a chalk drawing, heightened with white, 
of the Archduchess Marie-Louise as a young girl. 
No. XXVIII, signed Peter Fendi (who executed 
many full-length water-colour portraits of members 
of the Imperial family), and a Madonna and Child 
No. XXVII, ascribed to Hans Holbein the Elder, 
and placed by the editor in his last Augsberg- 
period, between 151 2 and 15 16. The character of 
the picture and the suspicious inscription, /ci/;a;iH« 
Holbain Biiigeivat {pingebat ?), are not calculated 
to inspire confidence. The ciphers I.D. and I.H. 
seen in the upper part of the picture are at present 
unexplained ; some hint as to the probable origin 
of the picture might be gathered from the inscrip- 
tion on the pilaster on the left: Carpet aliquis ciciiis 
qitavt imiiabiiiir. The S. Martin giving his Cloak 
to a Beggar, No. XXV, dated 1518 (Graz Museum), 
is the property of the town of Bruck on the Mur, 
a place represented in the background, which is 
the most interesting part of the picture. The 
donors are identified by their coats of arms as 
belonging in all probability to the Styrian family 
of Leisser (Leysser). The letters J. A. may refer to 
the painter, who is identified by Dr. Suida, on the 
evidence of the drawing and colouring, as of 
Augsburg descent. Many painters of Augsburg 
are known to have worked in Austria in the early 
i6th centurj'. 

Heft 5 contains, among other reproductions, 
two panels transferred to canvas, once forming 
the outer shutter (front and back) of an altar-piece 
(Nos. XXXIII, XXXIV) by an unknown Austrian 
painter of c. 1460; belonging to the Stiff of S.Peter 
at Salzburg. The very attractive Madonna and Child 
seated on a low throne with four female saints 
grouped around and two angels above holding a 
crown, No. XXXVI, is dated 1505, but belongs in 
sentiment to an earlier period and is closely 
connected with a class of composition very popular 
in the second half of the 15th century in the schools 


of the Lower Rhine and of the Netherlands. The 
name of the donor, Freiherr zu Talberg, is inscribed 
on the panel. By the same hand, according to the 
editor, is the Madonna in the Liechtenstein Gallery, 
which was reproduced in Heft I of this publication 
(No. IV). The Madonna, No. XXXV, to whom 
S. James presents the kneeling donor, is ascribed 
to a painter of Lower Austria of 1473. It formerly 
hung above the tomb of the donor, whom it 
commemorates, and is now in the Rathaus at 
Vienna. It is connected, according to the editor, 
with a group of paintings : in the Vienna Gallery 
of 1449, in the Cathedral at Graz (of 1457 t>y Konrad 
Laib), and in the Cathedral at Pettau (Styria). 
Two portraits by Antoine Pesne Nos. XXXIX, 
XL, in the Graz Museum (the property of Reichs- 
ritter von Berks), are fairly good examples of the 
work of this artist, the favourite painter of Frederick 
the Great. They represent Du Buisson the painter, 
father-in-law of Pesne, and Helena Pesne, the 
artist's daughter, who took the veil in 1728. 

The Medici Society continues its meritorious 
work, and several of its most recent productions are 
before us. We have so often had occasion to point 
out defects in the reproductions from the Old 
Masters that it is a pleasure to be able to praise 
unreservedly. The two paintings by Rembrandt 
in the Hermitage at S. Petersburg, The Sweeping 
Girl (25s, net) and The Holy Family (21s. net), have 
been reproduced most successfully, the chiaroscuro 
of the painting and the sentiment of the painter 
being well preserved. We congratulate Mr. Lee 
Warner on these two prints. The Music Lesson 
(22s. 6d.), after the well-known painting by Lancret 
in the Louvre, is another successful piece of 
reproduction : its bright colour and harmonious 
composition should make it popular and an 
attractive ornament for a lady's boudoir. The 
reproduction of the celebrated Dresden Vermeer, 
The Courtesan (17s. 6d. net), is a fine specimen of 
brilliant colour-printing and wonderfully true to 
the original. The subtleties in the equally famous 
small triptych at Dresden {The Travelling Altar- 
piece of Charles V, 25s. net) are so refined and 
abstruse that no one could be surprised at some 
of them being missed in any process of printing as 
contrasted with the stroke of the brush. The 
S. Victor and a Donoi (20s. net), attributed to 
Hubert Van der Goes, in the Glasgow Gallery, 
is another brilliant piece of colour-printing, 
broader and more lustrous than the Van Eyck, 
and therefore affording, like the Vermeer, a better 
opportunity for the printer. We are less satisfied 
with the French pictures, from which the sugary 
charm seems to have evaporated dunng printing, 
leaving a somewhat cold and uninteresting result 
behind. This is especially the case with two 
pictures by Lancret from Petersburg {Spritig and 
Summer, 22s. 6d. net each), though these look 
much better famed than on white mounts. The 

Reviews and Notices 

Madame de Pompadour (17s. 6d. net), by Boucher, 
at Edinburgh, has lost something of its sparkle 
and seductiveness. The portrait of Serena Reading 
(15s. net), by Romney, is sure to be popular, but is 
not particularly interesting, while the printer seems 
to have been misled by the yellow varnish with 
which many pictures of the English school used 
to be refreshed and sometimes ruined. 

The reproduction of The Yotnig Shepherd (17s. 6d. 
net), after Sir Joshua Reynolds, in the Temple 
Newsom collection, can scarcely be considered a 
very valuable addition to the series. The painting 
itself is not remarkably characteristic of Sir Joshua's 
best methods, whilst the low tones of brown, 
yellow and dull red appear in the reproduction to 
be flat and lacking in contrast. In the Madonna 
Grandtica (21s. net), after Raphael, in the Pitti, 
Florence, the texture of the painting and the sub- 
stance of the flesh are well rendered, but the blue- 
green of the Virgin's mantle is tn,-ing to the 
colour-printer. The picture being familiar makes 
reproduction all the more difficult. In The Sistine 
Madonna (35s. net) the flesh seems less successfully 
rendered, presenting a stippled appearance, but the 
whole effect is satisfactory. It is difficult to 
understand the attraction of so very large a print: 
it measures 38 by 27^ inches. The detail from 
Murillo's S. Anthony of Padua (12s. 6d. net) is a 
good example of the Society's work, the sombre 
tones lending themselves especially well to the 
process. Personally we prefer monotone to any 
colour-process yet invented, and the Adoration of 
the Kings reminds us better of Mabuse's original 
than any colour-reproduction, though the tone- 
values do not seem to be verj- accurately observed 
in this instance. To Hoppner's picture of Lady 
Charlotte Campbell as Aurora (25s. net), justice is 
scarcely done. Did we not know thatthe original (in 
the collection of the Duke of Argyll at Inverary) was 
an oil-painting we should hardly have guessed it 
from the reproduction, which gives an idea of pastel. 

The activity of the Medici Society seems to in- 
crease, and we are glad to record our opinion that the 
colour-plates which it issues maintain their previous 
high level of excellence, and indeed, sometimes 
surpass it. We fear, however, that the best work 
of the Society may lie in subjects which appeal to 
the connoisseur rather than to the more popular 
favour. Connoisseurs, therefore, should see that 
the Medici Society does not lose by any venture 
in the domain of really first-class art. 

In Aid of the National Art-Collections Fund 
It is a pity that this useful and attractive volume ^ 
did not appear in time to be included among the 
ornamental books described in these pages as 

1 A Catalogue of an Exhibition of Old Masters Ix Aid of the 
National Art-Collections Fund. Grafton Galleries, 1911. 
Edited by Roger E. Fry and Maurice W. Brockwell. With 80 
illustrations. Medici Society, Ltd. 21s. net, or bound in vellum 
boards, £2 2s. net 

desirable Christmas presents. It may be measured 
according to its merits, like other books, but, unlike 
them, it must be recommended in unmeasured 
terms for blind purchase on account of its object, 
the benefit of the National Art-Collections Fund. 
For the sake of the National Collections, it is to 
be hoped that it has been already purchased by 
everyone interested in pictures or in the history of 
art. In the latter respect it is indispensable, 
because it contains illustrations of many pictures 
never published before and unlikely to be pub- 
lished again. The volume is very nicely set out, 
the cost of production being judiciously expended 
on utility and sobriety, and not wasted on frippery. 
The illustrations are much more successful than 
could have been expected from the difficulties 
which many of the originals present to the photo- 
grapher ; in other, ordinary' cases, they serve 
their purpose as well as collotype can make them. 
Though some very interesting pictures, which 
should have been included, have been omitted, 
perhaps unavoidably, the eighty which do appear 
render the volume well worth its price, not only 
because it makes a charming picture book, but 
because it is also an invaluable collection of docu- 
ments. His Majesty the King's fine panels from 
Hoh-rood have indeed been reproduced before, 
but "they are not very accessible, and are welcome 
again ; while among pictures which would have 
added value to the book is the supposed portrait of 
Ignatius Loyola, and some of the admirable little 
collection of early English water colours lent by 
members of the Walpole Society. Of Mr. Roger 
Fry's part in the production of the catalogue this 
is not the place to speak : Mr. Brockwell's part is 
done with the fulness and accuracy with which 
he has before compiled catatogues of the National 
collections. He is to be commended here for 
having struggled against the usual tendency in such 
cases to waste space and the reader's temper by 
describing objects leaping to the eye in the illustra- 
tions, to the exclusion of notes on colour which 
really are useful to assist the memory. Of course, 
the owners of the pictures are alone responsible for 
the ascriptions. One point demands criticism. Even 
if the necessity for the arrangement of a gallery on 
an aesthetic rather than a purely historical plan be 
disputable, it is almost universally recognized, but 
this is no reason for arranging the illustrations of 
a book in the exact order in which pictures are 
hung upon a wall, when that involves separating 
the individuals of a series, and even the parts of 
one picture such as Sir Frederick Cook's now well- 
known Signorelli. As soon as the prints are well 
dried we shall be tearing out the guard-papers, and 
it will then be still more annoying to find an 
unconnected subject thrust in among those which 
are intimately connected. This, however, would 
be a fault not worth notice if the book were not a 
notable production. 


Reviews and Notices 

Sale Catalogue, Upke, Berlin. 
In his admirable preface to the " Weber-Hamburg " 
collection Dr. Max Friedlander calls attention to 
the singularity of this catalogue among publications 
of this nature. It marks indeed a new and most 
desirable innovation in such publications, consist- 
ing as it does of an enlarged reprint of the catalogue 
which Dr. Woerman drew up in 1892 and re-edited 
in 1907. Not only is every picture adequately 
described with its pedigree and provenance, but 
references are given to those works in which the 
picture has been mentioned, and to this is frequently 
added a summary of the verbal opinions of leading 
critics. Thus the would-be purchaser is placed at 
once in a position to arrive at a just opinion of the 
probable authenticity of the work. This is 
undoubtedly the only scholarly and also the most 
business-like way of proceeding, and we hope that 
the enterprise of the Berlin auctioneers will find 
imitators in this country, where usually no care is 
taken to supply purchasers with accurate informa- 
tion, nor is any responsibility for the attributions 
assumed. On the whole the opinions given in Dr. 
Woermann's text commend themselves for their 
fairness and accuracy, and this is especially the 
case with regard to the early German and Nether- 
landish schools, which are particularly well 
represented in the late Consul Weber's collection. 
In the works of other schools there is still room 
for a certain amount of caution in following the 
editor of the catalogue, although even here the 
majority of the attributions appear to be un- 
questionable. It is hard to judge of the Mantegna 
by a reproduction, but it hardly convinces at first 
sight, and the fact that Kristeller omitted to 
include it in his list is not altogether counter- 
balanced by Dr. Bode's approval. The Lorenzo di 
Credi and the Mainardi are evidently good and 
characteristic works, so too is the splendid late 
Moretto, but the attribution with some confidence 
to Titian of a feeble Netherlandish imitation 


Phillips (L. M.). The works of man. (8x5) London (Duck- 
worth), 7s. 6d. net. i plate. 
Stobart (J. C). The Glory that was Greece: a survey of 

Hellenic culture and civilization. {10x7) London (Sidg- 

wick & Jackson), 30s. net. 300 illus. 
Walters (H. B.). The art of the Romans. (10x7) London 

(Melhuen), 15s. net. Illustrated. 
Dalton fO. M.). Byzantine art and archaeology. (10x6) 

Oxford (Clarendon Press), 42s. net. 457 illus. 
Stokes (M.). Early Christian art in Ireland. Revised by 

G. N., Count Plunkett. (9 x 6) Dublin (Nati0n.1l Museum 

of Science and Art), is. Cuts. 
HooPS(J.i c<'''oi). Reallexikon der Gcrmanischen Altertums- 

kunde. (10x7) Strasburg (Trubner) ; vol. I, pt. i, 5 M. 

Complete in 3 vols., about 14 pts. A dictionary of Germanic 

antiquities and art, including the Anglo-Saxon, to A. D. 1000. 

Exposition de Charleroi, 1911. Groupe I. Beaux-Arts. Les 

arts anciens du Hainaut. Salon d'art moderne. Cat.-ilogue 

general. — Les arts anciens du Hainaut. Conferences. 

2 vols. (7x5) Brussels (v. Oest), 2fr. and 3fr. Plates. 
Sizes (height x width) in inches. 


appears almost incredible and is a serious blot 
upon the work. The discovery of a signature and 
date 1542 can of itself be nothing to confirm such 
a grotesque hypothesis. No. 139 is surelynot by El 
Greco, but none the less an interesting work with 
something of the character of Lotto. Another, 
the V^elazquez, No. 176, is also put forward with 
greater assurance than the bright and soft 
modelling shown in the reproduction would seem 
to justify. The Goya, 185, is evidently one of his 
finest works, and is one of the best things in the 
collection. Of the Rembrandt's some are admit- 
tedly doubtful, though the one about which most 
doubt has been felt by the Berlin authorities, No. 
251, is certainly a finer picture than the accepted 
portrait of a boy, 249 ; the unsatisfactory model- 
ling of this inay, however, be due to complete re- 
painting. The catalogue is well illustrated by 
numerous collotypes, but it is to be regretted that 
some of the more important picturesare reproduced 
in W. Unger's crudely effective but superficial 
etchings. Still when all possible objections are 
admitted Dr. Friedlander's contention holds good 
that this is not a mere auction catalogue, but a 
permanent addition to the history of Art and a 
memorial of the great collection which is to be 
dispersed at Lepke's Kunst-Auctions-Haus, Berlin, 
on February 20th to 22nd ne.xt. 

At the request of Sir Charles Holroyd, Director of 
the National Gallery, we wish to direct notice to 
the loan from Buckingham Palace which His 
Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to 
make to the Trustees of the National Gallery. The 
pictures lent by His Majesty are the famous 
Shipbuilder and his Wife by Rembrandt, and the 
fragment (representing S. Giacomo and S. 
Mamante) of the Trinity by Pesellino, of which 
the centre portion is already in the National 
Gallery. A reproduction of the altar-piece appeared 
in Tlie Bnrlinglon Magazine, Vol. XVI, page 125. 

Crane (W.). William Morris to Whistler. Papers and 
addresses on art and craft and the commonweal. (7x5) 
London (Bell), 6s. net. Illustrated. 

BiACKER(J. F.). The A B C of Japanese art. (8x6) London 
(Stanley Paul), 5s. net. Illustrated. 

H. V. Underground Jerusalem : discoveries on the Hill of 

Ophel (1909-11). (12x10) London (Horace Cox, " Field" 

office), 7s. 6d. net. The price of the French edition 

(" Field '• office) is 10 fr. Illustrated. 
Beveridge (E.). North Uist, its archxology and topography ; 

with notes upon the early history of the Outer Hebrides. 

(10x7) Edinburgh (Brown), 31S. 6d. Plates. 
Hakcock (Rev. F.). Wifela's Combe, a history of the parish of 

Wivelscombe. (9x6) Taunton (Barnicott & Pearce). 

Harris (M. D.). The story of Coventry. (7x4) London 

(Methuen's "Medi.X'val Towns" series), 4s. 6d. net. Illus. 
Cooper (T. P.). The history of the castle of York from its 

foundation to the present day, with an account of the 

building of Clifford's Tower. (9x5) London (Stock) 

I2s. 6d. net. 

Recent Art Publications 

AusTES LtiGH (W.). Chawtoii Manor and its owners : a family 
historj-. (II X 8) London (Smith, Elder), 3is. net. Illus- 

Rahtgens(H.). Die Kunstdenkmiiler der Stadt Koln, II. i. 
Die kirchlichen DenkmiUer : S. C5ereon, S. Johann Baptist. 
Die Marienkirchen. Gross S. Martin. (11x7) Dusseldorf 
(Schwann*. Illustrated. 

FiCKER (J.) and Cxgkrer (E.). Elsassische Altertiimer in 
Burg und Haus, in Kloster und Kirchs. Inventare aus 
Stadt und Bistum Strasburg. Strasburg (Trubner), 6M. 
first half-vol. 

Vacgh.\s (H.). Florence and her Treasures. With notes on 
the pictures, by M. Mansfield. (7x4) London (Methuen), 76 illus. 

GlELLY (L.). Gio\-anni-.A.ntonio Bazzi dit le Sodoma. (8x6) 

Paris(Plon), 3fr. 50. Plates. 
Steism.\ns (E.)and WiTTE (H.). Georg David Matthiea. Kin 

deutscher Maler des Rokoko (I737-I778). (11x8) Leipzig 

(Klinkhardt & Biermannl, 30 M. Collotypes. 
GlESECKE (A.). Meister der Graphik, VI : Giovanni Battista 

Piranesi. (12x9) Leipzig (Klinkhardt & Biermann), 16 M. 

64 plates. 
Greig (J.). Sir Henry Raeburn, R.A. : his life and works, 

with a catalogue of his pictures. (11x9) London (' Con- 
noisseur "), 55. net. 
Holmes (C. J.). Notes on the art of Rembrandt {9x6) London 

(Chatto & Windus), 7s. 6d. 45 plates. 
Cook (E. T.). The life of Ruskin. 2 vols. (9x5) London 

H.^NFSTAEXGL (B.). Haus Stethaimer. (10x7) Leipzig (Hierse- 

minnl, 10 M. 24 plates. 
Plietzsch (E.). Vermeer van Delft. (9x7) Leipzig (Hierse- 

mann), 9 M. 35 plates. 

M.\RTIN (C). L'art roman en Italic : I'architecture et la 

decoration. (20x14) Paris (Eggimann). Fascicle i, 20 

collotype plates. 
ERR.VRD (C.). L'art byzantin, IV. Torcello et la Dalmatie : 

I'feglise du dome et Zara Nona. Text par A. Gayet. (iS x 13) 

Paris (Gaillard). 36 plates and text illustrations. 
Begule (L.). La cathedrale de Lyon. Rou.\(A.). Le chateau 

d'Anet. (8x 5) Paris (Laurens), 2s. each ; " Petites mono- 

graphies des grands edifices de la France". 
Cole (F. J). An analysis of the church of S. Mary, Cholsey, in 

the county of Berkshire. (9x6) Oxford (Blackwell), London 

(Frowde), 5s. net. 23 plates. 
Richardson (A. E.) and Gill (C. R.). London houses from 

1660 to 1820. A consideration of their architecture and 

detail, (9 x 6) London (Batsford), Illustrated. 

Gardner (E. G.). The painters of the school of Ferrara. (8x5) 

London (Duckworth), New York (Scribner). 
Laidlay (W. J.). Art, artists and landscape painting. (9x5) 

London (Longmans), 5s. net. Illus. 
Hind (C. L.). The consolations of a critic. (9x5) London 

(Black), 3s. 6d. net. 32 plates. 
ToCH (M.). Materials for permanent painting. A manual for 

manufacturers, art dealers, artists and collectors. (8x5) 

London (Constable), 15s. net. 

Fl'Rtwangler (A.) and Urlichs (H. L). Denkmaler griech- 

ischer und romischer Skulptur, Handausgabe, 3rd edition, 

(9x6) Munich (Bruckmann). 133 illus. 
Waters (W. G.). Italian sculpture. (7x5) London (Methuen), 

7s. 6d. net. 78 illus. 
Calvert (A. F.). Sculpture in Spain. (8x5) London (Lane's 

'■Spanish series"), 3s. 6d. net. 162 illus. 
Bedford (R. P.). S. James the Less : a study in Christian 

iconography. (10x8) London (Quaritch, for the Gryphon 

Club), 5s. net. Illustrated. 
HoLBROOK (R. T.). Portraits of Dante from Giotto to Raffael. 

Acriiicalstudy with a concise iconogiaphy. (11 x 8) London 

(Lee Warner), 21s. net. Plates, some in colour. 
Blake (J. P.) and Reveirs-Hopkins (A. E.). Little books about 

old furniture : I, Tudor to Stuart ; II, the period of Queen 

Anne. 2 vols. (7x5) London (Heinemann), 2s. 6d. net. 

Gardner (J. Starkie). English ironwork of the 17th and i8!h 

centuries : an historical and analytical account of the 

development of exterior smithcraft. (10x7) London 

(Batsford), 42s. Illus. 
Lacy (C. de L.). The history of the spur. (11 xg) London 

(" The Connoisseur"). 
Longman (E. D.) and Loch (S.). Pins and pincushions. (9x6) 

London (Longmans), los. 6d. net. 43 plates. 
Catalogue des pierres, pierreries, bijoux et objets d'art prfecieux 

ayant appartenu a S. M. le Sullan Abd-ul-Hamid II. Ventes, 

Novembre et Decembre, igii. Paris (Lair-Dubreuil). 

Miniatures and borders from a Flemish Horse, British Museum 

Add. MS. 24098, early i6th century, reproduced in honour 

of Sir George Warner. (8x6) Printed for the subscribers, 
7 October, 1911. Collotype plates. 
Davenport (C.). Cameo book-stamps figured and described. 

(10x7) London (.Arnold), 21S. net. 
Reproductions of prints in the British Museum. Third series, 

part V. Specimens of etching by Dutch masters, 1615-1650 
(20 X 15) London (British Museum). 26 plates. 


MosEUM. Revista Mensual de Arte Espariol antiguo y moderno 

y de la vida artistica contemponinea. Barcelona ler Afio ; 

191 1. 
Num. I.— This first number of a new Spanish art-review, which 
to some extent may take the place of the much-regretted " La 
Cultnra", opens with a notice of the retablo of S.Anthony the 
Abtiot at Barcelona, barbarously destroyed in the riots of July 
1909, the panels of which, except the Calvary, were in the 
Exhibition of Ancient Art at Barcelona in 1902. They 
were ascribed by Sr. Sanpere y Miguel in his book " Los 
Cuatrocentistas Catalanes " (1906) to Pablo Verges, one of a 
family of artists very active throughout the 15th century. The 
central panel represented S. Anthony, and some of the smaller 
panels reproduced for the writer are of remarkable beauty, 
vitality and earnestness of expression. Some interesting repro- 
ductions are given in this number without comment, among 
them the wonderful view of Toledo by El Greco, and the 
half-length of a monk with a halo, said to be inscribed "Petrus 
Cristus en 1446 ", but seemingly by a later painter. 

Niim. 2. — Sr. Miguel Otrillo writes on Antonius Mor, with 
special reference to the recent exhaustive biography of the 
painter by M. Hymans, and deals more particularly with the 
painter's relations with Spain and with Philip II ; numerous 
reproductions, especially of portraits in the Prado, are given. 
Some account of the Cathedral of Siguenza is given in an 
unsigned article; among the reproductions is one of the tomb 

of Don Martin Vasquez de Arce, who was killed in battle with 
the Moors in 1406, in the chapel once dedicated to S. Thomas 
of Canterbury and now to S. Catherine. 

Num. 3.— Sr. Tramoyeres Blasco writes on Flemish art in 
Valencia, and reproduces for the first time details from The 
Last Judgment, the property of the Ayuntamiento of Valencia, 
acquired in 1494 for the chapel of the old Casa de la Ciudad 
which was destroyed in 1S59-60 ; the picture was then deposited 
in the monastery of San Gregorio, and in 1901 was placed in 
the Archivo Municipale, where it still remains. The writer 
believes it to be the work of a Fleming living at Valencia and 
influenced by works of R. van der Weyden and Colyn de Coter ; 
it shows affinity also with Meiiiling's Last judgment at 
Danzig. Other representations of the subject are refecred to — 
i-.a , the altar-piece by Marzal de Sax of 1396, which disappeared 
in 1460, and was eventually replaced by the picture under 
discussion ; also the retablo in the museum at Valencia known 
as that of Bonifacio Ferrer (1397-1400), which the writer 
ascribes to Lorenzo Saragoza, though some regard it as hy 
Stamina. The various influences by which the art of Valencia 
was affected are touched upon ; the Sienese linked with that of 
Avignon in the second h.alf of the 14th century represented by 
L. Saragoza ; the Franco-Burgundian propagated by the 
followers of Marzal de Sax ; and the influence wrought by the 
works of Jan van Eyck principally through the medium of 
Luis Dalmau, though a S. Gcoigc by the master is known to 


Spanish Periodicals 

have been at Valencia in 1444. The best example of Hemiah 
art at Valencia is the retablo in question of the Ayuntamiento, 
and, whetlier an original work or a copy from an earlier 
master, it is a notable addition to the category of Klemish works 
which contributed to the development of pictorial art in Spain 
in the 15th century. In an unsigned note reproductions arc 
given of the two ivory caskets recently sold from the cathedral 
of Zamorra, but fortunately recovered, and now deposited in 
the Arch;cological Museum at Madrid. The one, of purest 
Arabic style of the period of Alhaken II, bears the date 955, and 
is of remarkable beauty of form and decoration ; the other, 
probably of the nth century, has lost much of its original 
character, having been restored at various periods. 

Niim. 4. — This number is devoted tothediscus'^ion of Roman 
remains in Spain. Don Pelayo Quinteko deals with mosaic 
pavements and with certain notable examples discovered 
between the close of the i8th century and the beginning of the 
19th and published by writers of the time, most important of all 
that of del Monasterio, which came to light in 1839, but 
was aflerwrirds covered over, and its position is now unknown. 
.\mong existing mosaics some beautiful examples in private 
possession at Seville are cited ; another, representing The 
Seasons and TItc RctJ<c oj Eiiivpa, discovered in the summer of 
1906 at Fern;in-Nuiiez (Cordova) ; and numerous examples 
found at .Merida, now in the museum there, one of them being 
inscribed " Ex otiicina An Nipom" ; other important specimens 
are referred to in the museums at Madrid, Barcelona, and 
Tarragona. Sr. GesTOSi) y PiitEZ has a note on Roman 
antiquities at Seville. Don Emilio Morera writes on Roman 
statuary in the Museum of Tarragona, a museum which ranks 
second in importance among the museums of Spain, and 
contiins over 170 examples in the section of statuary alone, all 
of which have been discovered at Tarragona itself. A second 
article dedicated to Tarragona, signed with initials only, deals 
with Roman remains in this city, which, according to Strabo, 
was the leading city of Spain in Roman times. Don Jose 
Ram6\ Melida, director of the excavations at Merida, writes 
of the Roman theatre there, the most important portion of 
which was discovered by him. An inscription proves th.U it 
was founded by the consul, Marcus Agrippa. Of great interest 
is the discovery of the stige with tlie line of the proscenium, a 
plinth of granite with lateral staircases descending to the 
orchestra, and exhibiting a similar arrangement to that in the 
theatre at Pompeii. Innumerable fragments of shafts, capitals 
and b,ases, and of a richly decorated cornice, prove the existence 
originally of a magnificent marble colonnade probably in two 
tiers. At the time of writing (April, 191 1) the excavation of the 
lateral doors of the stage were proceeding, and a part of the 
external colonnade had been found. Numerous fragments of 
statues, the positions of which were probably between the 
columns of both colonnades, were also found, and recently a 
magnificent seated figure, 210 m, in height, has been discovered 
which, for various reasons, including the connexion wh ch it 
shows with the Dcniclcr oi Cnidus (British Museum), the writer 
conjectures may represent Ceres. It is one of the most perfect 
works ever discovered in Spain, as the theatre is one of the 
most important, for neither atSagunto, Ronda la Vieja, or other 
pl.aces has such a wealth of marbles and sculpture ever before 
been brought to light. 

Num. 7. — In an article entitled "Mas esculturas vidriadas 
Italianas y Andaluzas " Su. Gestoso y FfiREZ returns to a 
theme which he treated at consideralcd length in 1909 in the 
•' Uolc'.in delaComisiondemonumentosde Cadiz ", and has since 
issued in pamphlet form. In this he gave an account of all works 
then known to him in glazed terra-cotta of Italian origin or 
produced by And.ilusian artists in Seville and its neighbourhood. 
Since the pubhciilion of that pamphlet many more have come to 
light, and the present article deals with these recent discoveries 
(some of which are reproduced, notably a Madonna and Child 
surrounded by a garland of fruit and flowers, discovered at 
Sanli'icarde Marameda and now the property of Don Miguel 
borondo at M.idrid: The wiiter asciibes it to the workshop of 
A. delta Kubbia and classes it wth another, whi. h on his 
initiative has been placed in the Cathedral of Seville (Chapel of 
Santiago), and with the retablo of the Vir^cn dc la Granada m the 
chapel De Escalas ; all these he thinks came from Italy to 
Seville and Sa li'icar about the same time. Another example 
discovered at Gmcs in the Hacienda de N" S" de la Merced is 
now owned by the Sefiorcs de Soto. The general aspect of the 
relief is Italian, but the deficiencies of technique and other 


considerations have led the writer to consider that it is Seville 
work perhaps by Claudio de Leon who was employed at Seville 
in the workshop of Nicoloso Pisano, craftsmen with whom Sr. 
Perez has dealt fully in his " Historiade los barros vidri.ados" 
(1904). In an unsigned note, reproductions are given of the portal 
and patio of the Casa Mir.mda at Burgos (a fine example of the 
plakraqnc stvie) which is threatened with destruction, that is to 
say like the Casa de la Infanta at Zaragoza, it is in danger of 
being sold. 

Num. 8. --Dr. Auguste Mayer has some intcrestmg notes on 
the retrospective Exhibition of Spanish p.iinting held at the 
Galerie Heincmann at Munich [Hiiilinj^ton Ma-^azinc, Vol. VIII, 
p. 301], and containing more than sixty paintmgs dating from 
the fifteenth to the nineteenth century, lent by dtferent owners. 
Among examples of the Seville sctiool, of v;hich Dr. Mayer 
has made a special study, were a S. Anthony attributed to a 
predecessor of Juan Sanchez de Castro showing much connexion 
with the famous" AHar de las Ordenes militires"in the Seville 
Museum and a line triptych dated 1O64 and ascribed to Mor, but 
considered by Dr. Mayer to be by Antonio de Alfian the 
collaborator of Pedro de Cimpana at Seville. Among other works 
cited are : a .S. Micluul of c, 1465-70; a very interesting triptych 
of the same date showing strongly the inlluence of Dirck Bouts; 
a Christ Enthroned with Angels originally in the church of San 
Lorenzo at Toro which the writer considers closely connected 
with Fernando de Gallegos, and a signed Madonna by that rare 
painter Carillo, who was perhaps working in CastiUe in the List 
half of the fifteenth century. Among the works by El Greco 
was a late and admirable example La Conccpaon, which Dr. 
Mayer identifies with one mentioned by Jorge Manuel Theoto 
copuli in the inventory of his father's effects at the time of hi: 

death, as; "una concepcion no acabada"— the only composition 
of the subject by El Greco known, now the property of Don 
Luis de Navas. Among portraits, the writer mentions examples 
by: Carreiio, Kray Juan, Rizi, Zurbaran, Goya and others. The 
first of several articles on the ColegioSan Gregorio at Valladolid 
by Don Juan Agapito y Kevilla gives much valuable histori- 
cal data drawn from the archives of the college and from 
other sources. Bv a Papal Bull of 15th December 1487 the 
founder, Fray Alonso de Burgos, Bishop of Paleiicia, was granted 
permission to etrect the college; and in 1496 the first students 
were admitted. Thecodcof statutes drawn up by Fray Alonso and 
signed by him in Nov. 1499 has always been regarded as a model 
and has l^een copied by many other foundations in Spain. The 
building, erected on a scale of great magnificence, was placed 
under the special protection of Isabella the Catholic ; the purpose 
of the founder to make his college a centre of learning and of 
higher study was brilliantly fulfilled in the :6th and early 
17th centuries. 

Niim. 9.— In a second article on Gregorio, the writer 
gives a full description of the building and its decoration, and 
refers to the magnificent carved retablo of the chapel by Diego de 
la Cruz and a " Master Guille.^ " or " Guill6n ", executed seven 
years earlierthan theretablo ofMiraflores near Burgos, the work 
also of Diego, who was there assisted by Glide Siloe, and to the 
marble tomb of the founder in the centre of the chapel which 
was a fine work executed by the sculptor Philippe de Bourgogne 
in 1531 ; nothing now remains of either of these works. The 
architect of San Gregorio, according to Cean Bernnidez, was 
Macias Carpintero of Medina del Campo ; but Sr. Agapito 
proves that this a mistake, and that the name referred to the 
trade of this craftsman, who was merely employed in the build- 
ing as a carpenter. The architect must be sought for at Burgos 
among such men as Siloe, Cruz, and others, who were active 
there at the close of the 15th century. Don Enrique Romero 
DE Torres reproduces some unpublished drawingsand paintings 
by Valdes Leal ; he believes that this painter came from Cordova 
and not from Seville, and that he was the pupil in the former 
city of Antonio del Castillo and not of Herrera the elder. The 
writer refers to current misconceptions as to the art and the 
history of Leal and to the fact that he is very inadequately known 
in Spain ; and he urges the desirability of organizing an 
exhibition of his works on the linesof recent exhibitions devoted 
to the works respectively of Rosales, El Greco, Zurbaran and 
other artists. A colour reproduction accompanied by a brief 
note is given of a S. Michael, the fragment of a 15th century 

Num. 10.— Don Jose GudiolyCunill writes on an important 
14th century chasuble in the episcopal Museum at Vich, which 
he regards as German work, Don Manuel CodolA has a note 

on thedisarpearanceof " La Gioconda", and revives once again 
the untenable theory as to the authenticity of the Prado picture of 
which the Louvre picture is supposed to be a copy, a view which 
could scarcely be enteitained by anyone acqu.iiiited with boih 
pictures. The Mudejar " Canipanarios" of Aragon form the 
subject of an illustrated article by Uox Anselmo Gascon ue 



Madrid, Ano XIX. I" Trimestre. igti. 
A first article by Don Elias Tokmo, entitled " Vehi^quez, el 
Salon de Keinos del Buen Retire, y el Poeta del Palacio y del 
Piiitor ", gives new and important f.icts relating to the works 
of art which adorned the Salon de Reinos in the Palace of 
Buen Retire (now the Artillery Museum), the .accounts for the 
decoration of which have lately been found at Simancas. The 
writer believes that the five royal equestrian portraits now in 
the Prado were painted for this room, the whole scheme of 
decoration having been planned by Vel.i^quez (though all the 
portraits were not executed by him) at the instigation of Olivare/: 
and by order of Philip IV. Sr. Tormo traces the history and 
description of the room and its paintings in the writings of 
18th-century historians and in early inventories ; but the most 
important source, which has been of the utmost value to the 
writer in his work of reconstruction, is a poem, " La Silva 
Topographica", by a fo'gotten Portuguese poet, Manuel 
Gallegos, a contemporary and ardent admirer of Velazquez, 
who published this poem containing very full references to 
the pictures at Buen Ketiro in 1637, very shortly after the 
decoration of the Salon de Reinos had been completed. Other 
paintings which adorned this room are dealt with by Sr. 
Tormo, among them The Labours of HciciiUs attributed to 
Zurbanin, though not all are by him (ten are now in the Prado), 
and a number of battle-pieces by different painters (now also 
in the Prado). Of the decorative arrangement of the room as 
it was in the time of Philip IV only the ceiling now remains 
intact. Don Sixforiano de la Caxtolla, Canon of the 
Cathedral of Osma, writes on a silver custodia made for the 
cathedral by Juan de Arte, c. l6c2, probably his last work (he 
died 1603). Documents show that the first negotia ions with 
the artist were of 1598, and that the contract was made in 
January of the following year. The probably removed 
by the French, as it is not t, aceable after i8o8 ; but the minute 
description of it here published might lead to its identification, 
should it be still existing in some French museum or private 
collection. Sr. Fernandez Casanova writes on the Castle of 
Almodovar del Rio, situated on a precipitous rock above the 
Guadalquivir, and gives a minute account of the restoraticn 
thus far carried out under his supervision, a work entrusted to 
him by the owner, the Conde de Torraloa. The building is 
of great importance, both from the point of view of a military 
fortress and for its architectural and artistic features, illustrating 
a long period in the history of Hispano-Cordovan art. 

11° Trimestre.— In the second article by Sr. Tormo, he 
shows the positions occupied by the live portraits : Philip IV, 
Dona Isiibel and Don Baltasar Carlos, and Philip III and Dona 
Margirita. The dimensions of all were at that time consider- 
ably smaller, and their present size is due to additions to the 
canvases made in the i8th centurv'. The writer deals with the 
question of the part taken by Velazquez in the execution of these 
portraits, and considers that in composition they must all be 
ascribed to him. Reference is also made to Tacca's bronze 
statue of Philip IV, originally produced for Buen Retiro, the 
design for which was furnished by Velazquez, while the aid of 

Spanish Periodicals 

Galileo was sought at Florence in solving the problem of the 
physical equilibiium of the immense mass of metal of which 
the galloping horse and its rider are fashioned. Incidental 
notes are given concerning lost portraits of Philip IV; certain 
errors in the catalogue of Don Pedro Madrazo are corrected, 
and pictures by other artists (Italian and Flemish), which are 
mentioned by the poet Gallegos as in the Palace of Buen 
Retiro, are touched upon. In an article on artists of Lorca 
(Murcia) SR. F. Cacekes PlX notices the following: Juan 
S.intos, a sculptor who worked in wax, clay and wood ; 
a number of his works, distinguished by their simplicity, are 
cited; Manuel Caro, who nourished in the middle of the eight- 
teenth century and was a disciple of the 1 inious Salcillo whose 
workshjp he entered in 1745; Jeronimo Caballero. who in 
December 1716 agreed to execute a retablo for the church of Santa 
Eulalia, now above the High-Alt.u- of San Mateo at L'lca.a 
church containing other retablos by this sculptor and his disciple 
Juan Jose Uceta Caballero; both these were artists domininated 
by the extr.ivagances of the chnriigucrcsqiic style then prevalent. 
Sr. N. Sentenach gives the history of the discovery of a 
portrait beiring the name of Cervantes and the si;;nature of 
Juan de Jauregui and dated 1600 (or 1606:-), years in which both 
Cervantes and Jauregui were in Seville. It is identilied with 
the portr.iit referred to by Cervantes in a well known passage '; 
in which he gives a detailed description of his own appearance 
which is said to agree with the painted portrait. It was formerly 
in a private collection at Valencia and wa acquired in Madrid, by 
Don Jose Albiol, Professor of drawing at Oviedo, but was in a 
verv h.\A condition; after careful cleaning the inscriptions came 
to light. The owner recognizing the importance of his discovery 
generously offere I the portrait to the Academia de la Lengua at 
Madrid, where it has now been deposited. Sr. Senden.\ch 
disposes of certain objections which have been raised as to the 
anthenticity of the two inscriptions, and is evidently convinced 
of the genuineness of the portrait. In other quarters, however, 
it is regarded with some suspicion. 

Revista de Archivos, BiULioTECAS Y MusEos. Tercera Epoca, 

Alio XV. Madrid, Set, -Oct., 1911. 
Sr. E. Romero oe Torres reproduces two unpublished panel 
pictures of the sixteenth century in the chaple of San German 
in the cathedral of Cadiz, which seem never before to have beep. 
no'iced. They came from the old cathedral (now sacristy) and 
were transferred to the present building w4iich was erected in 
the eirly part of tne nineteenth century. The panels are con- 
nected with a triptych in the museum, and one. The Croiruing, 
wi/h Thorns is copied from an earlier representation of this subject 
also in the museum. The writer considers the cathedral panels 
to be among the last manifestations of the school which was 
active in Andalusia throughout the fifteenth century and was 
represented in Seville by Sanchez de Castro, Juan Xiinez, 
Gonzalo Diiz and others; and by Pedro de Cordoba, Alejo 
Hern:'mdez and Bartolome Bermejo at the neighbouring court of 
the Abderrahman. In contributions to a history of the ceramics 
of Talavera de la Reina (supplementary notes to an earlier article) 
Don DloDOKO Vaca gives some account of the wonderful 
Palacio del Infantado of Guadalajara built by Inigo Lopez de 
Mendoza in 1492 " an incomparable monument of ceramic art 
in Spain". The titles here met with constitute a verit.ible 
museum of the ceramics of Talavera at the period of their highest 
development. Other important examples are cited, among them 
the retablo in the chapel of S. Catherine at La Alcoba near 
V In the prologue to his " Novelas Ejeinplares ". 


SMALL exhibition of English paint- 
ings and miniatures of the eighteenth 
[century was opened on December 12 
' in the salons of the " Gil Bias ", 
^30 rue Louis-le-Grand, and closes 
on December 30. The profits will be given 
to the fund in aid of the sufferers from the 
explosion on the "Liberie". The exhibition 
includes some fifty paintings, a score of miniatures 

and a few pastels. Although one or two of the 
attributions are disputable, there are some very 
good pictures and the level of the exhibition as a 
whole is worthy of the English school. The 
Comtesse de la Beraudiere lends an importan. 
portrait of a woman by Lawrence and among the 
other works of that painter is a powerful unfinished 
portrait lent by M. See. Mr. Hodgkins contributes 
a fine male portrait by Gainsborough and Mr. 


Art in France 

Sedelmeyer an exceptionally good portrait of a 
man by Beechey. A very good Hoppner is lent by 
M. de Blives, and Reynolds is represented by 
several works, mostly of early date. Mr. Fairfa.x 
Murray sends, with an excellent portrait by 
Koniney, two fine water colours by Turner ; and a 
very important example of George Morland is Jent 
by Mr. Frank Sabin, of London. Among the 
lesser artists, Cotes, Northcote and Peters are 
particularly well represented. The miniatures 
include a fine series of portraits of the royal family 
by Cosway, lent by Mr. Hodgkins. The exhibition 
wiis organized by a committee consisting of five 
members ot the staff of the " Gil Bias ", MM. Rene 
Bkim, Janneau, Pierre Muller, Seymour de Kicci 
and Louis Vauxcelles, with the addition of M. 
K. R. M. See and the Comte de Rorthays. The 
pictures are admirably hung by M. See who, in 
collaboration with M. dc Rorthays, contributes an 
e.\cellent preface to the catalogue. This is the first 
of a series of exhibitions which it is proposed to 
hold in the offices of the " Gil Bias ", a paper which 
devotes more space to artistic matters than any 
other Parisian daily. 

Several trials have been made at the Louvre of 
the system of M. Claude Rozier for securing the 
pictures against theft. By an ingenious arrange- 
ment, all the pictures are securely fixed to the walls, 
but one key will unlock the system of bars by 
which the pictures are fastened and set free at 
once the whole of the works on an entire wall. 
The last trial was made in the Rembrandt gallery 
and M. Pujalet is so well satisfied with the results 
that he has decided to recommend the adoption of 
the system throughout the museum. The expense 
will be considerable, but there should be no 
hesitation on the part of the Government as 
regards the provision of the necessary funds. 
The place formerly occupied by Lajoconde in the 
%a\on cane is now filled by Raphael's portrait of 
Balthazar Castiglione, brought from the longgallery 
where it has been replaced by the 6". John Baptist 
of Leonardo da Vinci. 

The report on the Budget of Fine Arts recently 
presented to the Chamber by M. Simyan, 
" reporter " of the parliamentary committee, is very 
severe on the Administration of Fine Arts. The 
criticism of the report is based on the facts already 
made public in The Biiiiiugton Magazine of last 
October (Vol. XX, page 60) ; one of the main 
contentions of the Btirlington article is confirmed 
by M. Simyan in the following words of his 
report : — " La cause essenticlle de I'anarchic qui a 
rendu le vol possible, c'est I'hostilite qui regne 
depuis longtempscntre I'administration centrale et 
I'administration des mus&s nationaux ". The 
report contains various recommendations, some 
excellent, others much less so ; one of the excellent 
suggestions is that we should be provided with 
proper catalogues of the Louvre. There was not 


much discussion of the matter on the presentation 
of the report, as it was generally agreed to postpone 
the serious debate until the inlerpellaiions on the 
subject come before the House ; their date is not 
fixed at the time of writing. 

It is proposed to hold an international exhibition 
of decorative art at Paris in 1913. The proposal 
is harmless, but not so the suggestion that the 
exhibition should be established in the Bois de 
Boulogne between the Porte Dauphine and La 
Muette. However seductive the prospect of 
many yards of modern furniture, etc., it is 
certainly not worth the destruction of one of the 
most beautiful parts of the Bois which is the 
glory of Paris. It is incredible that the authorities 
could think for a moment of sanctioning such 
barbarism, but the "Bulletin de I'Art" has done 
well to make a vigorous protest against the mere 

The affair of the c/iej de St. Martin mentioned 
in The Bniiington Magazine of last February (Vol. 
XVII I, page 306), has terminated in the condemn- 
ation of M. Chazonel, Mayor of Soudeilles, to a 
fine of sixteen francs, of M. Decueille, the dealer 
who bought the objects, to a fine of 500 francs, 
and of M. Delmas, the Deputy concerned in the 
affair, to a fine of 1,000 francs. This inadequate 
result is almost an encouragement to others to 
follow their example. The Administration of Fine 
Arts is once more to blame. The persons in 
question were prosecuted merely for dealing in an 
object scheduled, the object in question being the 
incense-boat of the thirteenth century. As the 
clief de St. Martin sold was a forgery, naturally 
there was no legal offence in that regard under 
the law relating to the scheduling of historical 
objects. But why were not the Mayor and the 
Deputy prosecuted for selling a forgery, and why 
has no attempt been made to discover when and 
by whom was sold the original chef de St. Martin, 
which had been bought by Mr. Pierpont Morgan, 
who has now restored it to the nation ? Nothing 
could be easier than to make that discovery, 
indeed there is no discovery to make. It is de- 
plorable that the Administration whose business it 
is to protect the artistic property of the nation 
should show such complaisance. 

The Societe des Artistes Franfais has adopted 
several new rules, which will come into force at 
next year's salon. The most important are those 
which provide that henceforth only winners of a 
first-class medal shall be " hors concours" (at 
present second-class medallists are included), and 
those which alterthe system of votingforthemedals. 
At present the members make a tour of the Salon 
and vote by lifting up their sticks and umbrellas. 
In future a certain number of pictures will first be 
selected by secret ballot and the final choice will 
be made among these, which will be shown one 
after the other. R. E. D. 



VEN at the risk of appear- 
ing unduly persistent, we 
find it necessary to return 
once more to the question 
with which we have dealt 
before. It is one of such 
high importance for the future of art in 
England as to excuse our concern in it. 
Basing his remarks upon Mr. R. C. Witt's 
book, of which we spoke last month, 
Mr. MacCoU has contributed an impor- 
tant article to the January " Nineteenth 
Century ". In this he endorses generally 
the views which Mr. Witt puts forward, 
and which seem by now to have gained 
the approval of the majority of those who 
have at heart the future of the National 
Gallery ; but a large part of his article is 
devoted to the further question of the 
administration of the National Gallery, 
when once it has been endowed with 
powers to deal with the problem of saving 
the artistic patrimony of the nation. 
Mr. MacColl reiterates in persuasive 
language what has been for many years 
a commonplace among art-historians — 
namely, the disastrous effect in practice 
of attempting to buy pictures, or, in- 
deed, any works of art, by means of 
a committee. The qualities which 
make for success in purchasing master- 
pieces in the modern market (a field 
thrown open to worldwide competition in 
which time and distance are of little ac- 
count) are just those of rapid and bold 
decision and immediate action based on 
special expert knowledge of men and things 
which are the least possible to any com- 
mittee whatever. We are therefore casting 
no aspersion upon any Trustee or Trustees 
of the National Gallery when we point out 
that they have naturally failed to do what 
their very constitution as a board prevented 
them from doing. Doubtless many of the 

The Burllnqion Magazine, No. 107. Vol. XX,— February, 1912. 


present Trustees are among those to whom 
any Director of the National Gallery 
would turn for assistance and advice ; but 
the point is that if he is to succeed at all 
in the extremely difficult task of securing 
the best works of art that occasion offers, 
he must have the sole power of decision, 
with, of course, a corresponding increase 
of responsibility. The service given to 
the nation by the Trustees would remain 
a highly important one, as it is in the case 
of the British Museum. They would be 
responsible for the general control and the 
financial affairs of the Gallery, and would 
remain at all times an advisory board for 
the Director's support. 

Another important point is that the 
Director should be the supreme authority 
in his gallery. But it is necessary in order 
to fulfil his functions properly that he 
should be relieved of much merely ad- 
ministrative work which now falls to his 
share. It is also unreasonable to suppose 
that one Director should be responsible for 
two institutions so different in aim as the 
National and the Tate Galleries. As Mr. 
MacColl points out, the keeper of the Tate 
is inevitably largely independent, and this 
independence should be formalized by 
raising that office to a Directorship. Even 
so both Directors would require more 
assistance than they at present receive. 
At the National Gallery in particular there 
would seem to be room for two assistant- 
directors, one purely administrative, the 
other to assist the Director in such work 
as the arrangement of the galleries and 
the preparation of the Catalogue. Such 
an assistant-director would have oppor- 
tunities of learning the duties of a Director, 
and there would then be established a 
tradition of a kind similar to that which 
has done so much for the efficiency of the 
British Museum. 




MONG the paintings at Windsor 
Castle which are most famihar to the 
pubhc is one which, from the power- 
ful, if somewliat grotesque, rendering 
,of its subject, has always taken the 
popular fancy. This is the so-called Misers, for long 
attributed to Quentin Matsys [PLATE II, d]. This 
painting, on an oaken panel, measuring 45^ by 32J 
inches, represents two men with distorted features, 
grotesquely clad, engaged in weighing money and 
jewels at a table. It is too well known to need a 
detailed description here. Similar paintings occur 
in many public galleries and private collections, 
one of the best being that in the possession of 
Viscount Cobham at Hagley Hall [Pl.^^te II, e], 
exhibited at the Winter Exhibition at Burlington 
Hou5e in 1902. The relations of these paintings 
to the original and genuine version of this subject 
by Matsvs in the Louvre, [Pl.\te I, a], and the attri- 
bution of a number to the Dutch painter, Marinus 
Van Roymerswaele, have been the subject of much 
critical research, notably by M. Henry Hymans ' 
and by Mr. W. H. James Weale.- More recently 
the well-known French art critic and archaeologist, 
M. F. de Mely, has devoted much time and careful 
study to the investigation of certain details, which 
throw valuable light upon the history of the various 
paintings of this subject and their relations both to 
each other and to the original painting by Quentin 
Matsys himself. M.deMely,whoapproachesthesub- 
ject from a point of view which is archaeological 
rather than aesthetic, has in various other publica- 
tions expressed his opinion that in the works of 
mediaeval and primitiveartistsnodetail is ever intro- 
duced without a definite purpose, and that such 
details, whether inscriptions, symbols or the like, are 
always capable of elucidation. By applying such 
teststo signatures and other details in miniature 
paintings M. de Mely has been able to make some 
important discoveries. The result of his investi- 
gations into the history of the Misers or Money- 
changers in the different versions of this subject 
has been productive of an equally satisfactorj' 
result. " 

Students of the early and primitive schools of 
painting are familiar with the fact that a great and 
popular work by a recognized master was not only 
copied by contemporary artists, but became a 
point of departure, an Urbild, for variations on the 
same subject by artists of different temperament or 
nationality. Civil and domestic life was not over- 
crowded in those days, and the appearance of a 
new and great work of art was an event of impor- 

> In the Gazctle des Beaiix-Arls, Vol. xxxviii (1888), p. 206. 

-Revue (ic I'art chrctien, 1899, p. 120. 

' DcHx Tableaux Sigii^s dc Conicille dc Lyon. Par F. de 
Mely. Monuments et Mcmoires de rAcndemie des Inscriptions 
ct Belles-Lettrcs. Vol. xviii, Fasc. 2. Paris, 1911. 


tance, which was recognized by all classes. Such 
public appreciation would naturally be extended 
when artists, like the Van Eycks, began to add to 
works of art hitherto based on convention or 
tradition subjects taken from actual life, appealing 
more directly to the popular intelligence. Of this 
the so-called il//scrs is an instructive illustration. 

In the Middle Ages the banker, or usurer, 
played a considerable part in the daily life of the 
people. He was banker, moneylender, pawnbroker, 
attorney, accountant and receiver, and the trade, 
or profession, was one which enjoyed high repute 
in civic life. In 1514 Quentin Matsys painted a 
portrait of such a banker, seated with his wife at a 
table, and counting out money, which picture is 
now in the Louvre at Paris. This was the Urbild, 
as it would appear, upon which were based a 
whole progeny of popular renderings of the same 
subjects. This series, as M. de M61y points out, 
divides itself into two branches: (i) representing 
a banker and his wife at table, with variations, but 
derived directly from the painting by Matsys ; 
(ii) representing two men of unpleasing appear- 
ance, evidently caricatures, of which the paintings 
at Windsor and Hagley are examples. 

It must be noted that in group (i) the banker 
and his wife, as depicted by Matsys, wear the 
headgear of ordinary life ; but that in group (ii) 
the two bankers w-ear caps of a bygone period, as 
in portraits by the Van Eycks, and which had gone 
out of fashion before the earliest date to which the 
pictures in this group can be attributed.* It is 
possible that there may have been a still earlier 
Urbild by Jan van Eyck, from which the paintings 
in group (ii) derive more directly than from the 
painting by Matsys.' It is also possible that the 
caps and gowns worn by the figures in group (ii) 
may have had an official significance. 

Following M. de Mely it is possible to take these 
groups separately, when it will be found that the 
variations in group (i) are three, as follows : — 
(a) 15 19, a picture in the Delia Faille collec- 
tion at Antwerp. 
(&) 1533-4, one in the possession of H. R. H. 
the Prince of HohenzoUern-Sigmaringen at 
Sigmaringen [PL.4TE I, c], of which there 
is a copy at Antwerp. The original was 
purchased from a dealer at Bonn, 
(c) A series of paintings from 1538 to 1545 at 
Munich, Madrid [Pl.\te I, b], Nantes, 
Valenciennes, Copenhagen, Florence, 

* My attention has been called to this detail by Mr. Roger Fry. 

^Thc so-called " Anonimo of Morelli ', sometimes identified 
as Marcantonio Michiel of Venice, writing early in 'he l6th 
century, noted : — 

"In the House of Messer Camillo Lampognano or of his 
father, Messer Nicolo Lampognano, The Little picture with 
hall-length figures, representing a patron making up his 
accounts with his agent, wa-i painted by John Eyck, Memlinc, 
I believe, a Flemish painter in the year 1440". 

(Tr.ins. P. Mussi, edn. G. C. Williamson, p. 65.) 


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Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections 

Dresden, etc., all by Marinus Van Roymers- 
wael, or copies after him. 
Of these groups (a) and (6) preserve the serenity 
and dignity of the original picture by Q. Matsys, 
while (t) shows the exaggerations of expression and 
costume of the early Dutch school, introduced by 
Jan Matsys, Marinus, and other artists who en- 
joyed great popularity in their day. 

Group (ii). That of the two 'Msfrs or Money- 
changers, who seem to be not portraits 
so much as a topical caricature or satire, 
falls into three groups : — {a) the paintings 
at Windsor Castle, Hagiey, Munich, Naples, 
Bologna, etc., and that belonging to 
Baron Oppenheim [PLATE II, f], (b) that 
in the National Gallery [Plate II, g], 
(c) one of which a copy is at Antwerp. 
The most important result of M. de Mely's investi- 
gations still remains to be noted. In all these 
paintings numerous books and documents are 
depicted, containing inscriptions and writings, 
which are capable of being deciphered, a task 
which has been accomplished by M. de Mely with 
great success. From these inscriptions it appears 
that the paintings in group (i) (c) are by Marinus as 
stated above, that those in group (i) (5) and ^ii) (a) 
are the work of Cornelis Van de Capelle, sometimes 
known as Corneille de la Haye, and more generally 
asCorneiilede Lyon. In the painting at Sigmarin- 
gen there is inscribed on one parchment attached 
to the wall (as transcribed by M. de Mely) : — 
Rekenighe van Ian Obrecltts 
Van ziin half iaer de 
Anno vierendertich vand' 
Clcene ontfanck. 
(Compte de Jean Obrecht de son semestre de I'an 
1534, de la petite recette). 

And on another parchment : Ende conchiderende 
mitsdien die zeffde meester Cornelis van det Capella 
alshi boven int doen van desen gheconcludeert heeft 
ghehadt onder hue — 1533. C Morsel sign. 
(D'ou il faut conclure, par consequent, que le 
raeme maitre Corneille de la Chapelle, comme il 
[est dit] plus haut, en executant ceci, avait pris en 
sous location en 1533. C Morsel sign.) 
In group (ii) (a) it is on the painting belonging 
to Baron Albert Oppenheim at Cologne that the 
following inscription is found, which was tran- 
scribed by Mr. Weale as early as 1866, as follows: 
Le Roy Doict a 
Maistre Corneille 
de la Chapelle Son 
Paincire siir la 
Gabelle dn Sel 
La Somme de 
Deux Milk Liv 
Re La{quelle ?) 
(a) Este 
(pay) e 
( )re. 

This is written on the book in which the principal 
figure is writing. The Oppenheim painting is in 
every other respect an exact facsimile of the 
admirable version belonging to Viscount Cobham 
at Hagiey, where the inscription in the book relates 
to the excise on wine, beer and other sources of 
public revenue. The painting at Munich has an 
inscription similar to that at Hagiey. It would 
appear from these joint discoveries of Mr. Weale 
and M. de Mely that Cornelis van de Capelle, 
painter from the Hague, executed in 1534 a 
painting of The Banker and his Wife, directly 
based on the original by Q. Matsys, and apparently 
a portrait from life of a banker Jan Obrechts and 
his wife ; and that later on he painted more than 
one version of the caricature group of Usnrers, 
or Public Money-changers, of which at least 
one version could not have been painted until 
he had settled in France. He would appear to 
have been in France in 1536, and was residing at 
Lyons in 1544, a city which he made so much his 
home until his death that he was known as 
Corneille de Lyon. 

Francois I paid several visits to Lyons, and 
became aquainted with the painter, who in 1540-1 
was appointed Painter to the Dauphin, after- 
wards King Henri II. On the accession of this 
king, Corneille de Lyon received letters of 
naturalization as a French subject. Although a 
Protestant and a Huguenot, he was patronized by 
Queen Catherine de Medicis, but in 1569 he, with 
his wife, daughters and servants, abjured the 
Protestant faith and was received into the Roman 
Church. He died at Lyons about 1574. 

The name of Corneille de Lyon is usually con- 
nected with a class of small portraits, painted on 
clear green, blue or brown back-grounds, with a 
strong affinity to Holbein. In view of the relations 
between Holbein and the painters at Lyons, the 
suggestion was hazarded by the present writer in 
the introduction to the catalogue of Early English 
Portraiture at the Burlington Fine Arts Club, that 
after the unexpected and sudden death of Holbein 
in 1543, Corneille de Lyon was sent for to com- 
plete his unfinished work. As he is not known 
for certain to have settled at Lyons before 1544, a 
short visit to England in 1543-4 is by no means 
out of the question. The versions of The 
Banker and his Wife and The Money-cliangers 
show him to have been a proficient painter in 
other directions besides portraiture. It is not un- 
reasonable also to suppose that Cornelis van de 
Capelle may have been a fellow pupil of Quentin 
Matsys at Antwerp along with Marinus, Jan 
Matsys, Jan Sanders van Hemessen, and other 
notable exponents of the exaggerated Dutch school. 
Not only would the Urbild of the Bankers or 
Money-changers seem to be traceable to Matsys, 
but as M. de M61y and M. Hymans have 
pointed out, Matsys took pleasure in reproducing 


Notes on Pictures in the Royal Collections 

documents in facsimile, such as the famous letter 
of Sir Thomas More in Quentin's portrait of 
Petrus /Egidius at Longford Castle. 

Returning to the Windsor Castle version of the 
Misers or Moiicy-cliaiiiicis, the question arises if 
this should be attributed to Marinus or to Cornells 
van de Capelle. It seems to have come at an early 
period into the royal collection, and in the sale 
catalogue of King Charles I's collection it is 
described and appraised as " Two Usurers, a copy 
after Quintyn " appraised at ;^5 and sold to Mr. 
Hurst and Mr. Bass on March I, 1652 for ;^5. 
It was recovered at the Restoration and appears 
in the catalogue of King James I I's pictures as 
" No 953 by Quentin Matsys. A piece of 2 Jews ". 
Since then it has always been attributed to Quentin 
Matsys, and knownas The Misers. It should be noted, 
however, that its earliest claim does not extend 
beyond that of being a " copy after Quintyn". 

The three paintings at Cologne (Baron Oppen- 
heim), Hagley (Viscount Cobham), and Munich 
are all practically identical, with the exception of 
the writing on the open page of the book. This 
in the Cologne picture has the statement in French 
about Cornelis van de Capelle ; in the Hagley 
picture, extracts in Dutch, relating to civic accounts ; 
while the Munich picture has an inscription simi- 
lar to that at Hagley. In the Windsor picture the 
figures of the two men are the same as those in the 
other three pictures, but certain details of the 
accessories are different, notably the presence of a 
parrot on a perch, where in the Cologne and other 
versions, a pair of scissors is hanging on a nail. 
In the case, however, of the Windsor picture, the 
writing in the book is a statement of money 
values in Italian, corresponding to the actual 
coins which lie upon the table, and headed Resm 
del Xicola dc C. 

In every case, however, there occurs on the 
shelf above the heads of the writers a wooden box, 
inside the lid of which is posted a label with stamps 
of seals and the word in gothic letters Cuclen. M. 
de Mely, in the writer's opinion, goes out of his way 
without necessity to read this word as Gitelen, and 

to locate the name as that of a village in the 
province of Limburg near Maestricht on the Meuse. 
It would seem more reasonable, however, to read 
it as the Dutch or Low German form of Ceulen, 
or Cologne. This would seem to be the more 
certain, inasmuch as the seals appear to be those 
of the Goldsmiths' Company or Guild at Cologne. 
Cologne was the great central city of commerce 
and a clearing-house for general traffic in the 
north, through which a great part of the traffic 
of Europe passed on its way to Antwerp or other 
sea-ports of the North Sea. Here would be found 
merchants, bankers, money-lenders, etc., represent- 
ing all the nations of Europe. Painters at Cologne 
found ready patrons, and a Marinus or Cornelis 
of the Hague, having once achieved a popular 
success with a picture, such as The Money-changers, 
would find many occasions for repetitions, with 
slight alterations to suit the purchaser. It is 
impossible to separate the Windsor picture from 
those at Cologne, Hagley, and Munich, and it 
follows, therefore, on the evidence of the pictures 
known to be by Cornelis van de Capelle at Cologne 
and Sigmaringen, that the Windsor picture must 
be assigned to him. The same figures occur in 
different attitudes, but in a similar composition in 
the picture at the National Gallery, usually 
attributed to Marinus. The types, however, 
are different from those shown in the pictures, 
signed by Marinus, at Madrid and elsewhere, 
which are less in the nature of caricatures 
than those signed by Cornelis van de Capelle. 
It would seem, therefore, that from the Urbild by 
Quentin Matsys, or possibly Jan van Eyck, there 
derived two series of copies and variations, one 
from the workshop of Marinus van Roymerswael, 
the other from that of Cornelis van de Capelle of 
the Hague, and that to the latter series the well- 
known painting of The Misers at Windsor Castle 
should be assigned. This series must have been 
very popular, for a small copy of The Misers with 
the parrot, carved in boxwood and signed E. D. 
1563, was in the collection of the late Dr. Hommel 
of Zurich, dispersed in 1907. 


HE winter exhibition at Burlington 
House in 1910 included a double 
portrait from the collection of Mrs. 
Wauchope,of Niddrie House[PLATE I, 
page 250]. It was ascribed to Rem- 
brandt. The ascription was obviously false, but the 
picture was so fine that great interest was excited 
and various opinions were put forward as to its ori- 
gin. The favourite attributions were to Govaert 
Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, and Jan Victors. 1 1 waseven 
declared, by one lynx-eyed diviner, that a genuine 


signature of Bol existed on the canvas. The only 
signature visible when the picture was at the 
Academy was a capital " R ", clearly an importa- 
tion. Dr. Hofstede de Groot, Dr. Bredius and 
others are now of opinion, I believe, that the 
real author is to be found in the very second-rate 
Jan Victors. With this opinion I can by no means 
agree. Mrs. Wauchope's picture is on a higher 
plane altogether, both in conception and execution, 
than the productions of Victors. I suggest — I 
would like to put it more strongly ! — that the real 




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A Claim for Gerrit JVillemsz Horst 

author is the Httle-known Gerrit Willemsz Horst. 
Horst was horn about 1612, at Muiden, on the 
Zuyder See, about ten miles east of Amsterdam. 
His master is said to have been Anton Henrici<sz, 
but one may make bold to assert, on the evidence 
of his few known pictures, that he formed himself 
on the example of Rembrandt, although not, per- 
haps, at first hand. The Berlin Museum possesses 
two well-signed specimens of his powers. From 
these I was enabled to identify as the work of 
Horst an excellent picture in the National Gallery 
of Ireland which had long passed as a Bol, through 
a forged signature. The name of Horst had been 
partly obliterated, partly used to build up that of 
the far less interesting individual who had 'jumped 
his claim.' The two signed pictures [Pl.\te II] 
in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum are a Chastity 
of Scipio and a Still Life, the latter somewhat in 
the style of Kalf, so far as arrangement goes. 
The Dublin picture is aDaiicTs Charge to Solomon 

[Plate III, d]. The chronological order of 
these three examples is probably that in which 
I have named them. Mrs. Wauchope's double 
portrait shows Horst at about the same stage 
of development as the David's Charge. The 
resemblance to other works by Horst lies in 
the general conception, in the tendency towards 
greenish brown in the scheme of colour, in the 
peculiar way the draperies are cast and painted, in 
the types of heads and hands, in everything, in 
short, by which the personality of an artist declares 

If we may reckon Horst among the disciples of 
Rembrandt, pictures like the Niddrie portrait and 
the David's Charge to Solomon show that he was 
excelled in ability only by Maes at his best. 

[VVe are enabled to print a reproduction of the 
double portrait on page 250, thanks to Mrs. 
Wauchope's kindness in permitting a photograph 
of it to be taken. — Ed.] 


0\V few of the visitors to the innumer- 
|\able antiquities of Rome take any notice 

[of the obscure church of San Rocco in 
I the Via Ripetta 1 Yet it is not alto- 
^gether insignificant on account of 
certain fine architectural features, and also for the 
sake of a painting by a good artist which decorates 
the interior of one of its chapels. This painting is 
not forgotten by the better " Guides " to the 
city, which attribute it with good reason to 
Baldassare Peruzzi, who was in his time a painter, 
decorator and architect combined. It is executed 
in fresco, and fills the end of a chapel on the left 
hand as we enter the church. The subject is the 
familiar adoration of the Infant Jesus by the 
shepherds [Plate I]. S. Joseph, indeed, over- 
come by the feebleness of the advancing years 
which are traditionally assigned to him, has fallen 
asleep over the adored Infant, but the mother and 
the two shepherds who stand close at hand seem 
to watch Him with all the intenter devotion; 
even the beasts do not seem to be entirely in- 
different, especially the ox placed in the centre of 
the picture, while the ass gazes upon Him from a 
distance. Above, an angel and a winged cherub 
hover over the holy scene. 

In the grace of the complicated composition 
and the clearness of the colour, although it has 
obviously been repainted by another brush, it is 
easy to recognize the hand which executed the two 
Saints Catherine presenting their aged client, beside 
the Virgin and the Holy Child, in the niche of the 
chapel on the left in the church of Santa Maria 
della Pace. Both these frescoes belong to what 
may be called the middle age of the artist, when 
• Translated for the author from the Italian. 

he had definitely abandoned the manner of 
Pinturicchio which he had learned at Siena and 
had imitated in the decoration of the apse of 
Sant' Onofrio, and was approaching Sodoma and 
perhaps even Raphael, before he fell, like so many 
others, under the fascination of Michelangelo, 
an influence apparent in his late work, the Sibyl 
of Fontegiusta, if nowhere else. 

But while the well-preserved painting of Santa 
Maria della Pace does not lose its charm beside the 
solemn Sibyls of Raphael, we have in the painting 
in San Rocco a work of the Sienese although it 
needs some little observation to detect in it hetero- 
geneous elements foreign to the manner of its 
author. Indeed, it must be stated that the painting, 
because it had been damaged either by the floods 
of the Tiber, or by some other accident, was 
entirely repainted, as the "Guides" state, in the 
seventeenth century by another distinguished 
painter, Giovanni Battista GauUi, called II Baciccio, 
the celebrated decorator of the great dome of the 
Gesuiti in Rome. In fact, the picture in San Rocco's 
is repainted to such a degree that it would be diffi- 
cult to decide how much that we now see of it is 
due to Peruzzi, and how much to the Genoese, 
Gaulli. At any rate, one point must be noticed ; 
it seems to me that the motive of the two angels 
descending on the scene can be assigned onlv to 
Gaulli, for they belong to a painter of the baroque 
style rather than to one of our golden age. 

I can now leave the further study of this subject 
to those who are competent to pursue it, thanks to 
Mr. Anderson, the photographer, who at my request 
has produced a good photograph of a picture 
which does nothing but honour to both the artists 
who had a hand in it. 


Three Little-noticed Paintings in Rome 

II. To the same excellent photographer I owe 
the means of reproducing two small pictures, 
in the Galleria Borghese, the origins of which 
have passed into an oblivion from whence I have 
long wished to reinstate them in their original 

The first of them [Plate II, b] represents the 
bust of a lady, seen almost full-face, dressed in a 
low cut bodice of a clear rose-colour, against a 
dark background. The forms are modelled with 
extraordinary ////c-ssc, and a particular examination 
cannot fail to reveal their derivation, however 
concealed it may be, from the great master of form, 
Leonardo da Vinci. To the inquiry who the 
artist might be who could approach the master 
with such conspicuous finesse, our thoughts could 
fall only on his direct pupil, Cesare da Sesto, or 
Cesare Milanese, as he is called by Vasari. In fact, 
the delicate roundness of every form in the person 
represented, the beautiful attachment of the neck 
to the bust, the accuracy of drawing in the 
details of the face, the eyes, nose and mouth, with 
the delicately rounded curves in the nostrils, and 
the arch of the lips accentuated at the corners, 
serve as signatures of Cesare da Sesto, and may 
be observed, among other examples of his work, 
in the superb figure of the Herodias in the Imperial 
Gallery at Vienna, which is well recognized as his. 
These, indeed, are so many indications of his skilful 
hand, which distinguish him among all those who 
owe their fame to their incomparable master, for 
they demonstrate a singular tendency to give 
fundamentally plastic relief to the figures. But 
as the followers of Michelangelo may be said to 
have fallen into ostentation and exaggeration in 
their desire to emulate their leader, so the talented 
Cesare, by developing to extremes the qualities 
evolved in their perfection by Leonardo, ended in 
his turn in excessive softness and preciosity. 
These personal defects are exemplified especially 
in his maturer and larger works, such as his over- 
decorated composition in the picture-gallery of 
the Museo Nazionale at Naples, T/ie Adoraiion 
of the Magi, with its innumerable studied details ; 
and his ancona of Saint Rock in the Casa Meizi, 
together with his great scene of The Baptism placed 
in its vast landscape, in the Casa Scotti, both in 
Milan. On the other hand, a more favourable 
impression is produced by certain of his other 
works of smaller size, in which the comeliness 
and grace are very remarkable. This may be seen 
in the exquisite little Madonna of the Brera, to 
which Signor Corrado Ricci successfully restored 
a most appropriate antique cornice, and in the 
Louvre, in the radiant composition of the Vierge 
aux balances, so called from the figure of the 
Archangel Michael bearing that emblem, a work 
which is still classified at Paris under the name 
of Leonardo da Vinci, but in reality betrays all 
the soft lines and the " euphuism " peculiar to 


Cesare.^ From these details the style of Cesare 
da Sesto may be summarized thus : He became by 
practice so efticient, spontaneous and elegant in a 
certain manner of drawing that it carried him nearer 
than any of his companions to their common master. 
This will be realized by anyone who examines his 
drawings scattered through many Italian and 
foreign collections, and especially those which 
are to be found in considerable quantities in a 
precious volume, formerly, and perhaps still, in 
Mr. Fairfax Murray's collection, in London. In 
short, Cesare was an artist who would repay study 
especially as regards the different phases of his 
life, when we have acquired more precise dates 
concerning the vicissitudes through which he 
passed in his wanderings from the north to the 
extreme coasts of Italy. 

III. I n the second picture of the Galleria Borghese 
[Plate II, c] we see the profile of a young lady 
from the shoulders upwards, probably painted from 
the life, but symbolized as S. Catherine, as we see 
from the fragment of the spiked wheel on her left, 
and the usual aureole encircling her head. I see 
plainly who is the artist of it, and do not think 
that anyone will disagree with me when I point 
out certain characteristics in the method of treating 
the face with its clear smooth flesh and great 
composure of feature, in the singular coif-like 
head-dress, and in the rectilineal arrangement of 
the greater and lesser folds of the bodice, a 
tendency to straight lines which is carried out even 
in the pattern of the border which ornaments the 
upper edge of the under-bodice. 

There is no mistaking the artist ; he must be 
some one, perhaps a Lombard by birth, but settled 
in Siena, where several works by the same hand 
are always to be found in the galleries and 
churches— that is to say, Andrea Piccinelli, sur- 
named 11 Brescianino. Generally little known, he 
may be said to belong to the number of artists of 
moderate talent, who reflect in their work the 
pleasing qualities of the other greater artists in 
whose time they lived, so that in later times when 
their names have been forgotten, certain of their 
works may be substituted for those of their greater 
contemporaries. Just such an example occurred 
in the case of the particular artist whom I have 
mentioned, as will be seen when I call to mind 
that the so-called portrait of La Bella Vtsconti, now 
in the public gallery of Zurich, until a few years 
ago passed under the name of Leonardo, and that 
the portrait of a graceful youth in the Mus6e Fabre 
at Montpellier still bears the name of Raphael. 

When, therefore, it is recognized that the record 
of a name such as II Brescianino's has becorne 
somewhat obscured in the course of centuries, it is 
I The National Gallery in London, which is so rich in 
Lombard and Venetian pictures, does not yet contain any work 
by Cesare da Sesto ; an omission which renders the two admir- 
able examples in Sir Francis Cook's collection at Richmond all 
the more important. 

Three Little-noticed Paintings in Rome 

not to be wondered at if modern criticism, pro- 
ceeding by way of comparison, can succeed in 
tracing it in other works, exhibited under fictitious 
titles. I have, indeed, acquired the conviction that 
another picture which hangs in the Galleria 
Borghese is actually the work of Andrea Piccinelli, 
and it must not be overlooked. It is a tall, narrow 
picture, scarcely noticed by the public, because it 
is barely visible, being placed between two 
windows ; it represents a Venus standing upright 
on her feet, with an amorino close beside her. 
The subject consists of entirely nude figures, 
showing precisely the flat, smooth nudity which 
is verified, as has been said, in the figures of 
Piccinelli. In the gallery, however, in default, 
indeed, of any original indications, the name of 

the Florentine, Franciabigio, was adopted for this 
picture, but this I do not think can be retained in 
face of wiiat I have suggested here. 

Returning once more to the profile of S.Catliciiiie, 
I may perhaps be allowed to remark on the great 
similarity which it presents with another graceful 
female profile, a real portrait, in the collection of 
one of our most distinguished amateurs, Don 
Guido Cagnola, of Milan. I may predict, from 
the analogy of this example, that if the picture in 
the Galleria Borghese were entrusted to a careful 
restorer, like Professore Cavenaghi, the qualities 
peculiar to Brescianino, which are now hidden, 
would be brought to light, while at present the 
picture remains in a condition leaving much to 
be desired. 


BY D. S. MacColl 

X the winter of 19 lo Rear- Admiral 
^Valter Bridges was good enough to 
offer as a loan to the Tate Gallery a 
picture that is unique in Constable's 
record, belongs to an obscure period in 
career, and is not mentioned in any of the 
It is on view in Room II of the Gallery, 
and it has been thought that it will interest readers 
of The Burlington Magazine to have it reproduced 
with some notes founded on papers kindly com- 
municated to me by the owner. 

The canvas measures 53^ by 72^ inches, and 
contains ten figures [Plate]. It is dated 1804 on 
the frame, and the date is supported by the age of 
the baby, born in 1803. The persons represented 
are in the order of sex and age : — 

1. George Bridges, of Lawford Place, Essex, 

born 1764, married 1787, died 1835. 

2. Mar>' Wilson, his wife, b. 1767, d. 1863. 
And their children : 

3. George Wilson, b. 1788, m. Eliza Brooks, 

1815, d. 1863. 

4. John William, b. 1795, m. Harriet Hanson, 

1823, d. 1866. 

5. Mary Ann, b. 1790, m. Benjamin Evans, 


6. Jane Monck, b. 1793, m. William Bliss, 1834. 

7. Sarah Ann, b. 1797, ^' i8-0- 

8. Elizabeth Ann, b. 1799, m. (i) Robert Bellers, 

1823, (2) Captain Dewell. 

9. Frances Maria Yale, b. 1800, d. 181 5. 

10. Ann, b. 1803, m. Henry T. Ellacombe, 1827, 
d. 1831. 
The present owner is a younger son of the boy 
in the picture, John William. After the death of 
Mr. and Mrs. Bridges, that of John William, and 
of his eldest son, John J. Bridges, the picture passed 
to his son Lionel, of whom Admiral Bridges bought 
it in November, 1910. These facts are fully attested 

by letters from Mr. Lionel Bridges and his two 
great aunts, Mrs. Bliss and Mrs. Evans. Mrs. 
Bliss thought the date might be 1803, "as Ann 
was born in April ", " but Mr. Constable was in 
our house for weeks doing it. I remember that 
he had done not long before a full-length portrait 
of a Mrs. Gubbins, a handsome woman. If anj-- 
one knows anything about that, the same memo- 
randum in any journal of Mr. Constable might 
also note our picture ".' 

Mrs. Evans says " t love the remembrance of the 
time, which is fresh before my mind from various 
recollections and associations. I think it was 
the winter of 1805 to 1806 that Mr. Constable 
painted the picture in the dining-room of our dear 
old house at Lawford. He was staying with us 
the whole time. Your Aunt Ellacombe was the 
baby of about a year old, and I think her age (if 
living now) would ratify this. I have not time 
now to go back over my papers ; it takes me long 
to puzzle them out, from increased want of sight, 
but I will if possible try, and let you know the next 
time. I should like to know that the dear old 
picture is identified with his other paintings and 
proporlionatelv valued". Mrs. Evans must have 
verified the date, for she joins with Mrs. Bliss in a 
further letter giving it as " about the year 1804 ". 
Mr. J. G. Bridges, writing in 189 1 to Mr. F. M. 
Nichols of Lawford Hall, says, probably with 
greater accuracy, that the picture was painted " in 
the drawing-room of Lawford Place, with Lawford 
Church in the distance, and has always been con- 
sidered excellent for its good likeness and grouping 
of so many figures. John Constable was a great 
friend of the family at that time, and as I have 

1 There is no mention of the portrait in Leslie, but two sisters 
of Constable's mother were married to brothers named Gubbins. 
The sons of both fought at Waterloo, where one was killed. 
The other was at the attack on New Orleans. 


Constable as a Portrait-painter 

often heard my father say, spent much time at 
Lawford Place". A further letter from the eldest 
sister of Admiral Bridges, then over eighty, corro- 
borates the date which her father had placed on 
the picture, and gives details of its changes from 
hand to hand. Mr. J. G. Bridges in a letter to 
the " Standard " of 3rd August, 1888, mentioned 
the picture, apropos of some exhibition, and says, 
" Mr. Constable was a personal friend and neigh- 
bour of the family at that time, hence the existence 
of this, almost the only attempt of his at portrait 
painting. Brief reference is made as to it in 
Leslie's ' Life of Constable' ". In this last state- 
ment he was mistaken. I may add that according 
t(j family tradition Constable showed an admiration 
for one of his sitters, the lady at the spinet or 
early pianoforte, and that his visits were in conse- 
quence discouraged. Lawford, near Manningtree, 
is within a half-hour's walk of Flatford Mill. 

Constable was twenty-eight when he painted this 
picture, and for a man of slow development and 
small practice in the art, the grouping is indeed 
remarkable. The pyramid of five figures to the 
right is skilfully contrived, and varied upon by 
the five to the left, with two uprights instead 
of one. The whole would have been more com- 
pletely successful if the father had been slightly 
taller and there had been a little more space to the 
left of the son : the boy is crushed in directly under 
him. To make a centre of the father, Constable 
has exaggerated his scale. A pretty bit of design 
is the use of the shutter to enclose the head of the 
wife and strengthen the right-hand group, and at 
the same time repeat in perpendicular the horizon- 
tal of the spinet. The colour is simple : all the 
dresses white, the clothes brown, touches of scarlet 
in the baby's shoes and flowers at the player's waist. 
The paint is handsome, with an occasional fluid 
swish that connects Gainsborough with Whistler : 
the texture of the spinet delightful. The landscape 
is rich, with a fine " brown tree " in front of the 
red-tiled church, and a sky touched with evening 

In the structure of his figures, it will be seen, 
Constable was a little wooden and uncertain ; the 
drawing and painting are very much like Daniel 
Gardner's, who painted Constable in 1796 : the 
portrait is at Kensington. Gardner studied under 
Reynolds, and Constable appears here as one of 
the third generation of that master's school, follow- 
ing on the Opie and Beechey group. Much 
later than the date of this picture he was 
still, in the hopes of his family and friends, a 
painter of portraits. On 31st December, i8ii,his 
father urges on him "a close application to your 
profession, and to such parts as pay best ". In the 
following year Miss Bicknell urges the same 
course, and reminds him that " the path of duty is 
alone the path of happiness" ; in 1814 she is still 
querulous : " If you wish to remain single it may 


do very well." In 1815 his mother writes " You 
must try hard for fame and gain ". But for the 
possession of private means, it is doubtful if 
Constable could have indulged himself in landscape 
painting, and it is not till 1828, when the Bicknell 
fortune of ;^20,ooo fell in, that references to 
portrait commissions cease in his letters. It may 
be worth while to collect these, for the number of 
portraits he painted, and that have dropped out of 
sight, must be considerable. The record is the im- 
perfect one of mention in the selection of letters 
given by Leslie. He begins with copies, one in 
1802, others for Lord Dysart in 1807 (Reynolds is 
included). In 1812 there were portraits of the 
Bishop of Salisbury and Mr. Watts ; in 1813 one 
of Lady Lennard was begun, but abandoned. In 
1814 there were several, including one of Rev. 
George Bridgman, brother of Lord Bradford (it 
was probably a confusion of this name with 
Bridges that led to the mistake in Mr. Bridges's 
letter above). Portraits of Lady Heathcote and 
her mother are also mentioned as making " a 
great dash " in the drawing-room at Grosvenor 
Square, and a handsome boy is to sit. The 
Lennard portrait was apparently taken up 
again. In the same year a portrait of General 
Fisher from a drawing was asked for. In 1815 
Constable was inserting a landscape background 
and working on other portraits for Mr. Dawe. In 
18 16 there is a picture for General Rebow of his 
little girl with her donkey ; in 1819 portraits of 
the General and his wife. In 1821 there is a 
portrait in Suffolk, others in 1822, In 1823 " I 
have a face on my easel, and may have more ". 
In the same year he has pleased the Countess of 
Dysart by painting two portraits. In 1825 he is 
painting three children, once more with a donkey 
(no doubt, like Balaam's in Heine's dream, " an 
excellent likeness "), for Mr. Lambert, at Wood- 
manstone, near Croydon. In 1826 a dissenter 
is sitting, who does not know why he is one, 
" only that his wife will not let him go to church". 
In the same year Constable is " threatened " with a 
portrait by a gentleman whose name the judicious 
Leslie suppresses. In 1828 the fortune fell in, and 
he" could stand before a six-foot canvas with a mind 
at ease, thank God ". After this we hear only of a 
little friendly portrait of Fisher's mother. 'Thus, 
tillj Constable was fifty-two, he was painting 
portraits, and dependent on that branch of his art 
when need of money pressed. Besides the por- 
traits enumerated above, which some student 
might make a search for, there is one mentioned in 
Mr. Holmes's list under 1807, Sophie Lloyd and 
Child, a girl's head at South Kensington, and some 
sketches there and at the Print Room. In the 
Salting bequest at the National Gallery is a por- 
trait said to be of Mrs. Constable. 

I return to our portrait group and the year 
1804. It is just at this point, and until the year 






1807, that Constable's career becomes obscure, 
because for that period Leslie could find no 
letters or other records. We hear of pictures 
exhibited and the visit to the Lakes in 1806, but 
little more. For this reason I have insisted on the 
date of the Bridges group. Mr. Holmes, speaking 
of Constable's work of 1804, says, " Five or six 
years later, after copying Reynolds and Hoppner, 
Constable could paint a fairly good portrait, but 
his technical experience in 1804 was quite in- 
sufficient for the composition or painting of a 
large altar-piece ". The Bridges group comes in 
to correct this view of his powers both in portrait 
and composition. The Brantham Church altar- 
piece, Christ blessing Little Children, belongs to the 
same year, and this is the picture Mr. Holmes is 
referring to. I have not myself seen it, but Mr. 
Bowyer Nichols, of Lawford Hall, the well-known 
critic and son of Mr. Bridges's correspondent, has 
sent me a description and sketch. The Christ 
appears to be rather sentimental, in the manner of 
VVest, as Mr. Holmes says, but the baby is studied 
from life, perhaps from the Bridges baby, for the 
figures of young women to the right of the picture 
have a strong resemblance to the girls in the por- 

Constable as a Portrait-painter 

trait group and are much the best part of the 
picture. How long a tradition is in dying ! We 
are in the nineteenth century, and have to 
do vvith its revolutionary landscape painter. 
Pining for fields and trees and sluices, and a new 
world of bright green and silver splashes, he is 
not only trammelled by portraits, but is caught 
back into the ancient line of church painting, and 
looks to it as a possible source of professional 
gain. In 1809 Constable executed another altar- 
piece for Kayland Church, Christ Blessing the 
Elements. In 1811 his mother was wildly excited 
because the directors of the British Institution 
bought West's Christ Healing the Sick for ^3,000. 
She thought her son's Brantham piece better, and 
saw no reason why "one day, with diligence and 
attention, you should not be the performer of a 
picture worth ;^3,ooo". As late as 1822 Constable 
was "going into Suffolk about an altar-piece, a 
gift from a gentleman " (letter to Fisher). But 
his father's savings and his wife's fortune allowed 
him respite from "the paying parts" of his pro- 
fession, and at his death one of his landscapes 
did actually fetch over one hundred and fifty 


EGROS (born 1837, ^''^'^ iQn) was 
my master and my father in art. I am 
glad to remember that he once said 
that I was like a son to him, but that 

was in affection, and not, alas ! in 

work. It is thirty-one years since I first saw his 
work — those pictures in the old Grosvenor Gallery 
that I admired and thought fine. The Old Gardener 
Burning Leaves, now in the possession of Mr. Guy 
Knowles, was one of them. With the approval of 
W. P. Frith, R.A., who was advising me, I entered 
the Slade School the following autumn. In two 
years I was on kindly terms with the master ; in 
four I became one of his assistants. I served for 
four more years in that capacity, and learned to 
love the man as well as to reverence the master. 
During those four years I was permitted to assist 
in his studio. I used to long to finish my rounds of 
the schools that I might get to the studio, that sacred 
place where I learned more and enjoyed my work 
more than I can tell — an austere room, with drab 
walls and grey boards, the only decoration six en- 
gravings after Nicolas Poussin in two frames. He 
was delightful when at real work, and prodigal with 
it, both his own and his assistants'. I have seen in 
that studio more masterpieces made — and, alas ! 
destroyed — than would have filled a big room at 
the National Gallery. How I used to long to buy 
them, or take them away at night, or to get some- 
one to buy them ! I would leave them safe with 


their faces to the wall and take a last look long after 
the master had gone ; then in the morning, when 
I had finished going round the classes, I would 
come only to find the best canvas, turned upside 
down on the easel, becoming " something else " ; 
but my interest always went at once to the "some- 
thing else" that was comingout.and I forgot the old 
work to honour the new. One I remember well, 
with a regret that mounts with the years. After the 
summer holidays I went to the schools early in 
the morning on the first day of term, and, as my 
custom was, first went into the master's studio, 
and saw on the easel a most lovely nude, full- 
length and life-size. It was freshly painted, of a 
most beautiful impasto, a La Source, sitting quiedy 
in a green shade. I never saw such a good nude 
by a modern, halfway between Ingres's Odalisque 
and Manet's Olympia. The grey half-tones were 
perfect ; a subdued light shown from the flesh. I 
was enraptured, and thought of the exhibition of 
the picture, which would make all artists see what 
a great man was amongst us. The picture would 
be bought by the Chanlrey Bequest and the master 
would be elected to the Academy ; then he would 
have to exhibit his pictures and they would be kept. 
I went on, my mind rejoicing, teaching the new 
students to stretch their paper and sharpen their 
charcoal, and setting up the life models. About 
noon, when all had been visited, I joined the 
master in his room and began to say how much I 

Alphonse Legros : Some Personal Reminiscences 

had been delighted with the picture. He replied : 
" Oh 1 I am sorry you did not tell me this two 
hours ajjo, for I might have given it to you ; 1 have 
just painted over it". I went up to the studio and 
saw my beautiful canvas turned sideways, a dark 
shipwreck and boisterous sea rubbed all over it ; 
there was a sailor struggling in the waves ; I felt 
like him. The work of teaching appears to en- 
courage a habit of criticism that makes a man too 
fastidious in his original work ; the enthusiasm 
and fire of conception are sacrificed to mere 
correctness. I wonder if other teachers feel this 
as I did both in my master's work and my own. 

I want to point out that my master never allowed 
me or anyone to work on his paintings or when 
modelling in clay. I only prepared his canvases, 
set his palette, which he was very particular about, 
and did other odd jobs that came in my way, such 
as making malleable the clay and handing him 
pieces to place on the figure himself, shoving on 
large masses of clay for him to work in or cutting 
off bits with strmg ; but I had the greatest pleasure 
in beinij with him : he was glorious company, and 
I believe 1 learned more in this work than in the 
schools. It is the real way to learn, and no school- 
work can make up for it. You must work for a 
master in order to learn. 

During these four years we did all sorts of things, 
and made medals, drawings and paintings, The 
Dead Christ now in the Luxembourg amongst 
others, and designs for the decoration of a theatre, 
a scheme he was somehow encouraged to think 
practicable ; for it he designed and modelled 
masks and figures of all sorts for the proscenium 
and gallery fronts. They are now nearly all 
destroyed. He did, too, an heroic model in clay, 
the mighty Polipheme blowing the pipes with his 
capacious mouth, and another a Greek Actor 
with the mask in his hand, of which I have a 
photograph. Then, at the other end of the scale, 
he was interested in gem engraving, and himself 
cut a little mask in cornelian. So that time passed, 
of infinite possibility. 

We visited the museums and galleries together. 
I remember a long morning in the Elgin room 
which ended with the Ilissiis ; and his last words 
were, "The navel is divine". At South Kensing- 
ton we visited the Raphael Cartoons, and he enjoyed 
pointing out that master's own hand, where it is to 
be seen, and the hands of three of his assistants, 
which we were soon able to identify. In the 
National Gallery he was devoted to the primitives 
and the Venetians. I think he loved Titian's 
Bacchus and Ariadne most of all, but there were 
also several little-considered pictures that we used 
to talk of together. They are mostly in good 
places now. We continued our studies of the old 
masters when Legros visited me in Rome ; after- 
wards we w-ent to Assisi and Parma, where he had 
never been before, and he had often regretted it in 

my hearing. This was the way to look at pictures ; 
to enjoy their beauty and workmanship, to see how 
they were done, and go and do likewise as far as 
we could. We never bothered our heads about 
attributions and such things, but just enjoyed the 
work. Even then— I like to remember it — he and 
Mr. Slinger, his senior assistant, used tochaffmeand 
say I should be Director of the National Gallery 
one day. Just as they used to assert that Charles 
Furse would be President of the Royal Academy 
when the time came — a prophecy that was in a 
fair way of fulfilment when we lost Furse, one of 
the master's most promising pupils. I met Furse 
shortly before he died; he was waiting for a 
train at Waterloo, and he said, " I learned more 
under Legros than I ever learned in Paris or any- 
where else, although 1 did not realize it at the 
time". Many of the master's pupils went on to 
Paris, much to his regret. He liked to think he 
was founding a school here of artists who re- 
spected tradition, and Paris unsettled them ; they 
went after strange gods. Strang alone remained 

Legros's teaching was first of all founded on 

the old masters. He made students draw in the 

manner of Leonardo and Raphael, a manner that 

was ridiculed as " Slade Shading"; it was 

much older than the Slade. He taught them to 

paint on a rubbed-in ground and to paint 

directly ; in fact, he taught according to the schools 

of Raphael and the Carracci. He was the first 

teacher over here who belonged to the unbroken 

tradition of Italy. He belonged in a direct 

succession to the great times in Italy, and was 

fond of tracing his descent through Poussin 

to Ingres. He painted before the students 

to teach them a simple and direct method, and 

would draw before them from life and from the 

antique. When we went round the schools he 

would take a student's drawing in hand and, 

calling the other students to him, complete the 

drawing in their presence. The younger students 

he would leave to me and tell me to draw their 

model, some foot or hand before them, the master 

looking on the while. It was rather embarrassing, 

but I got accustomed in time to working before 

him. I should like to say that it was always a 

compliment to have Legros finish one's drawing ; 

he never did it except to students who he thought 

would profit by it. He had a simple method of 

not letting students work too long at a cast and 

waste their time over false finish. He had all 

the casts moved once every week, whether the 

students' drawings were finished or not. He 

hated all pretence and disobedience, and could be 

very severe. He had a ready way with him that 

was unanswerable. I remember his telling a 

student not to use the india-rubber so much— he 

had been rubbing his drawing all over and making 

black greasy marks on the paper. He came round 


Alphonse Legros : Some Personal Reminiscences 

later and found him still rubbing away. " Have 
you a key to your locker ? " the master said. 
" Yes," said the student. " Then take this india- 
rubber and lock it in your locker, and bring the 
key to me." The student did so, and the master 
there and then pitched the key out of the window. 
Mr. Slinger used to tell me that the first time he 
went round the antique class he saw plaster fig- 
leaves on all the figures. He walked up to each 
one, took it off as he came to it and crushed it 
under foot. He could not stand any untidiness 
in a drawing or painting, always rebuked it, made 
students clean their palettes and brushes, and 
asked for clean paint-rags. He could not bear the 
dabs painters sometimes cumber their canvases 
with to clean their brushes whilst working, making 
an ugly halo of dirty paint round their work. He 
was ver}' neat in his dress when painting and used 
to sav that Titian would put on his finest clothes 
to paint in. He once fold me that a picture should 
be finished from the ver)- beginning and you should 
be ready to die at any moment, so that if old Death 
tapped you on the shoulder whilst you were work- 
ing you could put down your palette and go with 
him at once, without one regret, and not having 
to say, "Just let me do this bit", or "Just let 
me clean off that". All the master's work was 


\ the winter of 1902 -1903 I came to 
know Professor Legros as a neighbour 
\n the little cottage near Westerham, 
where he hid retreated from the fogs 
of Hammersmith. Our weekly cnmeries 
were for me among the cherished joys of winter. 
Passionately convinced of the dignity of the 
painter's calling. Legros had a profound contempt 
for half-trained dilettantes, who, without patience 
for the infinite necessary pains, pose before the 
public as great painters. He had a rooted distrust 
of much that passes in these days as " genius ". 
" Never let the hated word 'artist' appear on my 
epitaph ", he would say, " but inscribe on my 
tomb, 'Ci-g'it nil peiiitre en bdtiments', for the 
house-painter at least has to learn his trade before 
he is allowed to practise it. As for me, I have 
always tried to do the honest work of an honest 

A striking illustration of his stubborn character 
is the fact that although he lived in England for 
half a century and had married an English wife, he 
successfully resisted learning the language of his 
adopted country. To the last he was unable to 
take part in the general conversation of his family. 
" Venez me voir," he exclaimed, when he found I 
could converse freely with him, " icijesuis unmiiet": 
so to the end of his career he remained unin- 
fluenced by the English country-side, and the 
landscape of his latest etchings is Frenc'n. 

done in this manner ; even the two or three first 
touches on canvas, nicely prepared as it was, could 
be taken away and framed by the fortunate 
possessor if it was given to him. 

Behind all this was the artist who had worked 
in Paris under Lecoq de Boisbaudran with Bonvin, 
Courbet, Cazin, Fantin Latour, and Kegamey, and 
had seen Ingres and Millet; who had copied the 
Erasmus oi Holbein from memor}' as is well related 
in Mr. Luard's book,' which tells us much of 
Legros's methods — the Legros who did the 
etchings illustrating Edgar Allan Poe and the series 
of macabre designs from Death in the Pear Tree 
through La inort dii Vagabond to the last series of 
all, Le Triomphe de la Mort of yesterday : all the 
beautiful idylls of fishermen by willow-lined 
streams, labourers in the fields, farms in Burgundy 
and castles in Spain. There were truly two Legros : 
the Professor and the romantic artist with his 
message of the dignity and beauty of all things, 
even what is called ugliness, old age, ruin, and 
that old messenger who sweeps the cobwebs clean 
away to dusty death,- 

' The Training of the Memory in Art, by Lecoq de Boisbaudran, 
tran-^latcd by L. D. l^uard. 

2 Tlie Triumph of Death, No. 3, Exhibition of works by Legros 
at the Fine Art Society. 

Legros was nurtured in the austere French 
tradition of precise and comely drawing, lucid and 
harmonious composition. His cherished exemp- 
lar was Ingres, from some pupil of whom he 
learned the master's methods. The pupil, like— 

qiiei die va di notte 
Che porta it litme retro, e si iton giova 
Ma dopo se fa le pcrsone dotte, 

was utterly unable to appreciate the import of the 
master's teaching. "Ah ! what would I not have 
given", Legros would say, "to have seen Ingres 
at work ! " More than once he has told me of the 
thrill of emotion that seized him when he beheld 
the veteran painter, an old man of eighty, enter the 
Beaux Arts at Paris and how all present rose, bare- 
headed, to greet l*im : never before or since had 
he been so profoundly moved. 

Legros's favourite picture in the LouvTe was 
Holbein's Erasmus, which he studied for a whole 
fortnight. " That ", he said, " taught me how to 
paint a head ". Piercing with accurate vision 
beneath the mask of flesh, his method was to draw 
the salient features of the bony structure— the 
frontal bone, the cheek bones, the nasal bone, the 
eye sockets and the chin. " Once get those points 
right ", he would say, " and the rest is easy ". " The 
nature of the portrait painter", he added "partakes 
of that of the actor. Insensibly he assumes the 
character of the sitter ; he becomes a judge of 
men's inmost souls, he detects the satyr's ear, the 


Alphonse Legros ; Some Personal Reminiscences 

sensualist's mouth, the soldier's eye, the thinker's 
brow". He would amuse himself when going 
through the Roman busts in museums of ancient 
sculpture by pointing out the characteristic 
mouth of the orator and other peculiarities of 
professional occupation impressed on physiog- 
nomy. But another relation between artist and 
sitter is exemplified by Legros's portraits. The 
painter not only receives ; he gives out. Whether it 
be the head of a poor Kentish labourer or the 
head of a Darwin, therein is distinguishable the 
painter's earnestness, sincerity and sympathy. I 
well remember when he was at work on the series 
of etchings known as Les cheiniiieaux, he handed 
round a proof as I sat in his family circle. 
"Mais, moil ami", objected his wife " ce n' est pas 
assez canaille" — a perfectly accurate criticism, for 
even a thief and a vagabond the master could not 
help transmuting into something pathetically noble. 

Legros never ceased to bewail the long years he 
spent as Slade Professor. " A/i, viiigt ans perdiis ! 
Vingt ans peidiis! " he would exclaim when his 
memory reverted to that long and wearisome 
professorship. Lavish of time and generous in 
encouragement to students who gave signs of 
devotion and aptitude, he was almost savagely 
intolerant of the trifler and idler. One morning, 
while he was explaining to a student how a Greek 
would have treated a subject, the youth, growing 
impatient, drew forth his watch and remarked that 
it was past lunch time. " What ! " cried the 
master. " Here am I teaching you how a Greek 
would have treated your composition, and you 
talk about lunch ! Va-t'en ! " Another story was 
a favourite with Watts. A student brought him a 
portrait of her father. He pointed out where the 
drawing was wrong, whereupon she protested, 
" Mais, Monsieur Legros, vton pere est comnie fa ". 
" /I /ors ", growled the master, "voire pere a tort". 

Legros's habit during the years I knew him was 
to work, if possible, once a week from the living 
model, a discipline which he declared necessary to 
maintain efficiency ; and not the least arduous of 
Madame Legros's duties was to be on the pounce 
for some child or old labourer who would sit on 
Sundays as a model for a gold-p«int or lithograph. 
But drawing from the life was not his only 
method. His memory had also its long practice. 
The medallion of Darwin was wrought from a 
rough sketch on an envelope at a meeting of the 
Royal Society. That powerful and noble head made 
a deep impression upon his mind : it was, he said, 
the nearest approach to the Greek ideal he had 
met with in a modern. Of Carlyle, too, Legros 
spoke with veneration. The gentler side of the 
old sage's nature was borne in upon him as he 
watched the sad yet beautiful face take on tender- 

ness while listening to his niece reading Scottish 
poetry during the sittings. The rejection of this 
portrait by the Salon he never forgot; it explains 
his dislike for submitting his work to juries. 
"'Je lie veux pas el re assassine", he would say. 
Nor would he accept any honour from the French 
Government. His friend Gambetta offered him 
the Legion of Honour, but he refused. " No, no ", 
he answered ; " there are too many thousands of 
decores : I should be lost among that crowd of 

Like all great artists, he was conscious of his 
worth. Having acted as adviser to Mr. Con- 
stantine lonides in many of his purchases, he was 
particularly interested in the lonides Collection 
at South Kensington, and I remember a morning 
spent among the pictures, and how, after a search- 
ing and critical examination of some modern 
artists, he turned to his own works, evidently 
weighing in his mind their relative claims to 
posthumous fame. Musingly he said, half to 
himself, half to me, " Oni ! je crois (a dnrera, 
fa dnrera." His standard of judgment for Old 
Masters was a summary one and his views on some 
etchings in the National Collection attributed to 
Rembrandt were expressed with vigour if not with 
discretion. One after another he threw them aside, 
saying, " Voild ! if that is by Kembrandt, then I 
have done better work than he, which is absurd ". 
Itwas an education in art to visit with him the Elgin 
Marbles. He would indicate the varying excellence 
of different hands in the frieze and metopes, the 
limitations imposed by the material, the restrained 
beauty of the execution — for Legros was scarcely 
less a master of sculpture than of painting. I was 
speaking one day with him about a proposal to 
restore the Elgin Marbles to Greece. "Jamais .'" 
he exclaimed passionately. " Je prendrais un fusil; 
je descendrais dans la rue ". 

Among many merciless judgments on con- 
temporaries, there was one boundless admiration. 
An absorbing interest of Legros's later years was 
to see honour done to Alfred Stevens. An 
ineffaceable memory remains to those who saw 
the venerable master in the Tate Gallery on 
15th November, 1911, on the occasion to 
which he had long looked forward. As the 
veteran was led to view his friend Professor 
Lanteri's fine bust of Stevens, his whole being 
was transfigured ; the slumbering fires of the 
artist blazed forth again, and he stood awhile in 
silent contemplation of the work. The fatigues 
of the journey and the excitement of the day 
evidently proved too much for the master's 
waning strength, and on December 13th a group 
of sorrowing relatives, pupils and friends saw all 
that was mortal of Alphonse Legros laid to rest. 



HE eight tapestries described under 
this title in a previous article (p. 210, 
January, 191 2), apart from their artistic 
interest as displaying the highest excel- 

lence of medireval Flemish design, are 

remarkable for the curious example which they 
show of the influence of the Moralities of the 
fifteenth century on the designers of cartoons. An 
attempt was made in the last article by a careful 
classification of groups to read some continuity 
into the ideas of the tapestries. It will be con- 
venient here to recapitulate them briefly under 
the three heads : (1) the History of the Redemp- 
tion, (2) the Allegory of Mankind, and (3) the 
Allegory of Virtues and Vices. Under the first 
head the story nms roughly thus : The Creation 
[Plate I, a] ; the Debate of Justice and Mercy, 
etc. [Plate I, b, c] ; the Annunciation and 
Incarnation [Plate 1, d] ; the Betrothal and 
Marriage of the Virgin ; the Shepherds and Magi ; 
John the Baptist baptizing Christ, preaching, and 
beheaded ; the Woman taken in Adultery ; the 
Raising of Lazarus; Judas selling his Master; 
the Crucifixion, Harrowing of Hell, Resurrection, 
etc.; the Ascension, etc.; the Day of Judgment 
[Plate I, e ; III, r]. Under the second head 
the allegor}' may be sketched thus : Man, in 
enjoyment,' with Luxury, attacked by Justice, 
defended by Mercy [Plate II, F] ; armed by 
Mercy, Grace-of-God and Peace [Plate II, g] ; 
disarmed and attacked by Luxury and Gluttony, 
with Hope behind [Plate II, HJ ; in fetters, with 
Hope behind, gazing at Abraham, etc. [Pl.ate II, J]; 
with Abraham and John the Baptist expecting 
Redemption ; with Nature at John the Baptist's 
preaching ; with Abraham, etc., issuing from the 
gates of Hell ; with Abraham, etc., before the 
throne of the Trinity, presented bv Grace-of-God 
[Plate II, k]. The Allegory of the Conflict 
of the Virtues and Vices, under the third head, 
may be shortly stated thus : The Virtues warning 
Man in enjoyment ; Luxurj- tempting him. Justice 
attacking him, Mercydefending him [Plate II, f] ; 
Mercy, Grace-of-God, and Peace arming him 
[Plate II, g] ; Luxury and Gluttony disarming 
him, the Tempter jubilant, in the background 
Hope [Pl.ate 11, h] ; with Misen,- and Hope, the 
Tempter in the background [Plate II, j] ; 
Charity challenging the Vices [Plate III, l] ; 
the Christian Ivnight armed by the Virtues 
[Pl.\te III, M],and charging at their head against 
the Vices [Plate III, n] ; the risen Christ in 
company with Virtues ; Grace-of-God presenting 
Man before the throne [PL.iTE II, k] ; defeat and 
despair of the Vices and the Tempter, driven 
down to Hell [Plate III, p, q, rJ. 

No one can touch the relation of art to the 
drarna without trespassing on the domain which 
M, Emile Male, in his " L'Art religieux de la fin 

du moyen age", has made peculiarly his own. 
Everyone finds that his own investigations have 
been forestalled, or owes to M. Male's suggestive 
pages the stimulus which drives him into fresh 
fields. It would have been indeed a triumph to 
have found the artist who designed the cartoons 
of these tapestries, and the mind (probably of an 
ecclesiastic) which drew out the scheme. There 
are recorded cases of the latter. There is the 
famous example of the elaborate instructions for 
two panels of tapestry left in MS. by Jean Germain, 
Bishop of Chalons-sur-Saone, who died in 1460. 
There is another of a similar date extracted from 
the records of Troyes of " une histoire de Saint 
Madeleine, dont Jaquet le peintre et Symon 
I'enlumineur etaient charges de tracer le modele 
sur les indications de Frere Didier, Jacobin "} 
This ver}' explicit statement of the genesis of a 
design perhaps justifies the attribution of the 
present eight pieces to one constructive mind and 
the pencil of one artist. Though it has proved 
impossible to identify either the one or the other, 
or even to trace the design to any one source in 
literature or the drama, it is, nevertheless, happily 
possible to show most interesting parallels in 
each field, both for the three main themes and 
also for single groups and details. 

It is perfectly plain that the first head, the 
Redemption, is based on the cycles of the so-called 
" Miracle Plays" in England and " Mysteres" in 
France ; and to these we must attribute the selection 
of the scenes. Of the principal cycles in England, 
the " Ludus Coventrias " has the nearest affinity to 
the tapestry story. The days of Creation and the 
fall of Adam form a single scene ; the Betrothal 
of Marj' occurs, the Baptism, the Woman taken in* 
Adultery and the Raising of Lazarus are in close 
collocation. It is curious also to note that the 
stage directions in the Harrowing of Hell name 
Adam, Eve, Abraham and John the Baptist as 
issuing therefrom, the latter two of whom are 
brought together in a remarkable way on the 
tapestries. Furthermore, the well-known " Recon- 
ciliation of the Heavenly Virtues ", or in its more 
concise French title, the " Proces de Paradis " 
(the plea of Mercy against Justice), which occurs in 
panel 2, is found in this cycle only, though not, as 
in panel 2, in the appropriate place in which it 
appears in the " Meditations of S. Bonaventura " 
and elsewhere, between the Fall and the Redemp- 
tion. With regard to the tapestries, it is to be 
noted that Justice and Mercy occur not only in 
this and other scenes in panel 2, but on either side 
of the Trinity in panels i and 7, and on either side 

'Miss E. P. Haraoiond, in Eiiglische Stiidicii, Vol. 43, Part i, 
p. 10 (1911) mentions four so-called tapestry poems by Lydgate, 
one of whicti lias the rubric, " Loo, sirs, the devise of a peynted 
or desteyned clothe for an halle, a parlour, or a chaumbre, 
devysed by Johan Lidegate, at the request of a worthy citesyn 
of Londoa ' (MSS. Trinity College, Cambridge, R. 3.20). 


Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins''"' 

of Christ in panel 8. This is of the more impor- 
tance because it is the keynote of the nearest 
North French parallel, the famous " Passion " of 
Arnoul Greban, written before 1452, in which not 
only is the " Proces de Paradis" found, but the 
whole drama closes with the kiss of reconciliation 
between Mercy and Truth and Justice and Peace. 

It will be convenient to pass next to the con- 
sideration of the third head of Virtues and Vices, 
as it is found in these tapestries in unique 
combination with the Redemption Story : for the 
reason that in some South French "Mysteres" 
allegorical figures are, as here, very freely intro- 
duced (see " Mysteres proven^ales du quinzieme 
si^cle", by A. Jeanroy and H, Teulie, Toulouse, 
1893). Among a series of ten plays in the volume 
attention may be drawn to two. In the very 
curious "Jugement de J6sus", Christ is summoned 
by Natura Humana in succession before the 
Courts of Law-of-Nature, Law-of-Scripture, and 
Law-of-Grace, in order to compel Him to carry 
out the contract of Redemption. The Judges 
under the Law-of-Nature are Adam, Abraham, 
etc. ; under the Law-of-Scripture, David, Solomon, 
etc. ; and under the Law-of-Grace, S. John. In- 
nocentia, Fidelitas and Humilitas are the advo- 
cates of Jesus ; Caritas and Necessitas of Natura 
Humana. It is worth while pointing out that in 
the tapestries Humilitas and Caritas are the Virtues 
that accompany Christ throughout. The other 
play, " Le Jugement Dernier", has a bearing upon 
the allegorical figures in the last scenes in the 
tapestries. In panel 7 the avenging angel drives 
down the seven Vices, and in panel 8 Justice herds 
them to Hell with the lost souls ; in the play, 
among other scenes of the Judgment, each Vice 
appears and pleads against this condemnation. 

It is natural now to pass to the splendid centre- 
piece (panel 5), in which the themes of the 
Redemption and the Conflict of Virtue and Vice 
are represented in simultaneous culmination. If 
anything were needed to support the idea of some 
consecutive design, it is this fine picture in con- 
junction with what precedes. No one can pretend 
that the beautiful groups of the challenge of 
Caritas to the Vices and the arming of the 
Christian Knight do not lead, as the modern 
writer says, inevitably to the grand scene of the 
combat. For this a most detailed and satisfactory 
parallel in French literature is to hand. Whoewr 
may have been the author of the tapestry design, 
it is more than probable that he was acquainted 
with the " Tournoiment de I'Antecrist " of Huon 
de Mery. Written in the thirteenth century, it 
was much read in the Middle Ages, and held its 
own through several centuries. It hai a vogue as 
late as 1529, when Geoffrey de Tory in his 
" Champ Fleury " recommends it for reading. It 
is an imitation in religious allegory of the Arthurian 
Rominces and Chansons de Geste. Its subject is 


an Homeric contest between the Virtues led by 
the Knight, Jesus Christ, and the Vices led by 
Antichrist. But its real interest in relation to the 
tapestries is that it describes in minute detail the 
arming of the combatants, the beasts on which 
they were mounted, and the devices which they 
bore upon their shields. These details may, indeed, 
be found elsewhere, and do not exactly agree with 
those in the tapestries, but it is of immense interest 
to find them in combination with a similar combat. 
Taking into account the helmet crowned with 
thorns presented by Humilitas and the banner of 
the five wounds by Caritas (the continual com- 
panions of Christ), it is hard not to assume in the 
Christian Knight of the tapestries an allegory of 
Jesus Christ. In view of this assumption it may 
be added that M. Grebel, one of the editors of 
Huon de Mery, regards the Jesus Christ of the 
poem as the apotheosis of Chivalry and Christian 

The second head in the tale of the tapestries, 
the Allegory of Humanity, maybe illustrated from 
many sources. It is the central theme of the 
fifteenth-century Moralities, which slowly ousted 
the Miracle plays and Mysteres and paved the way 
for the true drama. The Morality best known to 
English readers — at any rate, to English play- 
goers — is " Everyman ". It is not, however, so 
apposite to the present purpose as " The Castle of 
Perseverance", somewhere about 1420, in which 
not only does the " Proces de Paradis " occur, but 
the Vices attack Mankind and the Virtues defend 
him in the castle, where an actual combat takes 
place. The French Morality which has most 
features in common with the allegory of the 
tapestries is " L'Homme Pecheur". The Virtues 
and Vices do occur as characters in conjunction 
with Mankind, but the whole construction is much 
later and more advanced than in "The Castle of 
Perseverance ". 

In pure literature, however, the fourteenth- 
century French poem of " Le P^16rinage de la Vie 
Humaine", by Guiilaume de Deguilleville (trans- 
lated by Lvdgate), with its complements, " Le 
Pelerinage de I'Ame" and " Le P616rinage de 
Jesus Christ", underlies the whole idea of the 
tapestries. There is, indeed, no very exact 
resemblance in construction, but the subject is 
the same and many details similar. Grace-Dieu 
(see panel 2) conducts the Pilgrim or Homo, and, 
as in panel 2, he is armed, and, as in the same 
panel, throws off his armour, and describes at 
enormous length his encounters with the various 
Vices. In the poem Grace-Dieu is with the 
Pilgrim at his death ; in the tapestries, Gracia-Dei 
presents him before the throne. In the earlier 
part of " Le Pelerinage de I'Ame" Mercy "plaide 
et defend doulcement la cause du poure p^lerin " 
against Justice, Truth and Reason ; " Le Pelerinage 
de Jesus Christ " begins with the fall of Adam and 


i ^ 

a •» 

Id U 

a- •< 

Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins " 

the " Proces de Paradis ", and " Charity et sa doulce 
persuasion " to the Son to save Mankind leads on 
to the storv of the Passion. 

In addition to the influence of literature and 
the drama, no doubt something is directly due 
also to the Pageants, which took place on every 
possible occasion of marriage or merrymaking. 
For instance, in a poem on the entry of Henry VI 
into London, 14th Feb., 1431 (Percy Society, Vol. 
2, p. 18), Lydgate says there was at the Conduit 
"a tytelleand a lykenes — Indevisible made of the 
Trinit6— Abowte wiche, schortly to conclude,— Of 
hevenly aungelys were a grete multitude ". And 
in another MS.' poem by the same on the entry of 
Margaret of Anjou into London, 28th May, 1445, 
(British Museum, Harley MS. 3869, f. 2), " Madame 
Grace Chauncelere de Dieu " appears at Leaden- 
hall, and in the verses there recited is addressed as 
" Dame Grace, Goddes Vicarie Generalle ", and is 
adjured to draw " Foure patentes faire fressh and 
legible " to " Trouth and Mercy togedre allied — 
Justice and Pees ". The chronicler who describes 
the entry of Charles VII into Paris in 1437, says: — 
" Suivaient Foy, Esperance, Charite, Justice, Pru- 
dence, Force et Temperance, montees a cheval et 
habillees selon leurs propri^t^s ". Olivier de la 
Marche, in his " Memoires ", narrates that the 
Duke of Burgundy at the famous Banquet des 
Voeux in February, 1454, for the new crusade 
against the Turks, was addressed by twelve 
Virtues introduced in turn by Gracia-Dei. This 
is specially mentioned because it is to this pageant 
that M. Frans Luyten in describing the Haar tapes- 
tries, conceives to be due the Combat, which he 
views as emblematic of the conflict between 
Christianity and Mohammedanism, much to the 
detriment of the allegory. It is exceedingly 
curious to find that the very Jean Germain, 
Bishop of Chalons, the designer of tapestries 
mentioned at the beginning of this article, 
preached the sermon on this occasion. In any 
case the Combat no doubt appealed with striking 
force to those who had seen a melee in a tourna- 
ment ; the combatants in the allegorical conflict 
looking to the Cross for inspiration as the filters 
in the champ clos to the gallery. There is 
moreover one respect in which the Combat is 
undoubtedly based on Pageants familiar to the 
people. The grotesque beasts upon which the Vir- 
tues and Vices are mounted and the heraldic bear- 
ings on their shields not only appear in sculpture 
and illuminations but were a matter of common 
knowledge in the streets in the annual Ommegang 
of many Flemish towns. M. E. von Even in his 
" L'Omgang de Louvain " (Brussels, 1865) repro- 
duces drawings made in 1594 of "septanimaux 
6normes en osier ". Similar figures appear in the 
paintings by Van Aelst of the Brussels Ommegang 
of 1615 in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and 
■were no doubt used in all similar processions. 

The tapestries of the Deadly Sins, however, were 
only one form of Virtue and Vice tapestries. Some 
attempt has been made to give a list of such 
tapestries taken from a few well-known inventories, 
and to sketch the development of the idea. The 
earliest tapestries devoted to the subject were 
probably of the single-figure type. The Duke of 
Burgundy is said to have sent to Henry IV of 
England a tapestry of the Seven Virtues having at 
their feet monarchs obeying their impulses, and 
likewise the Seven Vices, with monarchs that were 
their slaves. In 1379 the inventory of Charles V of 
France has a " tappiz des sept peches morteis ". In 
1385 among the tapestries made for the Duke of 
Burgundy is an " histoire des Vices et des Vertus " 
(probably the same as that in the inventory of 
Philip le Hardi in 1404). In 1399 Richard II of 
England has "una pecia de virtutibus" and "una 
pecia de vitiis et virtutibus " ; and Valentine, 
Duchesse d'Orleans, in 1407-8 has a " tappis a 
ymages des vii vices et vii vertus ". A French 
inventory, also, of about the same date (British 
Museum, Add. MS. 1 1542, f. 14), gives two tapestries 
of the same subject ; and yet another was at Notre 
Dame in Paris in 1416. 

The fifteenth century saw the growth of dramatic 
allegory in such pieces as " the Castle of Perse- 
verance ". Parallel with these Moralities, in which 
personified Virtues and Vices are represented in 
conflict, artistic design appears to have returned to 
the earlier idea of the " Psychomachia ". The 
earliest existing tapestry of such a combat is 
perhaps the long narrow piece at Ratisbon, with 
pairs of contrasted qualities attacking one another 
and a castle at either end. This must be of much 
the same date as the Morality above-mentioned ; 
though it has a curious resemblance to the 
much later woodcuts in Gringore's " Chasteau 
de Labour", printed for S. Vostre in 1500. 
The eight panels with which this article 
deals may be placed about 1500, and resembling 
them, yet differing in treatment and of slightly later 
date, are the two smaller pieces at Hampton Court. 
The small piece belonging to Lord Zouche may 
even be of earlier date. These designs appear to 
have been the culmination of the art in this 

The consistently mediaeval type, in which 
the ecclesiastical spirit is everywhere pre- 
dominant, becomes confused by the newly 
awakened interest in classical learning. So far as 
the t^'pe persists at all, in the first half of the six- 
teenth century, it is carried on by tapestries of the 
Filiiis Prodigus, of which innumerable examples 
are found in inventories, some still extant. The idea 
of "Triumphs" of abstract qualities introduced into 
art by the " Trionfi " of Petrarch, began in the 
sixteenth century to affect the designing of tapes- 
tries in the most marked manner. At the same time 
the world at large became better acquainted with 


Tapestries of " The Seven Deadly Sins " 

characters and episodes of ancient history, upon 
which the designers could base their ideas ; either 
in place of appealing to the popular knowledge of 
biblical history, or in incongruous, not to say 
grotesque, combination with it. Hence arose the 
design of such a set as that belonging to the Baron 
d'Hunolstein at the Chateau de Cany near Ft^camp, 
of which M. GuifTrey well says, "les noms des 
personnages en latin suffisent a peine a faire 
conprendre les allegories souvent confondues avec 
des Episodes tires de I'histoire sainte". This set 
may be dated about 1510. The more complete 
idea is represented in Los Hoiiores at Madrid, made 
about 1520, with its medley of moral instances to 
illustrate the title-role of each panel (Faith, Honour, 
Fame, Infamy, Vice, Justice, etc.). Approxi- 
mately at the same date the pure idea of 
"Triumphs" is worked out in the famous set of 
Los Pecados Capitales also at Madrid, in which each 
sin drives her car regardlessly over prostrate foes. 
Of this set probably the British Crown, as will 
appear below, long had an example in the Tower 
of London. 

It remains now to give some extracts concerning 
this and other tapestries of The Deadly Sins in the 
possession of the Crown, since Wolsey's purchase 
fell into the King's hands about 1530. About 1536 
the tailors of the Great Wardrobe received wages 
" circa emendacionem et consuturam nove linure 
de vii peciis nove divitis (Arras) de peccatis mortali- 
bus" (Record Office, Lord Chamberlain's Books, 
Class 2, No. 309). In this, and in every other case 
below, where 7 pieces are mentioned, the reference 
is probably to a set such as that at Madrid, with 
which the measurements given again and again 
through 130 years fairly well correspond. They 
might, indeed, be seven pieces of the present set 
of eight pieces (and it does appear that in 1613 
the Duke of Wurtemberg saw a panel of The 
Creation at Hampton Court), but it is an unlikely 
hypothesis. About 1538 the arras-makers and 
tailors are paid for four pieces " cum luces armis 
ad ponendum arma Regis nostri in borduris 
dictarum iv peciarum de Westmonasterio ", "pro 
iv Skochons de armis Regis " for the same, and 
"pro xii portculezes " for the same (L.C.B., 
Class 2, No. 309). The border, with little doubt, 
is the famous border of Henry VIII, part of which 
is now at Hampton Court and part of which was 
sold in November with the small panel at Messrs. 
Puttick and Simpson's. In the four pieces the 
present writer would now recognize the four 
which he believes to have been the number of 
Wolsey's purchase. It may have been at this early 
date that the piece sold in November 1910, divided 
into four parts by Wolsey, was resewn and had 
the border attached — though the border also itself 
shows signs of cutting. The next entry (British 
Museum, Royal MS. 7 C. XVI, f. 60) no doubt refers 
to two of the same four pieces. In 1540 among the 


" Wardrobe Stuf at the Pallaice at Westminster 
unappropriated " are " ii peces of the vii Deadlye 
Synnes ". As the very next entry (f. 62) is " xxii 
pecys of the storie of Jacob with the Cardinalle's 
amies ", the assumption is perhaps a fair one. 
Thenceforward the only certain allusion to any 
part of Wolsey's purchase is in the inventory of 
Henry VI 1 1, in 1547 (British Museum, Harley MS. 
1419 A., f. 219) when a single tiny piece of if 
yards square of the Deadly Sins is recorded at 
Hampton Court. The same inventory contains, 
however, " vii peces of Arras of the Seaven deadelye 
Synnes " at the Tower ; and hereafter up to 1676 
the same set can be identified in the same place 
by recorded measurements, agreeing very nearly 
with those of Los Pecados Capitales at Madrid. 
This makes it exceedingly probable that all the 
notices which follow refer to such a set. They 
were repaired in 1600-1601 (L.C.B., Class 2, No. 
41). They appeared in the appraisement of 
Charles I's goods in 1649 ; and are mentioned in 
a French list (" Les Richessesdu Palais Mazarin ", 
by Comte de Cosnac, p. 419) among the tapestries 
for sale at Somerset House in May i6i;o : that 
they failed to find a purchaser at the price at 

which they were assessed, ;^2430, is proved by their 
absence from the catalogues of goods sold (British 
Museum, Harley MSS. 4898, 7352). Cromwell 
appears to have exercised a nice discrimination, and 
to have reserved them for his own use at Hampton 
Court, where they hung in the Paradise Room in 
1659 (see his inventory in the Record Office). In 
1671 a portion of them seem to have been 
" scowred " by Francis Poyntz, Yeoman Arrasman 
(L.C.B., Class 2, No. 433); and in the Survey of 
the Wardrobe Stuff in 1675-1676 they are certainly 
again in the Tower (L.C.B., Class 5, No. 66). 
The Tower ceased to be used as a royal resi- 
dence in the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
and the " Seven peices of the Deadly Sinns " at 
Windsor Castle in the inventory of James II 
(British Museum, Harley MS,, 1890, f. 25), taken 
26th March, 1688, are, no doubt, the same. They 
are there described as belonging to the Removing 
Wardrobe at Whitehall, to which they seem hence- 
forth to have been attached. In 1696 they were 
mended and cleaned by John Vanderbanke, 
Yeoman Arrasworker (L.C.B., Class 2, No. 442), 
and five pieces of these again by the same in 
1709-1710 (L.C.B., Class 2, No. 444). The last- 
mentioned is the repair of a single piece by John 
Ellys, Yeoman Arrasworker, in 1734 (L.C.B., 
Class 2, No. 451). The advent of paperhanging 
makes it difficult to trace the further history of 
tapestries. As regards the single piece lately sold, 
it may be said that it was in the hands of the 
Rev. Francis Vyvyan Jago Arundel), rector of 
Llandulph, in Cornwall, who died in 1846, and 
belonged in 1910 to the Misses Bray, of Langford 
Hill, Bude, the vendors. 




,v - 




IV THE CllLI.F.CTION" OK M A 1 )A M li AlJOLI'm; fLHI.OSS, 1>A1;1S 


Tapestries of ^^The Seven Deadly Sins'^'' 

It is perhaps impossible to settle the vexed 
question of a title. The piece lately sold, with the 
three pieces now at Hampton Court, makes up 
pretty nearly llic recorded area of Wolsey's Deadly 
Sin tapestries. My theory is that the Cardinal 
bought four odd pieces, two belonging to the set 
described in this article, and two of similar design 
but probably a little later in date (the two smaller 
pieces now at Hampton Court). The mottoes on 
the two latter pieces justify without doubt the title 
of Deadly Sins as applied to them. Moralities, 
another suggested title, has the defect that the 

exlst'mgMoralidades at Madridareof quiteadifferent 
idnd. Mr. W. G. Thomson points out the only 
other likely title, The Storie of Mankynd, which 
occurs among " aulde and worne tapestrye" of 
the Scotch Crown (Register of the Privy Council 
of Scotland, 1613-5, pp. 515-521). The best 
line of investigation appears to be among docu- 
ments which may give the early history of the sets 
known to exist, or to have existed, at the Vatican, 
at Burgos, at Toledo and in the collection of the 
Duke of Berwick at the Palace of the Dukes of 
Liria at Madrid. 



It may be doubted whether there exists a portrait 
by Frans Hals more characteristic of the painter 
at his best than the picture reproduced [Pl.'VTe], 
which is one of the most striking works in the fine 
collection of Dutch paintings formed by the late M. 
Adolphe Schloss, of Paris. It has all the qualities 
of Hals, his directness, his technical mastery, his 
almost overpowering force, with less than his usual 
vulgarity. The zealous pastor lives on the canvas, 
one can almost hear him denouncing the sins of 
his congregation — or possibly of those who did 
not form part of it. His uplifted right hand 
menaces judgment ; the forefinger of his left hand 
marks in his Bible a convincing passage to be 
presently hurled at his hearers, a passage, one 
cannot doubt, breathing damnation. 

This is no momentary photographic impression 
of a clever but superficial painter ; Hals gives us 
the whole man's character. The head, with its 
simple but energetic expression, which stands out 
vigorously from the brown background of the 
picture, is that of a stern man with high ideals, of 
a man who was as stern with himself as with others. 
It is a fine, though not a sympathetic face, with its 
high forehead, determined nose, deep set and 
penetrating steel-grey eyes and thick wiry brown 
eyebrows. Although the face is that of a man over 
sixty — the mouth is slightly awry from loss of 
teeth — the upper part of the moustache and long 
square beard have retained their original yellowish 
dark-brown tint, and the hair is still black and 
only growing grey over the temples. The preacher 
seems to be pausing a moment at the end of a 
period ; he scrutinizes his congregation to see 
whether they are taking in what he says, or perhaps 
it is an oratorical pause to mark a specially solemn 

The painting has all Hals's surety of drawing 
and handling, his power of modelling and firmness 
of touch. The construction of the torso, the trans- 
parence of the black tones of the costume, the 
flesh-tints, the eyes, and above all the expressive 

and living hands show a combination of apparent 
facility with a profound knowledge of technique. 

Michael Middelhoven, who is here immortalized, 
was the pastor of Voorschoten. All that we know 
about him is derived from the engraving of this 
picture by J. van de Velde, which is dated 1626, 
and whereon it is stated that the pastor was then 
sixty-four years old. A double distich in Latin 
beneath the engraving further informs us that he 
had preached the gospel for thirty-three years and 
was the father of fourteen children, seven sons and 
seven daughters. 

The picture is one of the six fine works by 
Frans Hals which were formerly in the collection 
of Count Andre Mniczeck at Paris ; four of these 
pictures were acquired by M. Kieinberger, from 
whom M. Schloss bought the portrait of Pastor 
Middelhoven five or six years ago. The other two 
Frans Hals of the Mniczeck collection are now in 
that of Mr. Pierpont Morgan. 

R. E. D. 


In the centre of the private garden at the back 
of Apsley House, there stands a bronze group, 
consisting of a riderless horse trampling upon a 
dragon. How or when it came there is not 
definitely known, but it is presumed that it was 
placed in its present position by the great Duke 
of Wellington. The group is unfinished, and it 
was evidently the intention of the sculptor to 
produce a statue of S. George and the Dragon, 
as there is the head of a spear in the dragon's 
mouth. On one of the dragon's feet is inscribed 
" Mathew {sic) Cotes Wyatt, 1849"; this gives a 
clue to the mystery which surrounds the group. 
The sculptor, Matthew Cotes Wyatt, first started 
life as a painter, and was employed by George III 
in the year 1805 to paint a ceiling representing 
S. George and the Dragon in the ante-room 
to the state apartments at Windsor Castle, 
Subsequently Wyatt was commanded by His 
Majesty to execute a bronze statue of the same 
subject. The sculptor commenced the work, 


Notes on Various Works of Art 

but the King died before it could be completed. 
Shortly after the death of the monarch, a com- 
mittee was formed to consider the best means of 
erecting a monument to his memory, and it was 
decided to defray the cost Tjy public subscription. 
Wyatt was invited to submit a design ; he pro- 
duced a sketch of a monumental trophy repre- 
senting His late Majesty standing in a triumphal 
car drawn by four horses, and attended by two 
angels, one blowing a trumpet and the other 
holding a wreath aloft. Fortunately, London was 
saved from having this monstrosity planted in 
its midst, for at a general meeting of the sub- 
scribers, held at the Thatched House Tavern in 
March, 1822, at which the Prime Minister, the 
Earl of Liverpool, presided, the design was 
rejected, as there were not sufficient funds to 
defray the cost. Subsequently it was decided to 
erect an equestrian statue of the King, and Wyatt 
was commissioned to utilize his unfinished group 
of S. George and the Dragon for the purpose, 
but probably on account of the action of the 
horse not being suitable, this project was never 
carried out, and an entirely new equestrian statue 
was designed by Wyatt. The memorial did not 
meet with either general support or approval, and 
numerous delays occurred. It was originally 
intended to place the statue at the bottom of 
Waterloo Place, but in the meanwhile the Duke 
of York having died, and the column having 
been erected there to his memory, it was con- 
sidered the monument would overshadow the 
statue of the King. Moreover, the son's back 
would be turned towards his father ; consequently 
a fresh site was found in Cockspur Street. 

Further delays took place. After Wyatt had 
cast the greater portion of the stattie, including 
the figure of the King, and the forepart of the 
horse, some malicious person choked up the con- 
ducts for the molten metal to run into the mould of 
the hind quarters of the horse, the consequence 
being the cast was a failure and the mould spoiled. 
Wyatt had the mortification of being obliged to 
execute a large part of his work over again, and 
the statue was not finished until June, 1836. 
Even then the statue could not be placed on the 
intended site, as a new difficulty presented itself. 



To ihe Editors of The Burlixgton Mag.\zine. 
Gentlemen, — The criticism of our work " Old 
Chinese Porcelain and Hard Stones" which 
appeared in your December number (pages 177, 
etc.) sustained, in some respects, the high reputa- 
tion which The Burlington Magazine has 
maintained for so long a period. We recognize 
that R. L. H. has very carefully studied the 

A banker residing in Pall Mall East declared that 
the statue would be a nuisance, and obtained an 
injunction against its erection opposite to his 
premises. This injunction was upheld in the 
Vice-Chancellor's Court, and it was not until an 
appeal had been made before the Lord Chancellor 
that the order was discharged and the difficulty 

On the 3rd of August 1836, sixteen years after 
the death of ths monarch, when a monument had 
already been erected to the memory of George IV, 
Wyatt's statue was eventually unveiled by the 
Duke of Cumberland, who acted as a proxy for his 
brother, King William IV. The ceremony was 
attended with some disturbance by an unruly crowd, 
but this may have been caused rather by the un- 
popularity of the Duke than any ill-feeling towards 
the late King, who probably by this time had been 
forgotten. The statue by no means met with uni- 
versal approval, for two years later, when Wyatt 
received a commission to execute the equestrian 
statue of the Duke of Wellington, which formerly 
stood on the arch opposite to Apsley House, and 
was afterwards moved to Aldershot, the following 
appeared in the "Times": — "The job in question 
is no other than the consignment of the Wellington 
Memorial for the western end of the metropolis to 
a certain Mr. Wyatt, to whom we are indebted for 
that burlesque effigy miscalled an 'equestrian 
statue' of George III, which adorns a part of 
Westminster formerly known as Cockspur Street, 
but latterly, through the good offices of the said 
Mr. Wyatt, distinguished as ' Pigtail Place'." 

Reverting to the Apsley House group, it 
remained hidden away for many years in Wyatt's 
studio, and, in an engraving which appeared in 
the " Illustrated London News" in 1846 showing 
the progress of the equestrian statue of the Duke 
of Welhngton in the studio, the horse is clearly 
depicted in the background. It is probable that 
the great Duke, seeing it there on his visits to 
Wyatt, commissioned him to cast it in its unfinished 
state in bronze. 

Thus, the bronze horse, originally intended to 
carry a saint, and afterwards to bear a monarch, 
remains riderless in the garden of Apsley House. 


illustrations and the text of our two volumes, and 
we believe that his praise for the pictures renders 
due recognition to the reproductions in colour 
and to the work of the printer and of the reviser. 
We venture to think that as an album of Chinese 
ceramic art of certain periods it stands unrivalled, 
We regret all the more that the letterpress has 
been somewhat unfairly treated by your critic, 
who appears to suggest that there is no salvation 
for serious students outside himself and Dr. 


Letters to the Editors 

Bushell, whose memory we honour as a pioneer 
and whose works are apparently more familiar to 
us than they are to others, including R. L. H. 

We propose, with your permission, to deal with 
some specific objections which have been raised 
in vour review, and we shall invoke the aid of 
Dr. Bushell to answer them, though our experience 
compels us to depart from certain standards 
which he has set up, as will be shown later. 

1. In Bushell's "Chinese Art", Vol. I, page ii8, 
is a refutation of the criticism regarding the Kilin 
as a "lung ma" or dragon-headed horse. It will 
be seen in fig. 77 that the fabulous animal there 
pictured is similar to that shown in our Plate 158. 
Here, then, your critic is wrong. 

2. In Bushell and Laflan's Catalogue of the 
Morgan Collection of Chinese Porcelain appears 
a description of the " Horses of Mu Wang" which 
are described in Nos. 833 to 835 and illustrated in 
Plate LIX. Both description and illustration 
coincide with ours in Plates 37, 50, etc. Again 
your critic is wrong and doubly so in his further 
statement that " these celebrated steeds do not 
appear once in the book ". 

3. In Bushell's "Chinese Art", Vol. II, page 
138, amongst the paintings of the Hsuan Palace is 
a set thus described : " The illustrated catalogues 
of his bronze and jade antiquities were cited in 
Vol. I as invaluable aids to the study of 
archeology ". Therefore we contend that our 
use of the terra po hi is correct, and that your 
reviewer is again mistaken, because the bronze 
and jade vases, dishes, emblems, and other articles, , 
including the eight precious objects {pa pao) are 
embodied in that form of decoration known as 
the po kn which was re-introduced by the Emperor 

4. In Bushell's "Chinese Art", Vol. II, page 
120, may be found the very words which we 
borrowed to describe a certain form of scroll 
picture. Your critic cavils here at the authority 
which he seems to have taken as his guide. 

5. In the" Petit Guide IllustreauMuseeGuimet", 
cinquieme recension, page 169, Lohans on Arhais 
are the words selected to describe the chief 
disciples of Buddha. We adopted them because 
Bushell's use of Lohan as a plural did not 
commend itself to us in preference to the ordinary 
plural Lohans. 

6. We are loth to debate such minor matters as 
printer's errors. Let us pass to the glazes and 
the colours which have been criticized. Nobody 
would talk of "a warm tone of Chinese ink" 
except to indicate the effect, as we have done, 
of the outlines under the glaze, though we might 
have gone into further detail and pointed out that 
copper-red was the vehicle employed to produce 
the effect Jacquemart often uses the expression 
"a. decor encre de Chine ". 

7. Our description of Plate 59 as having yellow 

under the glaze is challenged. This example is 
at the Victoria and Albert Museum in the Salting 
Collection. The blue used with yellow produces 
certain shades of green, in parts, and the hatchings 
of blue showing through the yellow give green 
lines. How could this green be formed from the 
blue and yellow if both were not under Hie glaze ? 
Such a result may be uncommon, but the well- 
known character of blue enamel, applied over the 
glaze, forbids any other conclusion than that this 
blue is under the glaze, and careful inspection will 
show that it acts upon the yellow. Therefore the 
yellow must be under the glaze 1 

8. Rouge de fer is somewhat more difficult. We 
have seen many specimens in which the red was 
distinctly covered by a clear bright glaze, but 
generally the reds of this class are so thin that 
whether they are under or over the glaze can be 
gauged only by reflected light. If the red surface is 
dull the colour lies upon it, but when the surface 
is bright the colour sinks below the glaze which 
covers and protects it. These tests applied to the 
jar illustrated in our Plate 199 showed a surface 
glaze over the red. 

9. Again, in Plate 195 "the glazes of the old 
period" is an expression to which exception is 
taken, and we admit that it would perhaps have 
been better to have substituted "this" for the 
second " the ". But was it necessary considering 
that the illustration was faced by the explanatory 

10. And why question san is'ai as the three- 
colour decoration where one is a ground-colour ? 
In the many examples we have handled, in every 
case of three-colour decoration where the ground- 
colour is one, only two other colours are used. 
This style is san ts'ai']usi as when the three colours 
are employed upon a white ground. 

11. Generalities of criticism are worthy of no 
more attention than trivialities, so, although 
R. L. H. treats the nomenclature of the divinities 
and figurines as apocryphal, we are not surprised 
that in one instance only does he venture upon an 
alternative name. We scarcely think his choice 
was a happy one. The figurine to which we give 
the name Han Hsiang Tzu because he bears the 
attribute of that immortal is identified as " a man 
on a cow ". Verily we could have said as much ! 
Another figure suggests doubt to his mind. Has 
he ever seen a Chinese male divinity carrying a 
peach in his hand which was not a representative of 
Shou Lao ? And so on with the others. We could 
suggest important works on the mythology of the 
East which would repay perusal by those interested 
in this very attractive subject. Apparently, these 
stores of knowledge are much neglected. 

We join issue with Dr. Bushell and your critic 
on the question of three and five-colour decoration 
of the Ming period. Laffan voices their opinions 
in his preface to the first edition of the Morgan 


Letters to the Editors 

Catalogue. He says, on page X, "all the five- 
colour porcelain of the Ming dynasty looks its age, 
and all the true Ming pieces of whatever descrip- 
tion, betray their period to the initiated eye. The 
counterfeits of the reign of the great Tartar, K'ang 
hsi, were wonderfully clever, but they do not look 
the age ascribed to them. Marvellous, too, are 
the counterfeits of our own time ". Turning back 
to pages VIII and IX we find this : "Thousands 
upon thousands of pieces of it survive, but we 
have never seen a piece of porcelain bearing the 
Ch'eng-hua mark which was made in the reign of 
that monarch". Though these opinions are 
worthy of the greatest consideration, it does not 
follow that they are infallible, and wc do not agree 
with them. 

Any correct classification of the old Chinese 
porcelain into its periods demands minute and 
careful examination and comparison of many 
specimens of the same class, such as black, green, 
and yellow " hawthorns ". We make no claim to 
the discovery of a perfect theory, but we have 
accumulated a number of indications of the 
characteristics of decorated Ming porcelain. 
These have guided us in assigning to that period 
certain pieces which would usually be classified as 
Kang-he. Hence we must be content to meet the 
assertions of dogmatism without revealing what 
we have learnt, and to bear any blame which may 
come to us for so doing, for we have a strong faith 
that the future will be on our side. Meanwhile 
we arc continuing our researches. 

As we said earlier, our experience compels us to 
depart from certain standards set up by Dr. 
Bushell. Therefore we adhere to the periods we 
have deliberately assigned to the pieces criticized 
except in one case. Plates 165, 166, where the lang 
yao vase, the fine rare red, known as sang de boeiif 
should have been described as " Early Kang-he " 
not as " Early Ming ". The context says as much, 
so that the error is obvious. 

In conclusion may we seize this opportunity of 
informing our subscribers that a leaflet containing 
errata will be issued in due course ? 

Yours faithfully 

Edgar Gorer. 
J. F". Blacker. 

Our reviewer replies as follows : — 

I have to thank you and Messrs. Gorer and 
Blacker for the opportunity of replying to their 
letter in which they charge me with having " some- 
what unfairly treated" the text of their book on 
Chinese Porcelain. I shall confine myself to the 
specific instances which they have selected, and 
for the sake of brevity I shall number them and 
take them in order. 

I. In the legend of Fu Hsi, the "lung ma", or 
dragon horse, issued from the ri%'er ivith the sacred 
liigraiiis inscribed on his back. In Bushell's 

illustration he is shown in this character, trigrams 
and all. On Plate 158 we have the very common 
representation of a Kylin looking up at a Phnenix 
flying above it. The subject is so familiar that no 
careful observer could confuse the animal with 
the "lung ma" which, besides, has a definite 
attribute in the trigrams to distinguish it. 

2. Mv criticism referred to a border pattern in 
which one or two isolated horses are shown skim- 
ming over waves, a not uncommon motive in Ming 
blue and white porcelain. The fabulous horses 
of Mu Wang are eight in number. When eight 
horses arc depicted on one vase as in the catalogue 
of the Morgan Collection, Plate LIX, there is 
some reason to assume that they are intended to 
be the horses of Mu Wang, but there is no reason 
to connect every horse which occurs in Chinese 
decoration with this particular legend. 

3. The authors have made a blunder, and their 
explanation makes it only more apparent. On 
Plate 177 are illustrated two vases decorated with 
the familiar group of symbols which belong to 
the so-called Hundred Antiques {po ku). In 
describing the motive they have not been content 
with the simple term po ku, but thinking to "go 
one better" have added "or Illustrated Description 
of the Antiquities in the Palace of Hsiian", an 
expression which, like a good many others, they 
saw in Bushell's books without really understand- 
ing. The catalogue in question is entitled Hsiian 
ho po ku t'u lu, a title containing the words 
po ku. That was good enough for them. The 
Hundred Antiques were the po ku of the Hsiian 
Palace ! It is dangerous to jump to conclusions 
about Chinese words. Their characters are many 
but their sounds are few, and one English word 
has to do duty in translation for many Chinese 
characters. The po ku of the Hundred Antiques 
is not the same as the po ku in the title of the 
Hsiian catalogue. On this point I think they 
will probably prefer the " unfair " hint given in 
the review to the explanation which they have 

4. Quite true ! The words are taken bodily 
from a passage in Bushell's book dealing with 
pictorial art. In the original context they are 
quite appropriate. In the authors' description 
they are unnecessary and pretentious. 

5. I questioned the meaning not of arhais or 
lohan but of the whole sentence " the Arhats or 
Lohan, a modern modification of the archaic 
disciples of Buddha ". Either the authors mean 
that the arhats are a modern modification of the 
archaic disciples of Buddha, which is sheer 
nonsense ; or else they wish to suggest that the 
obviously Taoist figures (with peach, etc.) on the 
vase (Plate 213) are Buddhist Arhats in modern 
guise, which is worse. 

6. If the authors will use complicated expres- 
sions like " outlined m warm tones of Chinese ink " 


Letters to the Editors 

when they merely mean " outlined in brown " they 
must expect to be misunderstood. I regret that I 
misread some meaning into the superfluous words. 
But if they had "gone into further detail and 
pointed out that copper-red was the vehicle em- 
ployed to produce" the outlines on Plate 37, the 
error would have been hardly more pardonable 
than that which I imputed to them, 

7 and 8. It is useless to argue on questions of 
fact. The yellow of Plate 59 and the rouge defer 
(Plate 199) are not underglaze colours, however 
deceptive their appearance may be under particular 
circumstances. This is an elementary scientific 
truth which anyone who ventures on a serious 
book should know. If the authors won't take my 
word for it, let them ask any practical potter who 
has studied chemistry and examined Chinese 

9. I criticized the whole phrase "decorated with 
the coloured enamels in glazes of the old period ", 
not merely the last words of it. If ceramic 
phraseology has any meaning at all, coloured 
enamels and glazes are different things, and the 
whole expression instead of explaining something 
is mere mystification. 

10. " With the three colours of san ts'ai " is only 
another instance of obscurity in a text which 
professes to explain. The " man-in-the-street " 
would infer from the passage that san ts'ai was 
either a place or person or a tangible substance. 
Those who indulge in a display of Chinese words 
should take care to use them intelligibly. 

11. Generalities are, unfortunately, unavoidable 
where space is limited, but there are none in my 
review which I am not ready to support by 
concrete examples if required. It is worse than 
useless to attach names to figurines unless they 
are reasonably certain. In such cases the title 
should be given with some qualification. The 
danger of rash nomenclature is shown in the very 
instance which the authors have selected to show 
not so much my unfairness, but my downright 
stupidity. Fig. 2 of Plate 23 is one of the com- 
monest designs in Chinese art, whether pictorial 
or applied. It represents a rustic riding home on 
his ox and beguiling the way with his flute. Such 
a subject has naturally no particular name, and 
is usually called the " herdboy on his ox " or 
"the husbandman on an ox", or some such 
descriptive title. " A man on a cow ", though 
it was not my expression, would have been 
quite sufficient. It is true that the Immortal Han 
Hsiang-tz'ii carries a flute, but he is nowhere 
represented on an ox. Still it is only natural that 
those who see the story of Mu Wang in every 
horse should see Han Hsiang-tz'il in every fluter. 
If the authors could really suggest a useful work 
on the mythology of the East, it would be a great 
boon. I have studied many books on the subject 
without finding anything even approximately 

complete. With regard to the important question 
of the dating of black, green and yellow "hawthorn" 
vases, when the authors are in a position to 
publish the arguments supporting their view of 
the question, which is far from new, they will find 
no more interested reader than 

R. L. H. 

To the Editors of The Burlington Magazine. 
Gentlemen, — Mr. Rushforth has beyond doubt 
correctly identified as Medea and .i^^son the sub- 
ject of the enamel which I too hastily assumed to 
be Medea and Pelias. I am grateful to him for 
the correction. I confess that I was more con- 
cerned with the art than with the story, and in 
excuse I would say only that what he regards as 
the omission of an essential detail (that no ram is 
shown in the cauldron) explained itself to me by 
the fact that the cauldron is of intransparent 
bronze and sufficiently capacious, as I supposed, 
to conceal from view the cut-up carcase of the 
creature. I am grateful to Mr. Rushforth, too, 
for his perception of the failure of the repro- 
duction to do justice to the beauty of the enamel 
in question. I had already received, from a friend 
in France for whose opinion I have the 
highest regard, the incredulous inquiry: "Is it 
really so good " as to deserve attribution to 
Jean Court dit Vigier, And without the enamel 
itself before him his inquiry was justified. It is 
one of the difficulties attending the study of painted 
enamels that they lose their qualities in disastrous 
fashion in photography. It seems possible that 
this may result from their partial translucency. 
Not only is there the loss of colour, but, more dis- 
concerting, the loss of relative values of tone ; so 
that even what appears good drawing in the 
original, by loss of fore-shortening or aerial per- 
spective indicated by tone, appears bad drawing in 
the photograph. And when such defects are 
intensified by transfer to a process-block the result 
is disappointing indeed. When I look at the 
photograph of it I rather regret having praised the 
drawing of Jean II Penicaud's S^niso/j tazza. But 
I know no example which so utterly loses its beauty 
in reproduction as the Medea and ^-Eson of the 
Salting Collection. 

Yours faithfully, 

H. P. Mitchell. 

To the Editors of The Burlington Magazine. 

Gentlemen, — In the interesting paper (pages 
192, etc.), by Mr. Cust, on the marble bust of 
Charles I, by Le Sueur, recently acquired by the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, this work is de- 
scribed as the only marble by the sculptor at 
present known to exist. There are, however, in 

' See Vo'. XX, pages 77, etc., and 172, 175. 


Letters to the Editors 

the store-room of this museum the remains of 
another bust which must, I think, be attributed to 
Le Sueur. It represents Prince Rupert. It is not 
signed, but upon the base (which, though much 
simpler, is similar in form to that of the bust of 
Charles) is the inscription ROBERTVS DEI G. 
17 AX. 1637. Nothing is known of the early 
history of this bust, but it in all probability came 
to Oxford from Easton Neston with the Arundel 
statues when they were presented to the University 
by Henrietta, Countess of Pomfret, in 1755. It 
is now unfortunately a wreck. At some period it 
has been e.xposed to the weather until the whole 
of the surface has perished. The nose has been 
broken and then sawn off in order to make way 
for a new nose, which has also disappeared ; and 
a piece is broken off the shoulder. Enough is left 
to show its stylistic affinity with the South Kensing- 
ton bust ; but it is now without iconographic or 
artistic value, and is, in fact, simply a record of its 
own former existence. As such it is, perhaps, 
worth mentioning in The Biirlingion Magazine in 
connexion with the bust of Charles I. 

Yours faithfully, ^ 
C. F. Bell, 
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 
17 January. 



To the Editors of The BURLINGTON MAGAZINE. 

Gentlemen. — I am about to publish, in ten 
volumes, reproductions of all Raphael's drawings. 
My first volume, dealing with Raphael's Umbrian 
period, should appear within the next three 
months ; and I now beg all collectors and con- 
noisseurs to communicate to me, as soon as pos- 
sible, any information which they may possess 
concerning the whereabouts of the drawings re- 
produced on pages 295, 298 and 301 of this number 
of The Biiiliiigtoii Magazine or concernmg others of 
which I have no knowledge. I shall welcome 
with the liveliest gratitude, and will duly acknow- 
ledge, any such information ; and I hope that 
admirers of Raphael outside Germany, to whom I 
now appeal, will co-operate with me for the 
benefit of all who are interested in the great 
master's work. I WMsh to record my gratitude to 
the authorities of the Royal Library at Windsor, 
who, in accordance with their gracious traditions, 
have furthered my studies in every way and have 
obtained for me permission to publish here re- 
productions of the late Prince Consort's photo- 
graphs, from which nearly half of the photographs 
reproduced are taken ; and so long as the original 
drawings cannot be found these photographs 
must remain our most trustworthy documents. 

The illustrations represent certain important 
drawings which were well known and valued dur- 

ing several decades, or even generations, and have 
since disappeared. They were ascribed to Raphael 
himself or to teachers or pupils of his who approach 
him near enough to be mistaken for him. I 
cannot find the originals in any collection existing 
at the present time. I have collected the descrip- 
tions given by Passavant in his " Raphael d'Urbin " 
(Paris, i860) and by Ruland in "The Works of 
Raphael Santi ... as represented in the Royal 
Library at Windsor Castle" (London, 1876). 
Finally, so as not to omit anything worth con- 
sideration which was valued by the older 
connoisseurs, I looked through the Windsor 
reproductions collected by the late Prince Consort 
and catalogued in Dr. Ruland's book. Thus, we 
still have these photographs, and in other cases 
the prints of Caylus, Ottley, Pond and Metz to 
represent twenty-four celebrated old drawings 
which until the 'fifties or 'sixties of the nineteenth 
century were ascribed, rightly or wrongly, to the 
hand of Raphael or were associated with his name. 

The question is : What has become of those 
original drawings ? 

In the following list I attach most importance 
to Ruland's catalogue, both because it is especially 
devoted to the Prince's photographs, and also 
because it gives the latest information available 
concerning the whereabouts of the originals. The 
only object of these illustrations is to serve as 
memoranda. They are obviously made without 
regard to scale, and, in some cases, inscriptions and 
other notes on prints, which I could copy in my 
text, have been cut off in order to enable all the 
illustrations to be included. In no case has a 
single line of any design been lost. It has seemed 
more convenient for reference to arrange my list 
in the otherwise arbitrary order of the illustrations, 
which has moreover, been necessitated by con- 
siderations of space. OSKAR FlSCHEL, 

Siegmundshof, 7, 
Berlin, N.W. 

Plate I. 

1. A Woman's Head. Chalk drawing. 

Reference : Passavant, 367 : Ruland, 332. (Last 

registered in the Triqueti Collection.) 

Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 

The sketch seems to have been somewhat re- 
touched. It belongs to the studies for the Sposalizio 
and the S. Nicholas ofTolentino. 

2, 3, 4. S. Mary Magdalen as Penitent and 
S. Catherine, restored by mistake to represent 
S. Apollonia. A double painting. 

Reference : Unknown to Passavant and Ruland. 

Illustration from the photograph mentioned below. 
A fragment of a cartoon (No, 4) strongly 
resembling this S. Catherine, in design and 
drawing, but representing S. Apollonia holding 
her pincers and tooth, was acquired by Monsieur 
Danlos of Paris at the Habich Sale at Stuttgart in 
1899. Since these illustrations were arranged I 


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fc! E- 

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- . '.S&^^&J^J^^^A, 




Letters to the Editors 

have found it in the Baron Edmond de Roth- 
schild's collection in Paris. The photograph from 
which the illustrations (Nos. 2 and 3) were made 
was found in a "seconda scelta" (Ausschuss- 
photographien or " odd lot ") at Mr. D. Anderson's, 
the well-known photographer, in Rome, by Dr. 
Gronau, who immediately recognized its connexion 
with the cartoon (No. 4) of the Habich and 
Rothschild collections. Unfortunately, Mr. Ander- 
son cannot remember where he took the 
photograph and no longer possesses the negative. 
Thus, these little paintings, unknown to Passavant 
and Ruland, were again threatened with oblivion 
soon after having been rescued from it by 
photography. At any rate, the cartoon belongs to 
the period when Raphael was working on his 
pictures for Citta di Castello. Moreover, we find 
in the designs for the S. Xicholas of Toleutino and 
for the predella pictures of Ihe Coronation of the 
Virgin in the Vatican many similarities with the 
two Saints of the little paintings and with the 
Habich-Rothschild cartoon. For the figure, S. 
Mary Magdalen as Penitent, also a cai^toon exists, 
a very faint wash-drawing, which I saw some 
years ago ; but having then no knowledge of the 
photograph found by Dr. Gronau, I paid little or 
no heed to it, and now neither know nor have any 
means of verifying the collection in which I saw 
it. However, I feel sure that many English 
students will remember the picture and this 
particular cartoon. 

5. The Entombment. Pen and ink. 

Reference : Passavant, 453 ; Ruland, 32, xiiv. 
(Formerly in the Hibbert. Samuel Rogers and Birchall 
collections successively. Last registered in the Crozat 

Illustration from the print by Caylus, PI. xli, " Le 
Cabinet Crozat". 

The scheme for a composition ; with affinities 
to Signorelli. The technique recalls the drawings 
for The Entombment (i) in the Uffizi and (ii) in 
the British Museum and also (iii) the drawing after 
Michelangelo's S. Matthew, which is on the reverse 
of (ii) the British Museum drawing. 

6. Sketches for Madonnas of the Roman Period 
{delta Sedia, di Loreto, and delta Tenda). Silver- 
point on rose-tinted paper. 

Reference : Passavant, 161 ; Ruland. 69, xxvi, 7. 
(Formerly in the Cavaliere Benvenuti Collection, 
Florence. Last registered in the private collection of 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany.) 

Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 

This is on a leaf from a sketch-book of which 

other leaves are some at Lille and some in the 

British Museum. Our leaf cannot be found in 

the possession of the Grand Duke's descendants. 

7. S. John the Baptist as a Child Silverpoint. 

Reference : Passavant, 160 ; Ruland, 68, xxv, 10. 
(Formerly in the Benvenuti Collection. Last registered 
in the private collection of the Grand Duke of Tuscany.) 
Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 
A study for Madonna Alba, Our leaf cannot 
be found in the possession of the late Grand 
Duke's descendants. 

Plate II. 

8. Head, Shoulder and Arm of ihe Woman in 
" The Transfiguration ". Chalk. 

Reference : Ruland, 29, ' Purchased by Mr. Giitten at 
the Woodburn Sale, 1^61 ". 

Illustration from a lithograph (Xo. 28) in "The 
Lawrence Gallery : a series of facsimiles of . . . 
drawings by Rafaelle . . . from the . . . collection 
formed by Sir Thomas Lawrence", 1841. 

9. Two Prophets with several Angels. Pen and 


Reference : Ruland, 16, ix. Last registered in Mr. 
Leslie's collection. 

Illustration from a print (No. 24) in " The Lawrence 

The Prophet on the right is under the influence 
of Michelangelo's Jeremias. Probably belonging 
to the beginning of the Roman period. 

10. A Bird with a Fish. Giovanni da Udine. 
Pen and ink. 

Illustration from a print by Knapton in Pond's 
" Estampes qui imitent les dessins", 173^. 
Ascribed by tradition (probably correctly) to 
Giovanni da Udine. 

11. Invention of the Cross. Pinturicchio. 

Illustration from a print by Le Sueur alter Charpentier 
in " Le Cabinet Crozat : Recueil d'Estampes", Vol. I, 
The original is important, because an old tradi- 
tion ascribes it to Pinturicchio. It is also desirable 
for comparison with the studies and sketches for 
the frescoes attributed to Raphael in the Libreria 
at Siena. 

12. The Prophets Hoseah and Jonas with an 
Angel. Pen and ink, washed, and heightened 
with white. 

Reference : Ruland, 271, iv. Last registered in the 
Tiiqueti collection. 

Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 

Scheme for the Prophets above the fresco of the 
Sibyls in Santa Maria della Pace. The drawing 
has been squared in order to be enlarged and 
transferred to the cartoon. This tells in its favour. 
Its genuineness cannot be judged from a half- 
tone reproduction. 

13. Leda. Follower of Raphael. Pen and mk. 

Illustration from a print in Metz's " Imitations of 
Drawings formerly in the Collection of Benjamin West, 
E=q., R.A." 

Plate III. 

14. Portrait of Giovan Francesco Penni. Chalk. 
Life size. 

Reference : Ruland, 160, x. " Purcha^^ed by Mr. Ker 
at the Woodburn Sale". The drawing has since been 
lost, and there is no photograph at Windsor Castle. 

Illustration from a lithograph (N'o. 17) in " The 
Lawrence Gallery ". 
The page gives the head of the " fattore " as in 
the wood-cut in Vasari. Considering the much 
discussed and still unexplained relations between 
the master and pupil, the original of this portrait 
would be an important discovery. 

15. Head of a Muse in the "Parnassus." Chalk. 

Reference : Ruland, 187, Ixxxii. (Formerly in the 
Vuilenbroek, Lawrence, King of Holland, and Colnaghi 
collections. Last registered in the possession of Mr. 

Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 


Letters to the Editors 

1 6. The Madonna Enlhromd u-ith Saints. A 
large sketch for a picture. : Ruland, 95. xxiix. (No. 59 in the inventory 
of the Antaldi collection. In the sale of the Despcret 
collection, 7 June, 1865. Last registered in the sale of 
the Galichon collection at the Hotel Drouet, Paris, 
10 May, 1875.) 

lUnstration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 

Apparently an old copy of a drawing by Raphael 
in his Florentine period under the influence of 
Fra Bartolomeo and Leonardo. Of our drawing 
(or of its original) another version by one of 
Raphael's followers, whose work we often meet 
with, belongs to the Museum at Stockholm. 

17. T/iiee Piitti on a Cornice. The middle putto 
seems to be lowering something (perhaps a crown) 
with a cord. Pen and ink. 

Reference : The print. 

Illustration from a print by the Comte de Caylus. 

(The sign.iture is cut off for want of space.) 

In the style of Fra Bartolomeo's putti (e.g., his 

drawings at Munich); perhaps for the large 

Madonna composition represented by No. 16 in 

this list. 

18. Madonna Compositions. Fragments. Pen 

and ink. 

Reference : Ruland, 95, xlii. 2 (" collection of W. 
Russell, Esq."). 
Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 
Slight drawings which belong to a group of 
leaves in the Alberlina in Vienna and in the 
Vatican Library. 

19. Ecce Homo. Umbrian School. Silverpoint. 

Reference : Ruland, 37, xiii (Triqueti Collection). 
Illustration from a Windsor Castle pliotograph, 

20. Overthrow of Pharaoh in the Red Sea. 


An Illustr.^ted History of English Plate. 

By C. J. JACKSOX. Two vols. ;£8 8s. London :" Country 

Life " Offices and B. T. Batsford. 
The interest in old English plate was never so 
marked as it is to-day. With the ever-increasing 
number of collectors, who are not confined to 
England or America, but extend to the " English 
Dominions across the seas", the interest is likely 
to be even more marked, despite the high prices 
obtained for important specimens. The fact has 
been known for some time by collectors and 
others that Mr. C. J. Jackson had been engaged 
for several years on an exhaustive history of the 
subject. He has many qualifications for the task. 
Not only is he a collector of old silver, as is shown 
in the pages of this work, but he is the author of 
that indispensable book, " English Goldsmiths 
and their Marks". The result of his labours in 
garnering material for this history is now before 
our eyes, and deserves, as it will doubtless receive, 
wide commendation. We would fain stop to 
dwell upon and contemplate the beautiful metal- 
^vork— in gold, silver and bronze— wrought by 
the Celtic, Roman and Anglo-Saxon peoples in 


Ascribed to Giovan Francesco Penni. Pen and 
ink, washed, heightened with white. 

Illustration from the print by Le Sueur after Caylus's 
drawing in " Le Cabinet Crozat ". 
The original would be important as a drawing 
ascribed to Penni by old tradition. 

21. A Girl's Head in profile : and Drapery. 

Reference : Passavant, 369 ; Ruland, 333, xivi. (Last 
registered in the Triqueti Collection.) 
Illustration from a Windsor Castle photogr.ipli. 
The Drapery, drawn in the style of T/ie Coro- 
nation of the Virgin, is certainly by Raphael. The 
Head looks strange. Both Drapery and Head 
may have been intended for the predella pictures 
of The Presentation. 

22. The Holy Family (the Virgin seated on the 
floor; tii'O angels). Sanguine. 

Reference : Ruland, 94, xxxii. Last registered in 
Miss Woodbuin's collection. 
Illustration from a Windsor Castle photograph. 
A drawing of the early Roman period. 

23. Men's Arms and Horses' Heads. Pen and 
ink. Beneath is a bill and receipt in Raphael's 
handwriting of 1516 (?). 

Reference : Ruland, 273, vii. Sold in Paris in 1861 in 
the Donadieu Collection of Autographs. 

Illustration from a print in A. A. P.C.Blanc's " Histoire 
des Peintures", 1849, 1861-76. 
The drawing has been referred to the composi- 
tion of Marcantonio's Galatea and Qnos ego. 

24. Women Bathing. School of Raphael. 
Ascribed to Annibale Caracci. 

Reference : Sale catalogue of the Artaria Auction 
Rooms, Vienna, 8 January, 1886. 

Illustration from a print by Prestel (No. 16) in " Le 
Cabinet Praun". 

Important as an excellent school-drawing. 

the British Isles, but we must pass on from the 
valuable chapters devoted to their productions, 
accompanied by many excellent illustrations, to a 
consideration of that part of the book which 
concerns itself with plate in its accepted meaning. 
So little remains of the gold and silver work of 
the Norman period that this chapter may also be 
passed over. The ecclesiastical plate of the Gothic 
period consists mainly of the few chalices and 
patens which survived the vast spoliation of the 
churches and religious houses at the Reformation 
in England. The various changes in shape and 
style from their rise to their decline can be traced 
in these pages. Two pieces of English eccle- 
siastical silver of considerable interest, illustrated 
in this work, are the 15th-century incense-boat 
and an earlier censer of about the year 1375, which 
are believed to have belonged to Ramsey Abbey, 
and were found in 1850 in Whittiesea Mere, in 
Cambridgeshire ; they were subsequently bought 
by the